Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 79
Filtrar
1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 199, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Researching cardiovascular Events with a Weekly INcretin in Diabetes (REWIND) double blind randomized trial demonstrated that weekly subcutaneous dulaglutide 1.5 mg, a glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist, versus matched placebo reduced the first outcome of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke (594 versus 663 events) in 9901 persons with type 2 diabetes and either chronic cardiovascular disease or risk factors, and followed during 5.4 years. These findings were based on a time-to-first-event analysis and preclude relevant information on the burden of total major events occurring during the trial. This analysis reports on the total cardiovascular or fatal events in the REWIND participants METHODS: We compared the total incidence of MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths, and the total incidence of expanded MACE (MACE, unstable angina, heart failure or revascularization) or non-cardiovascular deaths between participants randomized to dulaglutide and those randomized to placebo. Incidences were expressed as number per 1000 person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the conditional time gap and proportional means models. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 66.2 years, 46.3% were women and 31% had previous cardiovascular disease. During the trial there were 1972 MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths and 3673 expanded MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths. The incidence of total MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths in the dulaglutide and placebo groups was 35.8 and 40.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively [absolute reduction = 4.5 per 1000 person-years; conditional time gap HR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.98) p = 0.020, and proportional means HR 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.98) p = 0.022]. The incidence of total expanded MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths in the dulaglutide and placebo groups was 67.1 and 74.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively [absolute reduction = 7.6 per 1000 person-years; conditional time gap HR 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-0.99) p = 0.023, and proportional means HR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99) p = 0.028]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that weekly subcutaneous dulaglutide reduced total cardiovascular or fatal event burden in people with type 2 diabetes at moderate cardiovascular risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gouv . Unique Identifier NCT01394952).

2.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2901-2909, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. RESULTS: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Resuscitation ; 153: 243-250, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422241

RESUMO

AIM: To test the diagnostic accuracy of ECG-gated coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) among survivors of out-of-hospital circulatory arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We prospectively studied head-to-pelvis computed tomography (CT) scanning (<6 h from hospital arrival) in OHCA survivors. This sub-study tested the primary outcome of CCTA diagnostic accuracy to identify obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis) compared to clinically-ordered invasive coronary angiography. Patients were not optimized with beta receptor blockade or nitroglycerin. Secondary analyses included CCTA accuracy for CAD in major coronary arteries, obstructive disease at ≥70% stenosis threshold, and where non-evaluable CCTA segments were considered either obstructive or non-obstructive. RESULTS: Of the 104 enrolled OHCA survivors, 28 (27%) received both CT and invasive angiography in this sub study. All CCTA studies were evaluable although 49/346 (14%) individual coronary segments were unevaluable, primarily due to being too small to evaluate (65%). Patient-level diagnostic accuracy for the ≥50% stenosis threshold was high at 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-0.98) with a specificity of 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.0), sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI 0.58-0.96), negative predictive value of 0.88 (95% CI 0.66-0.97) and positive predictive value of 1.0 (0.74-1.0). When non-evaluable segments were considered obstructive, the sensitivity rose to 0.92 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) with lower specificity of 0.27 (95% CI 0.11-0.52). CONCLUSION: Early CCTA of OHCA survivors has high diagnostic accuracy to detect obstructive coronary artery disease. However, the number of non-diagnostic coronary segments is high suggesting further CCTA refinement is needed, such as the pre-CCTA use of nitroglycerin. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03111043 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT03111043.

4.
Am Heart J ; 224: 65-76, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether androgen deficiency among men increases the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events or is merely a disease marker remains a subject of intense scientific interest. OBJECTIVES: Among male subjects in the AIM-HIGH Trial with metabolic syndrome and low baseline levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol who were randomized to niacin or placebo plus simvastatin, we examined the relationship between low baseline testosterone (T) concentrations and subsequent CV outcomes during a mean 3-year follow-up. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of men with available baseline plasma T concentrations, we examined the relationship between clinical/demographic characteristics and T concentrations both as a continuous and dichotomous variable (<300 ng/dL ["low T"] vs. ≥300 ng/dL ["normal T"]) on rates of pre-specified CV outcomes, using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 2118 male participants in whom T concentrations were measured, 643 (30%) had low T and 1475 had normal T concentrations at baseline. The low T group had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, elevated body mass index, metabolic syndrome, higher blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglyceride levels, but lower levels of both low-density lipoprotein and HDL-cholesterol, and a lower rate of prior myocardial infarction (MI). Men with low T had a higher risk of the primary composite outcome of coronary heart disease (CHD) death, MI, stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, or coronary or cerebral revascularization (20.1%) compared with the normal T group (15.2%); final adjusted HR 1.23, P = .07, and a higher risk of the CHD death, MI, and stroke composite endpoint (11.8% vs. 8.2%; final adjusted HR 1.37, P = .04), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, there was an association between low baseline testosterone concentrations and increased risk of subsequent CV events in androgen-deficient men with established CV disease and metabolic syndrome, particularly for the composite secondary endpoint of CHD death, MI, and stroke. CONDENSED ABSTRACT: In this AIM-HIGH Trial post hoc analysis of 2118 men with metabolic syndrome and low HDL-cholesterol with available baseline plasma testosterone (T) samples, 643 males (30%) had low T (mean: 229 ng/dL) and 1475 (70%) had normal T (mean: 444 ng/dL) concentrations. The "low T" group had a 24% higher risk of the primary 5-component endpoint (20.1%) compared with the normal T group (15.2%); final adjusted HR 1.23, P = .07). There was also a 31% higher risk of the secondary composite endpoint: coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (11.8% vs. 8.2%, final adjusted HR 1.37, P = .04) in the low vs. normal T group, respectively.


Assuntos
Androgênios/deficiência , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androgênios/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(7): 1133-1143, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212368

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic hyperglycaemia, assessed by elevated glycated haemoglobin (A1C), is a known risk factor for heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular (CV) death among subjects with diabetes. Whether this risk varies with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unknown. This study evaluated whether A1C influences a composite outcome of either HF hospitalization or CV death differently along the spectrum of LVEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the relationships of baseline A1C and LVEF with a composite outcome of either CV death or HF hospitalization in the 4091 patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome enrolled in the ELIXA trial who had available LVEF. We assessed for interaction between A1C and LVEF as continuous variables with respect to this outcome. During a median follow-up of 25.7 months, 343 patients (8.4%) had HF hospitalization or died of CV causes. In a multivariable model, A1C and LVEF were each associated with an increased risk of HF hospitalization or CV death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.21 per 1% higher A1C, and adjusted HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.27-1.51 per 10% lower in LVEF]. Both A1C and LVEF were independently and incrementally associated with risk without evidence of interaction (P for interaction = 0.31). Patients with A1C ≥ 8% and LVEF <40% were at threefold higher risk than those with A1C < 7% and LVEF ≥50% (adjusted HR 3.18, 95% CI 2.03-4.98, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a contemporary cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome, baseline chronic hyperglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of HF hospitalization or CV death independently of LVEF.

6.
Circulation ; 141(14): 1141-1151, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People using Anticoagulation Strategies) demonstrated that dual pathway inhibition (DPI) with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg once daily versus aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced the primary major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as well as, mortality, in patients with chronic coronary syndromes or peripheral arterial disease. Whether this remains true in patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. METHODS: In a prespecified subgroup analysis from COMPASS, we examined the outcomes of patients with chronic coronary syndrome with or without a previous PCI treated with DPI versus aspirin alone. Among patients with a previous PCI, we studied the effects of treatment according to the timing of the previous PCI. RESULTS: Of the 27 395 patients in COMPASS, 16 560 patients with a chronic coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to DPI or aspirin, and, of these, 9862 (59.6%) had previous PCI (mean age 68.2±7.8, female 19.4%, diabetes mellitus 35.7%, previous myocardial infarction 74.8%, multivessel PCI 38.0%). Average time from PCI to randomization was 5.4 years (SD, 4.4) and follow-up was 1.98 (SD, 0.72) years. Regardless of previous PCI, DPI versus aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE (PCI: 4.0% versus 5.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.88]; no PCI: 4.4% versus 5.7%; HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.61-0.94], P-interaction=0.85) and mortality (PCI: 2.5% versus 3.5%; HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.58-0.92]; no PCI: 4.1% versus 5.0%; HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.64-1.00], P-interaction=0.59), but increased major bleeding (PCI: 3.3% versus 2.0%; HR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.34-2.21]; no PCI: 2.9% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.15-2.17], P-interaction=0.68). In those with previous PCI, DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent (robust) reductions in MACE irrespective of time since previous PCI (as early as 1 year and as far as 10 years; P-interaction=0.65), irrespective of having a previous myocardial infarction (P-interaction=0.64). CONCLUSIONS: DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE and mortality but with increased major bleeding with or without previous PCI. Among those with previous PCI 1 year and beyond, the effects on MACE and mortality were consistent irrespective of time since last PCI. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

7.
Circulation ; 140(7): 529-537, Aug. 13, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and history of heart failure (HF) are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We explored the effects of rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in these patients. METHODS: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized 27 395 participants with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease to rivaroxaban 2.5mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily alone, or aspirin 100 mg alone. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV HF or left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome comprised cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding using modified International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Investigators recorded a history of HF and EF at baseline, if available. We examined the effects of rivaroxaban on major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding in patients with or without a history of HF and an EF <40% or >/=40% at baseline. RESULTS: Of the 5902 participants (22%) with a history of HF, 4971 (84%) had EF recorded at baseline, and 12% had EF <40%. Rivaroxaban and aspirin had similar relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events compared with aspirin in participants with HF (5.5% versus 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86) and those without HF (3.8% versus 4.7%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P for interaction 0.28) but larger absolute risk reduction in those with HF (HF absolute risk reduction 2.4%, number needed to treat=42; no HF absolute risk reduction 1.0%, number needed to treat=103). The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was not statistically different between those with EF <40% (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42) and >/=40% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98; P for interaction 0.36). The excesso hazard for major bleeding was not different in participants with HF (2.5% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.88-2.09) than in those without HF (3.3% versus 1.9%; HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-2.21; P for interaction 0.26). There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes with rivaroxaban alone. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and a history of mild or moderate HF, combination rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produces similar relative but larger absolute benefits than in those without HF.(AU)


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina , Doença das Coronárias , Doença Arterial Periférica , Rivaroxabana , Insuficiência Cardíaca
8.
Circulation ; 140(7): 529-537, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and history of heart failure (HF) are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We explored the effects of rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in these patients. METHODS: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized 27 395 participants with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily alone, or aspirin 100 mg alone. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV HF or left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome comprised cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding using modified International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Investigators recorded a history of HF and EF at baseline, if available. We examined the effects of rivaroxaban on major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding in patients with or without a history of HF and an EF <40% or ≥40% at baseline. RESULTS: Of the 5902 participants (22%) with a history of HF, 4971 (84%) had EF recorded at baseline, and 12% had EF <40%. Rivaroxaban and aspirin had similar relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events compared with aspirin in participants with HF (5.5% versus 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86) and those without HF (3.8% versus 4.7%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P for interaction 0.28) but larger absolute risk reduction in those with HF (HF absolute risk reduction 2.4%, number needed to treat=42; no HF absolute risk reduction 1.0%, number needed to treat=103). The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was not statistically different between those with EF <40% (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42) and ≥40% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98; P for interaction 0.36). The excess hazard for major bleeding was not different in participants with HF (2.5% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.88-2.09) than in those without HF (3.3% versus 1.9%; HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-2.21; P for interaction 0.26). There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes with rivaroxaban alone. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and a history of mild or moderate HF, combination rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produces similar relative but larger absolute benefits than in those without HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Stroke ; 14(3): 270-281, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Covert vascular disease of the brain manifests as infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds on MRI. Their cumulative effect is often a decline in cognition, motor impairment, and psychiatric disorders. Preventive therapies for covert brain ischemia have not been established but represent a huge unmet clinical need. AIMS: The MRI substudy examines the effects of the antithrombotic regimens in COMPASS on incident covert brain infarcts (the primary outcome), white matter hyperintensities, and cognitive and functional status in a sample of consenting COMPASS participants without contraindications to MRI. METHODS: COMPASS is a randomized superiority trial testing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg and rivaroxaban 5 mg bid against acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg per day for the combined endpoint of MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death in individuals with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2*-weighted, and FLAIR images were obtained close to randomization and near the termination of assigned antithrombotic therapy; biomarker and genetic samples at randomization and one month, and cognitive and functional assessment at randomization, after two years and at the end of study. RESULTS: Between March 2013 and May 2016, 1905 participants were recruited from 86 centers in 16 countries. Of these participants, 1760 underwent baseline MRI scans that were deemed technically adequate for interpretation. The mean age at entry of participants with interpretable MRI was 71 years and 23.5% were women. Coronary artery disease was present in 90.4% and 28.1% had peripheral artery disease. Brain infarcts were present in 34.8%, 29.3% had cerebral microbleeds, and 93.0% had white matter hyperintensities. The median Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 26 (interquartile range 23-28). CONCLUSIONS: The COMPASS MRI substudy will examine the effect of the antithrombotic interventions on MRI-determined covert brain infarcts and cognition. Demonstration of a therapeutic effect of the antithrombotic regimens on brain infarcts would have implications for prevention of cognitive decline and provide insight into the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Clin Lipidol ; 12(6): 1413-1419, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated triglycerides are independent predictors of cardiovascular (CV) events, though randomized trials of HDL-C-raising therapies to reduce clinical events have been largely disappointing. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial failed to show that extended release niacin (ERN) reduced CV events in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia who were on statin-based therapy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether extended follow-up of AIM-HIGH participants changed these null results. METHODS: AIM-HIGH was a placebo-controlled trial of 3414 patients with established CV disease, low baseline HDL-C, and elevated triglycerides levels randomized to ERN 1500-2000 mg/d vs placebo. Participants also received simvastatin with or without ezetimibe to attain on-treatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 40-80 mg/dL. The trial was halted after a mean 3-year follow-up because of futility. RESULTS: Among 3236 participants alive at the end of blinded study, 2613 (81%; ERN = 1,312, placebo = 1301) were followed a mean 1.1 additional years. Ninety-five percent of subjects remained on statin, but only 4% on ERN. At a mean total follow-up of 4.1 years, there were 343 primary CV endpoints in the ERN arm and 305 CV endpoints in placebo participants (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96, 1.30). Ischemic stroke was also not significantly different after extended follow-up in the two groups (2.2% vs 1.5%, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia on statin-based therapy, 3 years of ERN treatment did not lower CV event rates. An additional year of follow-up off assigned treatment did not alter these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 110(4): 343-351, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: ALLHAT, a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter clinical trial of high risk hypertensive participants, compared treatment with an ACE-inhibitor (lisinopril) or calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) with a diuretic (chlorthalidone). Primary outcome was the occurrence of fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction. For this report, post-hoc analyses were conducted to determine the contribution of baseline characteristics of participants with or without baseline or incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) to stroke, heart failure (HF), coronary heart disease (CHD), and mortality outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Minnesota Coding of baseline and biennial in-trial ECGs was used to determine the 334 baseline and 537 incident AF/AFL cases, respectively participants with AF/AFL: Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of presence versus absence of either baseline or incident AF/AFL (as time-dependent covariate) for occurrence of stroke, CHD, HF, or mortality, while adjusting for selected baseline characteristics. Adjusted Cox regression was used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) for presence versus absence of selected baseline characteristics among those with and without either baseline or incident AF/AFL. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, baseline AF/AFL was associated with stroke, HF, and mortality (HRs [95% CIs] 3.18, [2.34-4.33]; 2.65 [2.02-3.49]; and 2.10 [CI, 1.73-2.55], respectively, P < 0.05). Incident AF/AFL was a significant risk factor for HF and mortality (HRs 2.80 and 2.06, respectively, P < 0.05). Risk factor profiles for clinical outcomes for those with and without baseline or incident AF/AFL were largely similar. CONCLUSIONS: AF/AFL is a significant risk factor for stroke, HF, and mortality. Additional risk factors for these outcomes were generally similar for participants with and without baseline or incident AF/AFL.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Flutter Atrial/complicações , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
12.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 1631263, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648112

RESUMO

Introduction: We investigated the association of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy with increased risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events in 6068 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) enrolled in the Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ELIXA). Methods: History of retinopathy and neuropathy as well as duration of T2DM were self-reported at screening. Proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between retinopathy, neuropathy, and recurrent CV events. Results: At screening, retinopathy and neuropathy were reported in 10.7% and 17.5% of patients, respectively, while 5.7% reported both. When adjusted for randomized treatment only, both retinopathy and neuropathy were associated with a primary composite outcome (CV death, nonfatal MI, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) (retinopathy: HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.75; neuropathy: HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.57), CV composite (CV death, nonfatal MI, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure (HF)) (retinopathy: HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31-1.88; neuropathy: HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.19-1.62), myocardial infarction (retinopathy: HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.76; neuropathy: HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.54), HF hospitalization (retinopathy: HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.48-2.78; neuropathy: HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.27), and all-cause mortality (retinopathy: HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.28-2.12; neuropathy: HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.78). When included in the same model, and adjusted for T2DM duration, there were no independent associations of either with CV outcomes, while T2DM duration remained strongly associated with all outcomes. Addition of demographic characteristics and CV risk factors did not further alter these relationships. Conclusions: In patients with T2DM and recent ACS, a history of retinopathy and/or neuropathy and longer T2DM duration could be considered clinical markers for high risk of recurrent CV events. This trial is registered with the ELIXA (Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome), ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01147250.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
14.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(8): 1027-1035, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy. METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo. RESULTS: Between February 2013 and May 2016, we recruited 27,395 participants from 602 centres in 33 countries; 17,598 participants were included in the pantoprazole vs placebo comparison. At baseline, the mean age was 68.2 years, 22.0% were female, 90.6% had CAD, and 27.3% had PAD. CONCLUSIONS: COMPASS will provide information on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, alone or in combination with aspirin, in the long-term management of patients with stable CAD or PAD, and on the efficacy and safety of pantoprazole in preventing upper GI complications in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Humanos
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(6)2017 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure, but less is known about their prognostic importance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We sought to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could enhance risk prediction of a broad range of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus were prospectively enrolled in the ELIXA trial (n=5525, follow-up time 26 months). Best risk models were constructed from relevant baseline variables with and without BNP/NT-proBNP. C statistics, Net Reclassification Index, and Integrated Discrimination Index were analyzed to estimate the value of adding BNP or NT-proBNP to best risk models. Overall, BNP and NT-proBNP were the most important predictors of all outcomes examined, irrespective of history of heart failure or any prior cardiovascular disease. BNP significantly improved C statistics when added to risk models for each outcome examined, the strongest increments being in death (0.77-0.82, P<0.001), cardiovascular death (0.77-0.83, P<0.001), and heart failure (0.84-0.87, P<0.001). BNP or NT-proBNP alone predicted death as well as all other variables combined (0.77 versus 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, BNP and NT-proBNP were powerful predictors of cardiovascular outcomes beyond heart failure and death, ie, were also predictive of MI and stroke. Natriuretic peptides added as much predictive information about death as all other conventional variables combined. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01147250.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Am J Med ; 130(4): 439-448.e9, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although hypertension guidelines define treatment-resistant hypertension as blood pressure uncontrolled by ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, it is unknown whether patient prognosis differs when a diuretic is included. METHODS: Participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) were randomly assigned to first-step therapy with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. At a Year 2 follow-up visit, those with average blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic on ≥3 antihypertensive medications, or blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg on ≥4 antihypertensive medications were identified as having apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. The prevalence of treatment-resistant hypertension and its association with ALLHAT primary (combined fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction) and secondary (all-cause mortality, stroke, heart failure, combined coronary heart disease, and combined cardiovascular disease) outcomes were identified for each treatment group. RESULTS: Of participants assigned to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril, 9.6%, 11.4%, and 19.7%, respectively, had treatment-resistant hypertension. During mean follow-up of 2.9 years, primary outcome incidence was similar for those assigned to chlorthalidone compared with amlodipine or lisinopril (amlodipine- vs chlorthalidone-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-1.39; P = .53; lisinopril- vs chlorthalidone-adjusted HR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.70-1.60; P = .78). Secondary outcome risks were similar for most comparisons except coronary revascularization, which was higher with amlodipine than with chlorthalidone (HR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.11-3.11; P = .02). An as-treated analysis based on diuretic use produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, which titrated medications to a goal, participants assigned to chlorthalidone were less likely to develop treatment-resistant hypertension. However, prognoses in those with treatment-resistant hypertension were similar across treatment groups.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anlodipino/administração & dosagem , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Clortalidona/administração & dosagem , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Lisinopril/administração & dosagem , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(8): 1027-1035, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1061784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy. METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo...


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Aspirina , Cardiopatias
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 16: 236, 2016 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient characteristics are associated with adherence, which has implications for planning clinical research or designing payment systems that reward superior outcomes. It is unclear to what extent clinician efforts to improve adherence can attenuate these associations. METHODS: To identify factors predicting visit and medication adherence in settings designed to optimize adherence, we did a retrospective analysis of participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). ALLHAT recruited participants at 632 sites in North America, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands for random assignment to antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine, chlorthalidone, or lisinopril. Site investigators reported clinic characteristics at the time they applied to participate in the study and research coordinators used standardized methods to measure patient characteristics. We defined adequate visit adherence as attending at least 80 % of scheduled visits; adequate medication adherence was defined as taking 80 % or more of the randomly assigned medication at all study visits. RESULTS: The 31,250 ALLHAT participants eligible for the visit adherence analysis attended 78.5 % of scheduled study visits; 68.9 % attended more than 80 % of scheduled visits. Clinic setting was predictive of both forms of adherence; adherence was worst at private clinics; clinics that enrolled more study participants had superior adherence. Adjusting for clinic characteristics and clinical factors, women, younger participants, Blacks and smokers were less likely to have adequate visit adherence. Among the 28,967 participants eligible for the medication adherence analysis, 21,261 (73.4 %) reported adequate medication adherence. In adjusted analyses, younger and less educated participants, Blacks, and smokers were less likely to report adequate adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Participant demographics were associated with adherence despite strenuous efforts to optimize adherence. Our results could inform decisions by researchers planning trials and policymakers designing payment systems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00000542 . Registered 27 October 1999.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação do Paciente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Demografia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , América do Norte , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Data Brief ; 6: 476-81, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26977429

RESUMO

This brief data article summarizes the clinical risk factors and laboratory data of a group of subjects recruited for the AIM-HIGH trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and an associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy. The sample is restricted to those on statin therapy at the time of enrollment and data are presented stratified by whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) markers of carotid plaque vascularity and inflammation were available or not. The data provided herein are directly related to the article "Longer Duration of Statin Therapy is Associated with Decreased Carotid Plaque Vascularity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging" [2].

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA