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1.
Circulation ; 140(7): 529-537, Aug. 13, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and history of heart failure (HF) are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We explored the effects of rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in these patients. METHODS: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized 27 395 participants with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease to rivaroxaban 2.5mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily alone, or aspirin 100 mg alone. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV HF or left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome comprised cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding using modified International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Investigators recorded a history of HF and EF at baseline, if available. We examined the effects of rivaroxaban on major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding in patients with or without a history of HF and an EF <40% or >/=40% at baseline. RESULTS: Of the 5902 participants (22%) with a history of HF, 4971 (84%) had EF recorded at baseline, and 12% had EF <40%. Rivaroxaban and aspirin had similar relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events compared with aspirin in participants with HF (5.5% versus 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86) and those without HF (3.8% versus 4.7%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P for interaction 0.28) but larger absolute risk reduction in those with HF (HF absolute risk reduction 2.4%, number needed to treat=42; no HF absolute risk reduction 1.0%, number needed to treat=103). The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was not statistically different between those with EF <40% (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42) and >/=40% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98; P for interaction 0.36). The excesso hazard for major bleeding was not different in participants with HF (2.5% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.88-2.09) than in those without HF (3.3% versus 1.9%; HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-2.21; P for interaction 0.26). There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes with rivaroxaban alone. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and a history of mild or moderate HF, combination rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produces similar relative but larger absolute benefits than in those without HF.(AU)


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina , Doença das Coronárias , Doença Arterial Periférica , Rivaroxabana , Insuficiência Cardíaca
2.
Circulation ; 140(7): 529-537, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and history of heart failure (HF) are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We explored the effects of rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in these patients. METHODS: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized 27 395 participants with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily alone, or aspirin 100 mg alone. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV HF or left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome comprised cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding using modified International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Investigators recorded a history of HF and EF at baseline, if available. We examined the effects of rivaroxaban on major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding in patients with or without a history of HF and an EF <40% or ≥40% at baseline. RESULTS: Of the 5902 participants (22%) with a history of HF, 4971 (84%) had EF recorded at baseline, and 12% had EF <40%. Rivaroxaban and aspirin had similar relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events compared with aspirin in participants with HF (5.5% versus 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86) and those without HF (3.8% versus 4.7%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P for interaction 0.28) but larger absolute risk reduction in those with HF (HF absolute risk reduction 2.4%, number needed to treat=42; no HF absolute risk reduction 1.0%, number needed to treat=103). The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was not statistically different between those with EF <40% (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42) and ≥40% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98; P for interaction 0.36). The excess hazard for major bleeding was not different in participants with HF (2.5% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.88-2.09) than in those without HF (3.3% versus 1.9%; HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-2.21; P for interaction 0.26). There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes with rivaroxaban alone. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and a history of mild or moderate HF, combination rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produces similar relative but larger absolute benefits than in those without HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

3.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 110(4): 343-351, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: ALLHAT, a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter clinical trial of high risk hypertensive participants, compared treatment with an ACE-inhibitor (lisinopril) or calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) with a diuretic (chlorthalidone). Primary outcome was the occurrence of fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction. For this report, post-hoc analyses were conducted to determine the contribution of baseline characteristics of participants with or without baseline or incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) to stroke, heart failure (HF), coronary heart disease (CHD), and mortality outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Minnesota Coding of baseline and biennial in-trial ECGs was used to determine the 334 baseline and 537 incident AF/AFL cases, respectively participants with AF/AFL: Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of presence versus absence of either baseline or incident AF/AFL (as time-dependent covariate) for occurrence of stroke, CHD, HF, or mortality, while adjusting for selected baseline characteristics. Adjusted Cox regression was used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) for presence versus absence of selected baseline characteristics among those with and without either baseline or incident AF/AFL. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, baseline AF/AFL was associated with stroke, HF, and mortality (HRs [95% CIs] 3.18, [2.34-4.33]; 2.65 [2.02-3.49]; and 2.10 [CI, 1.73-2.55], respectively, P < 0.05). Incident AF/AFL was a significant risk factor for HF and mortality (HRs 2.80 and 2.06, respectively, P < 0.05). Risk factor profiles for clinical outcomes for those with and without baseline or incident AF/AFL were largely similar. CONCLUSIONS: AF/AFL is a significant risk factor for stroke, HF, and mortality. Additional risk factors for these outcomes were generally similar for participants with and without baseline or incident AF/AFL.

4.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated triglycerides are independent predictors of cardiovascular (CV) events, though randomized trials of HDL-C-raising therapies to reduce clinical events have been largely disappointing. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial failed to show that extended release niacin (ERN) reduced CV events in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia who were on statin-based therapy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether extended follow-up of AIM-HIGH participants changed these null results. METHODS: AIM-HIGH was a placebo-controlled trial of 3414 patients with established CV disease, low baseline HDL-C, and elevated triglycerides levels randomized to ERN 1500-2000 mg/d vs placebo. Participants also received simvastatin with or without ezetimibe to attain on-treatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 40-80 mg/dL. The trial was halted after a mean 3-year follow-up because of futility. RESULTS: Among 3236 participants alive at the end of blinded study, 2613 (81%; ERN = 1,312, placebo = 1301) were followed a mean 1.1 additional years. Ninety-five percent of subjects remained on statin, but only 4% on ERN. At a mean total follow-up of 4.1 years, there were 343 primary CV endpoints in the ERN arm and 305 CV endpoints in placebo participants (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96, 1.30). Ischemic stroke was also not significantly different after extended follow-up in the two groups (2.2% vs 1.5%, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia on statin-based therapy, 3 years of ERN treatment did not lower CV event rates. An additional year of follow-up off assigned treatment did not alter these findings.

5.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493018784478, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058959

RESUMO

Background Covert vascular disease of the brain manifests as infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds on MRI. Their cumulative effect is often a decline in cognition, motor impairment, and psychiatric disorders. Preventive therapies for covert brain ischemia have not been established but represent a huge unmet clinical need. Aims The MRI substudy examines the effects of the antithrombotic regimens in COMPASS on incident covert brain infarcts (the primary outcome), white matter hyperintensities, and cognitive and functional status in a sample of consenting COMPASS participants without contraindications to MRI. Methods COMPASS is a randomized superiority trial testing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg and rivaroxaban 5 mg bid against acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg per day for the combined endpoint of MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death in individuals with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2*-weighted, and FLAIR images were obtained close to randomization and near the termination of assigned antithrombotic therapy; biomarker and genetic samples at randomization and one month, and cognitive and functional assessment at randomization, after two years and at the end of study. Results Between March 2013 and May 2016, 1905 participants were recruited from 86 centers in 16 countries. Of these participants, 1760 underwent baseline MRI scans that were deemed technically adequate for interpretation. The mean age at entry of participants with interpretable MRI was 71 years and 23.5% were women. Coronary artery disease was present in 90.4% and 28.1% had peripheral artery disease. Brain infarcts were present in 34.8%, 29.3% had cerebral microbleeds, and 93.0% had white matter hyperintensities. The median Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 26 (interquartile range 23-28). Conclusions The COMPASS MRI substudy will examine the effect of the antithrombotic interventions on MRI-determined covert brain infarcts and cognition. Demonstration of a therapeutic effect of the antithrombotic regimens on brain infarcts would have implications for prevention of cognitive decline and provide insight into the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive decline.

6.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 1631263, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648112

RESUMO

Introduction: We investigated the association of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy with increased risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events in 6068 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) enrolled in the Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ELIXA). Methods: History of retinopathy and neuropathy as well as duration of T2DM were self-reported at screening. Proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between retinopathy, neuropathy, and recurrent CV events. Results: At screening, retinopathy and neuropathy were reported in 10.7% and 17.5% of patients, respectively, while 5.7% reported both. When adjusted for randomized treatment only, both retinopathy and neuropathy were associated with a primary composite outcome (CV death, nonfatal MI, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) (retinopathy: HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.75; neuropathy: HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.57), CV composite (CV death, nonfatal MI, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure (HF)) (retinopathy: HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31-1.88; neuropathy: HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.19-1.62), myocardial infarction (retinopathy: HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.76; neuropathy: HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.54), HF hospitalization (retinopathy: HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.48-2.78; neuropathy: HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.27), and all-cause mortality (retinopathy: HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.28-2.12; neuropathy: HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.78). When included in the same model, and adjusted for T2DM duration, there were no independent associations of either with CV outcomes, while T2DM duration remained strongly associated with all outcomes. Addition of demographic characteristics and CV risk factors did not further alter these relationships. Conclusions: In patients with T2DM and recent ACS, a history of retinopathy and/or neuropathy and longer T2DM duration could be considered clinical markers for high risk of recurrent CV events. This trial is registered with the ELIXA (Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome), ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01147250.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
8.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(8): 1027-1035, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy. METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo. RESULTS: Between February 2013 and May 2016, we recruited 27,395 participants from 602 centres in 33 countries; 17,598 participants were included in the pantoprazole vs placebo comparison. At baseline, the mean age was 68.2 years, 22.0% were female, 90.6% had CAD, and 27.3% had PAD. CONCLUSIONS: COMPASS will provide information on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, alone or in combination with aspirin, in the long-term management of patients with stable CAD or PAD, and on the efficacy and safety of pantoprazole in preventing upper GI complications in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Humanos
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(6)2017 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure, but less is known about their prognostic importance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We sought to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could enhance risk prediction of a broad range of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus were prospectively enrolled in the ELIXA trial (n=5525, follow-up time 26 months). Best risk models were constructed from relevant baseline variables with and without BNP/NT-proBNP. C statistics, Net Reclassification Index, and Integrated Discrimination Index were analyzed to estimate the value of adding BNP or NT-proBNP to best risk models. Overall, BNP and NT-proBNP were the most important predictors of all outcomes examined, irrespective of history of heart failure or any prior cardiovascular disease. BNP significantly improved C statistics when added to risk models for each outcome examined, the strongest increments being in death (0.77-0.82, P<0.001), cardiovascular death (0.77-0.83, P<0.001), and heart failure (0.84-0.87, P<0.001). BNP or NT-proBNP alone predicted death as well as all other variables combined (0.77 versus 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, BNP and NT-proBNP were powerful predictors of cardiovascular outcomes beyond heart failure and death, ie, were also predictive of MI and stroke. Natriuretic peptides added as much predictive information about death as all other conventional variables combined. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01147250.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Am J Med ; 130(4): 439-448.e9, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although hypertension guidelines define treatment-resistant hypertension as blood pressure uncontrolled by ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, it is unknown whether patient prognosis differs when a diuretic is included. METHODS: Participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) were randomly assigned to first-step therapy with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. At a Year 2 follow-up visit, those with average blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic on ≥3 antihypertensive medications, or blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg on ≥4 antihypertensive medications were identified as having apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. The prevalence of treatment-resistant hypertension and its association with ALLHAT primary (combined fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction) and secondary (all-cause mortality, stroke, heart failure, combined coronary heart disease, and combined cardiovascular disease) outcomes were identified for each treatment group. RESULTS: Of participants assigned to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril, 9.6%, 11.4%, and 19.7%, respectively, had treatment-resistant hypertension. During mean follow-up of 2.9 years, primary outcome incidence was similar for those assigned to chlorthalidone compared with amlodipine or lisinopril (amlodipine- vs chlorthalidone-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-1.39; P = .53; lisinopril- vs chlorthalidone-adjusted HR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.70-1.60; P = .78). Secondary outcome risks were similar for most comparisons except coronary revascularization, which was higher with amlodipine than with chlorthalidone (HR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.11-3.11; P = .02). An as-treated analysis based on diuretic use produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, which titrated medications to a goal, participants assigned to chlorthalidone were less likely to develop treatment-resistant hypertension. However, prognoses in those with treatment-resistant hypertension were similar across treatment groups.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anlodipino/administração & dosagem , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Clortalidona/administração & dosagem , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Lisinopril/administração & dosagem , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(8): 1027-1035, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy. METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo...(AU)


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Anticoagulantes , Aspirina
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 16: 236, 2016 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient characteristics are associated with adherence, which has implications for planning clinical research or designing payment systems that reward superior outcomes. It is unclear to what extent clinician efforts to improve adherence can attenuate these associations. METHODS: To identify factors predicting visit and medication adherence in settings designed to optimize adherence, we did a retrospective analysis of participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). ALLHAT recruited participants at 632 sites in North America, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands for random assignment to antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine, chlorthalidone, or lisinopril. Site investigators reported clinic characteristics at the time they applied to participate in the study and research coordinators used standardized methods to measure patient characteristics. We defined adequate visit adherence as attending at least 80 % of scheduled visits; adequate medication adherence was defined as taking 80 % or more of the randomly assigned medication at all study visits. RESULTS: The 31,250 ALLHAT participants eligible for the visit adherence analysis attended 78.5 % of scheduled study visits; 68.9 % attended more than 80 % of scheduled visits. Clinic setting was predictive of both forms of adherence; adherence was worst at private clinics; clinics that enrolled more study participants had superior adherence. Adjusting for clinic characteristics and clinical factors, women, younger participants, Blacks and smokers were less likely to have adequate visit adherence. Among the 28,967 participants eligible for the medication adherence analysis, 21,261 (73.4 %) reported adequate medication adherence. In adjusted analyses, younger and less educated participants, Blacks, and smokers were less likely to report adequate adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Participant demographics were associated with adherence despite strenuous efforts to optimize adherence. Our results could inform decisions by researchers planning trials and policymakers designing payment systems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00000542 . Registered 27 October 1999.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação do Paciente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Demografia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , América do Norte , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Data Brief ; 6: 476-81, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26977429

RESUMO

This brief data article summarizes the clinical risk factors and laboratory data of a group of subjects recruited for the AIM-HIGH trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and an associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy. The sample is restricted to those on statin therapy at the time of enrollment and data are presented stratified by whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) markers of carotid plaque vascularity and inflammation were available or not. The data provided herein are directly related to the article "Longer Duration of Statin Therapy is Associated with Decreased Carotid Plaque Vascularity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging" [2].

16.
Atherosclerosis ; 245: 74-81, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26708287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Plaque neovasculature is a major route for lipoprotein and leukocyte ingress into plaques, and has been identified as a risk factor for carotid plaque disruption. Vp, a variable derived from pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), correlates with plaque neovasculature density. Because lipid-lowering therapy has been associated with regression of neovasculature in animal models, we sought to determine clinical correlates of carotid plaque neovasculature (as assessed by Vp) in participants on statin therapy for established cardiovascular disease. METHODS: 98 participants from an AIM-HIGH sub-study underwent DCE-MRI of their carotid arteries. Expert readers who were blinded to all clinical variables analyzed the MR images to measure carotid plaque Vp in all participants. Associations between Vp and duration of statin therapy and other clinical risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: Prior duration of statin treatment at enrollment ranged from <1 year (21%) 1-5 years (40%) and >5 years (39%). In univariate analyses, shorter duration of statin therapy (P = 0.01), the presence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.02), and higher body mass index (P = 0.01) and lipoprotein(a) (P = 0.01) were all significantly associated with higher baseline Vp values. In multivariate analyses, significant associations remained between shorter duration of statin therapy (P = 0.004) and lipoprotein(a) (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These are the first human, in vivo findings suggesting a relationship between duration of statin therapy and regression of carotid plaque neovasculature. Future longitudinal studies are warranted both to confirm this finding and to address whether changes in neovasculature may translate into change in risk for plaque disruption. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIERS: NCT00880178, NCT01178320 and NCT00120289.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
N Engl J Med ; 373(23): 2247-57, 2015 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26630143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are higher among patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly those with concomitant cardiovascular diseases, than in most other populations. We assessed the effects of lixisenatide, a glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonist, on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary event. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a myocardial infarction or who had been hospitalized for unstable angina within the previous 180 days to receive lixisenatide or placebo in addition to locally determined standards of care. The trial was designed with adequate statistical power to assess whether lixisenatide was noninferior as well as superior to placebo, as defined by an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio of less than 1.3 and 1.0, respectively, for the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS: The 6068 patients who underwent randomization were followed for a median of 25 months. A primary end-point event occurred in 406 patients (13.4%) in the lixisenatide group and in 399 (13.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.17), which showed the noninferiority of lixisenatide to placebo (P<0.001) but did not show superiority (P=0.81). There were no significant between-group differences in the rate of hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio in the lixisenatide group, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.23) or the rate of death (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.13). Lixisenatide was not associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events or severe hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasms, or allergic reactions than was placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome, the addition of lixisenatide to usual care did not significantly alter the rate of major cardiovascular events or other serious adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi; ELIXA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01147250.).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Idoso , Angina Instável/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Falha de Tratamento
18.
Diabetes Care ; 38(8): 1558-66, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26068865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glycemic variability may contribute to adverse medical outcomes of type 2 diabetes, but prior therapies have had limited success in controlling glycemic fluctuations, and the hypothesis has not been adequately tested. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: People with insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk were enrolled during a run-in period on basal-bolus insulin (BBI), and 102 were randomized to continued BBI or to basal insulin with a prandial GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLIPULIN) group, each seeking to maintain HbA(1c) levels between 6.7% and 7.3% (50-56 mmol/mol) for 6 months. The primary outcome measure was glycemic variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring; other measures were HbA(1c), weight, circulating markers of inflammation and cardiovascular risk, albuminuria, and electrocardiographic patterns assessed by Holter monitoring. RESULTS: At randomization, the mean age of the population was 62 years, median duration of diabetes 15 years, mean BMI 34 kg/m(2), and mean HbA(1c) 7.9% (63 mmol/mol). Thirty-three percent had a prior cardiovascular event, 18% had microalbuminuria, and 3% had macroalbuminuria. At baseline, the continuous glucose monitoring coefficient of variation for glucose levels was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: FLAT-SUGAR is a proof-of-concept study testing whether, in a population of individuals with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, the GLIPULIN regimen can limit glycemic variability more effectively than BBI, reduce levels of cardiovascular risk markers, and favorably alter albuminuria and electrocardiographic patterns. We successfully randomized a population that has sufficient power to answer the primary question, address several secondary ones, and complete the protocol as designed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Peçonhas/uso terapêutico , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exenatida , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Am Heart J ; 169(5): 631-638.e7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25965710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, patients with T2DM and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have a particularly high risk of CV events. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, lixisenatide, improves glycemia, but its effects on CV events have not been thoroughly evaluated. METHODS: ELIXA (www.clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT01147250) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study of lixisenatide in patients with T2DM and a recent ACS event. The primary aim is to evaluate the effects of lixisenatide on CV morbidity and mortality in a population at high CV risk. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of time to CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Data are systematically collected for safety outcomes, including hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, and malignancy. RESULTS: Enrollment began in July 2010 and ended in August 2013; 6,068 patients from 49 countries were randomized. Of these, 69% are men and 75% are white; at baseline, the mean ± SD age was 60.3 ± 9.7 years, body mass index was 30.2 ± 5.7 kg/m(2), and duration of T2DM was 9.3 ± 8.2 years. The qualifying ACS was a myocardial infarction in 83% and unstable angina in 17%. The study will continue until the positive adjudication of the protocol-specified number of primary CV events. CONCLUSION: ELIXA will be the first trial to report the safety and efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist in people with T2DM and high CV event risk.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Placebos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
20.
Neurology ; 84(22): 2258-65, 2015 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association of dietary factors and risk of cognitive decline in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Baseline dietary intake and measures of the Mini-Mental State Examination were recorded in 27,860 men and women who were enrolled in 2 international parallel trials of the ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease) studies. We measured diet quality using the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the association between diet quality and risk of ≥3-point decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score, and reported as hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: During 56 months of follow-up, 4,699 cases of cognitive decline occurred. We observed lower risk of cognitive decline among those in the healthiest dietary quintile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index compared with lowest quintile (hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.86, Q5 vs Q1). Lower risk of cognitive decline was consistent regardless of baseline cognitive level. CONCLUSION: We found that higher diet quality was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline. Improved diet quality represents an important potential target for reducing the global burden of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/dietoterapia , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar , Nível de Saúde , Internacionalidade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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