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1.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 33(7): 1017-1028, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of surface treatments on optical, colorimetric, and surface characteristics of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens (n = 5, IPS e.max CAD) were randomly allocated to the following treatments: mirror-polished: SiC papers; as-cut: mimicking CAD-CAM milling; ground: 90-120 µm-grit diamond bur; ground polished: ground, finished (46-30 µm-grit diamond bur), polished (diamond cups, brush and diamond paste); ground glazed: ground, glazed; ground polished glazed: association of methods. CIELAB color coordinates were obtained by a spectrophotometer. CIEDE2000 color differences (ΔE00 ) and the translucency parameter (TP00 ) were calculated. Light transmittance was assessed with a colorimeter. Surface characteristics (topography and roughness) were analyzed. Statistical differences for each condition and outcome were detected using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: TP00 data show statistical reduction after grinding (p < 0.05), which was only restored with polishing (solely or with glazing). ΔE00 shows that grinding results in perceptible variations in color (above 0.81), which were restored after all post-processing protocols (exception to only glaze application in contact with a black background). Light transmittance data corroborated such performance. Polishing and glazing reduced roughness and improved surface topography. CONCLUSION: Grinding statistically increased roughness, reduced translucency, light transmittance through the ceramic, and resulted on color differences. On contrary, polishing (followed or not by glazing) reduced roughness and enhanced ceramic translucency and light transmittance. Glaze also reduced roughness, but it still presented reduced translucency. The positioning (facing up or down) of the ceramic treated surface influenced the considered outcomes. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Grinding with diamond burs results in a deleterious impact to the optical, colorimetric and surface characteristics of lithium disilicate ceramic. Thus, polishing (followed or not by glazing) is recommended for optical and topographical enhancements when lithium disilicate monolithic restorations require occlusal adjustments.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Polimento Dentário , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
2.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(2): 133-143, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of different etching times of a self-etching ceramic primer on the microshear bond strength (µSBS) and topographic surface pattern of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ceramic slices were subjected to an in-lab simulation of CAD/CAM milling and randomly allocated to 10 groups (n = 35) considering two factors: "surface treatment" in 5 levels - one control group (5% hydrofluoric acid + silane application [HF5+SIL]), and 4 experimental groups using ceramic etching/primer (Monobond Etch & Prime, E&P) with different passive application times (40 s, 2 min, 5 min, or 10 min); and "aging" factor in 2 levels - short-term (after 24 h), or long-term (storage for 180 days + 12,000 thermal cycles). Composite cement cylinders were built and µSBS tests were run in a universal testing machine. The failure patterns were categorized, and complementary analyses with SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were performed. RESULTS: The groups showed statistically similar bond strengths in the short term (range 22.4 to 25.1 MPa). However, only the E&P 20s+40s (19.3 MPa) and E&P 20s+5min (21.5 MPa) groups maintained stable bond strength in the long term, and HF5+SIL (17.1 MPa) presented statistically significantly lower values than did E&P 20s+5min. The failure pattern was predominantly adhesive. The increased application time of the ceramic primer promoted greater dissolution of the glass matrix; thus, the E&P 20s+10min group presented the most complex surface characteristics in the fractal dimension analysis. CONCLUSION: The self-etching ceramic primer can be used as an alternative to classical conditioning with HF plus silane, promoting stable bond strength for etching times of 40 s or 5 min of passive application.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Lítio , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Ácido Fluorídrico , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Silanos , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
J Prosthet Dent ; 126(1): 119-127, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636073

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Data comparing the fatigue performance of adhesively luted glass or polycrystalline ceramic systems for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) are scarce. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the fatigue performance of monolithic crowns manufactured from glass or polycrystalline CAD-CAM ceramic systems adhesively luted to a dentin analog. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four pairs of standardized preparations of dentin analog (NEMA Grade G10) and simplified ceramic crowns of 1.5-mm thickness were obtained with 3 ceramic materials: lithium disilicate (LD) glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD); zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass-ceramic (Vita Suprinity); and translucent yttrium fully stabilized polycrystalline zirconia (Trans YZ) (Prettau Anterior). The simplified crowns (n=15) were adhesively cemented onto the preparations and subjected to step-stress fatigue test (initial load of 400 N, 20 Hz, 10 000 cycles, followed by 100-N increment steps until failure). Collected data (fatigue failure load [FFL] and cycles for failure [CFF]) were submitted to survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox post hoc tests (α=.05) and to Weibull analysis (Weibull modulus and its respective 95% confidence interval). Failed crowns were submitted to fractography analysis. The surface characteristics of the internal surface (roughness, fractal dimension) of additional crowns were accessed, and the occlusal cement thickness obtained in each luted system was measured. RESULTS: Trans YZ crowns presented the highest values of FFL, CFF, and survival rates, followed by ZLS and LD (mean FFL: 1740 N>1187 N>987 N; mean CFF: 149 000>92 613>73 667). Weibull modulus and cement thickness were similar for all tested materials. LD presented the roughest internal surface, followed by ZLS (mean Ra: 226 nm>169 nm>93 nm). The LD and ZLS internal surfaces also showed higher fractal dimension, pointing to a more complex surface topography (mean fractal dimension: 2.242=2.238>2.147). CONCLUSIONS: CAD-CAM monolithic crowns of Trans YZ show the best fatigue performance. In addition, ZLS crowns also showed better performance than LD crowns.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Coroas , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Dent Mater J ; 39(4): 657-663, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448846

RESUMO

In the oral environment dental materials are subject to a wet condition what might in time change their elastic properties. In this article, we evaluated the influence of the storage condition (dry versus wet) on the Young's modulus and the Poisson ratio in compression of three composite materials. The data of the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio published of dental composite materials are not always comparable, due to different test methods and sample dimensions influencing the results. Therefore, we established the degree of exactness of the results out of the test set-up used. Since the present study depicted differences of the properties after dry and wet storage, the elastic properties should be measured after wet storage. The bonding between the matrix and the filler particles showed to have an influence on the elastic properties and on the influence of a wet environment.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Módulo de Elasticidade , Teste de Materiais
5.
J Adhes Dent ; 22(2): 149-159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of new air-abrasion powders with different silica concentrations (silica-coated aluminum oxide) and aging on the bond strength between composite cement and Y-TZP ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ceramic slices (7 x 6.3 x 2 mm3) were randomly allocated into 8 groups (n = 20) considering different surface treatments (SiC: silica-coated aluminum oxide particles; AlOx: aluminum oxide particles; 7% Si and 20% Si: experimental powders consisting of 7% and 20% silica-coated of AlOx respectively) and aging (baseline: 24 h at 37°C in water; aged: 90 days at 37°C in water + 12,000 thermal cycles). A blinded researcher performed the air-abrasion procedure for 10 s (identical parameters for all groups). Composite resin cylinders (Ø = 3 mm) were cemented onto the silanized ceramic surfaces, light cured, and subjected to shear bond-strength testing (wire loop Ø = 0.5 mm). The topography of the powders and air-abraded surfaces was analyzed using SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elemental composition of the powders and air-abraded surfaces was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and surface wetting of the air-abraded surfaces was also determined by contact-angle measurements. RESULTS: Under baseline conditions, all groups presented similar bond strengths, but only SiC and 7% Si yielded unaltered bond strength after aging. SiC and 7% Si presented lower contact angles. All groups presented similar surface topographies. The silica content was also similar among groups, except for AlOx. CONCLUSION: 7% Si and SiC presented similar bond strength and better bonding performance after aging than AlOx and 20% Si. A higher silica concentration was not able to promote stable adhesion of composite cement after aging.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Colagem Dentária , Abrasão Dental por Ar , Cerâmica , Cimentos de Resina , Dióxido de Silício , Propriedades de Superfície , Ítrio , Zircônio
6.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 98: 11-19, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176090

RESUMO

This study assessed the fatigue performance (biaxial flexure fatigue strength), surface characteristics (topography and roughness) and structural stability (t-m phase transformation) of a Y-TZP ceramic subjected to air-abrasion using new powders (7% and 20% silica-coated aluminum oxide particles) in comparison to commercially available powders. Disc-shaped specimens were manufactured (ISO 6872-2015) and randomly allocated into four groups considering the air-abrasion materials: SiC: commercially available silica-coated aluminum oxide; AlOx: commercially available aluminum oxide; 7%Si and 20%Si: experimentally produced materials consisting of 7% and 20% silica-coated AlOx, respectively. Air-abrasion was executed by a blinded researcher (1 cm distance from the tip to the specimen surface, under 2.8 bar pressure for 10 s). The fatigue tests (n = 15) were performed by the staircase method under a piston-on-three-balls assembly. Topography and roughness assessments (n = 30) of abraded samples and fractography of failed discs were performed. The highest fatigue strength (MPa) was observed for 7%Si (887.20 ±â€¯50.54) and SiC (878.16 ±â€¯29.81), while the lowest fatigue strength for 20%Si (773.89 ±â€¯46.44) and AlOx (796.70 ±â€¯46.48). Topography analysis depicted similar surface morphology for all conditions. However, roughness (µm) was only statistically different between 7%Si (Ra = 0.30 ±â€¯0.09; Rz = 2.31 ±â€¯0.63) and SiC (Ra = 0.26 ±â€¯0.04; Rz = 1.99 ±â€¯0.34). Monoclinic phase grains appeared on Y-TZP surface in a similar content (≈11-12%) for the protocols. Fractography showed all failures starting on air-abraded surface/sub-surface defects from the tensile side. In terms of roughness, phase transformation and fatigue, the new 7% silica-coated aluminum oxide presented similar behavior to the commercially available powder. Increasing silica-coating concentration to 20% did not lead to a gentle air-abrasion protocol.


Assuntos
Ar , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Cerâmica/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Pós
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986292

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hydrofluoric (HF)-acid-etching time and the impact of a resin-cement layer on the biaxial flexural strength and structural reliability of a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass ceramic. Disc-shaped specimens (n = 15) were divided according to: etching time (conditioning with 10% HF acid for 20, 40, and 60 seconds), and application of a resin-cement layer. Biaxial flexural, contact angle, and roughness analyses were performed. When the resin-cement layer was not present, flexural strength data increased with increasing etching times: 20 seconds = 250.8 MPa; 40 seconds = 278.4 MPa; 60 seconds = 342.9 MPa. Application of resin cement increased the strength values (20 seconds of acid etching on specimens with a resin-cement layer = 341.8 MPa). Different etching times did not affect the roughness of ZLS, and the contact-angle analysis presented lower values for 60 seconds of acid etching. The flexural strength of ZLS was only sensitive to surface changes when less exposure time was conducted. Longer etching times (40 and 60 seconds) should be considered for conditioning ZLS ceramic along with adhesive cementation.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cimentos de Resina , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Ácido Fluorídrico , Lítio , Teste de Materiais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Silicatos , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
8.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 91: 326-334, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639981

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sequential usage (milling order) of CAD/CAM diamond burs on the surface roughness, topography and fatigue performance of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Seventy-two (72) ceramic discs (Ø= 13.5 mm; thickness= 1.2 mm; IPS e.max CAD) were milled using four pairs of burs and allocated into three groups (n = 24) according to the milling sequence: 1 through 6 (1-6), 7 through 12 (7-12), and 13 through 18 (13-18). The burs were evaluated under SEM at the different milling stages to depict any degradation generated by the milling sequence. Fatigue performance was assessed by a stepwise approach (initial strength of 20 MPa for 5000 cycles; incremental steps of 20 MPa for 20,000 cycles each until fracture; frequency of 20 Hz) using the ISO 6872:2015 recommendation for piston-on-three-balls biaxial flexure strength tests. Surface roughness, topography analysis and fractography of the failed discs were also performed. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox post hoc test) showed that the milling sequence had no effect on the fatigue strength (190 - 201 MPa) or the number of cycles until fracture (174,958 - 180,087 cycles). Ceramic topography and roughness (Ra, Rz and RSm parameters) were similar among the groups, even though SEM analysis depicted CAD/CAM diamond burs degraded over time. Fractography evidenced all failures starting from surface defects introduced by milling at the samples' tensile side. The sequential usage of CAD/CAM diamond burs (milling order) does not affect the lithium disilicate surface roughness, topography or fatigue performance.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Porcelana Dentária , Diamante , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Equipamento , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Dent Mater ; 35(4): 534-542, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the fatigue failure load, number of cycles until failure, and survival probability of adhesively cemented materials with different microstructures (glass-, hybrid- and resin-ceramic) used to manufacture CAD/CAM monolithic restorations. METHODS: Disc-shaped specimens (n=15; Ø=10mm; thickness=1.0mm) were produced from CAD/CAM blocks as follows: feldspathic (FEL); leucite (LEU); lithium disilicate (LD); zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZRLS); polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN); and resin nanoceramic (RNC). Adhesive cementation was performed onto epoxy discs (dentin analogue- Ø=10mm; thickness=2.5mm). The cemented assemblies were subjected to fatigue testing using a step-stress approach (400N-2200N; step-size of 200N; 10,000 cycles per step; 1.4Hz). Fatigue data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) tests (p<0.05) and Weibull statistical analysis. Fractographic analysis was also performed. RESULTS: All RNC specimens survived the fatigue test (100% probability of survival at 2200N; 100,000 cycles) and presented occlusal deformation in response to loading, while all other tested materials failed in distinct loading steps with radial cracks starting from the bonding surface. LD (1146.7N; 47,333) and ZRLS (1013.3N; 40,666) materials obtained the highest fatigue failure loads and cycles until failure, meanwhile all PICN specimens failed during the first step (0% probability of survival at 400N; 10,000). FEL had similar Weibull modulus to LD and ZRLS and higher than LEU for both load and number of cycles outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE: The microstructure of adhesively cemented glass-, hybrid- and resin-ceramic CAD/CAM restorative materials influence their response during fatigue testing, which aids in suggesting the best clinical indications.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Fadiga , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 91: 287-293, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611925

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of two antagonist substrates (Y-TZP/zirconia or stainless steel) on the wear rate and surface alterations of different composite materials and bovine tooth substrates (enamel and dentin). The wear rate of different composite materials (n = 20; two direct composite resins: HelioMolar - HM; Clearfil AP-X - CAP, three indirect composite resins: Estenia C&B - EST; Adoro - ADO; Sinfony - SFY, and one composite resin for direct/indirect restorations: Filtek Z250 - Z250), bovine enamel and dentin against two different antagonist materials (zirconia or stainless steel) into two mediums (two-body and three-body wear) were collected. After wear tests on ACTA wear machine, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to access the surface alterations. The wear data were evaluated by three-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α = 0.05). The factors 'antagonist', 'medium', 'restorative materials', and the interaction of all factors grouped by two and integrated showed statistical significance on the wear rates. A two-body test depicted no difference among all composites and enamel for wear rate, while a three-body test depicted differences among composites directly related to the filler content: EST < Z250 = CAP < ADO = HM < SFY. Dentin always showed the highest wear rates and enamel the lowest rates. The presence of food bolus (three-body test) led to higher wear rates in comparison to an only aqueous medium (two-body test). SEM analysis showed that different materials present specific wear patterns, regardless of the medium and the antagonist considered. Differently from enamel, dentin substrate was intensively prone to wear, regardless of the antagonist/medium. Resin composite substrates presented intermediate wear rates, depending directly on their filler content (% in weight).


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/química , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desgaste de Restauração Dentária , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Aço Inoxidável/farmacologia , Zircônio/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 91: 122-130, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579109

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the fatigue behavior of monolithic translucent zirconia polycrystals (TZ) and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD) bonded to different substrates. Disc-shaped specimens of ceramic materials TZ and LD were bonded to three substrates with different elastic modulus (E) (fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) - softest material, E = 14.9 GPa; titanium alloy (Ti) - intermediary properties, E = 115 GPa; and zirconia (Yz) - stiffest material, E = 210 GPa). The surfaces were treated and bonded with resin cement (disc-disc set-up). Fatigue testing followed a step-stress approach (initial maximum load = 200 N for 5000 cycles, incremental step load = 200 N for 10,000 cycles/step). The fatigue failure load and number of cycles until failure were recorded and statistically analyzed. Fractographic and finite element (FEA) analyzes were conducted as well. TZ ceramic depicted higher fatigue failure load, number of cycles until failure, and survival probabilities than LD, irrespective of the substrate. Moreover, TZ and LD presented better fatigue behaviors when bonded to substrates Ti and Yz in comparison to FRC. FEA revealed lower tensile stresses at restorative material when bonded to stiffer substrates. Fractography showed that the fracture origin started at bottom surface of restorative material (except for TZ bonded to Yz, in which crack initiated at load contact point). Translucent zirconia polycrystals present superior mechanical behavior than lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. The substrate type influences the mechanical performance of monolithic dental ceramics (stiffer substrates lead to better fatigue behavior).


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Colagem Dentária , Porcelana Dentária/química , Teste de Materiais , Zircônio/química , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Estresse Mecânico , Suporte de Carga
12.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 90: 673-680, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522089

RESUMO

This study evaluated the fatigue failure load, number of cycles for failure and survival probability of 2nd and 3rd generation yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue substrate. Disc-shaped specimens (n = 10; Ø = 10 mm; thickness = 1.0 mm) were produced from four 2nd generation YSZs (Lava Plus, 3M ESPE; Vita In-Ceram YZ-HT, VITA Zahnfabrik; Zirlux FC, Ivoclar Vivadent; Katana ML-HT, Kuraray) and two 3rd generation YSZs (Katana UTML and Katana STML, Kuraray). Each YSZ disc was adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix System) onto its dentin analogue pair (epoxy resin, Ø = 10 mm; thickness = 2.5 mm). Fatigue tests were conducted through step-stress approach (load ranging from 400 to 2600 N; step-size of 200 N; 20,000 cycles per step, 20 Hz) and the obtained data were analyzed using Kaplan Meier and Mantel-Cox tests. Surface topography and phase transformation (m-, t-, and c-phases) inspections after particle air-abrasion of the YSZs were performed, as well as fractographic analysis of the failed specimens. Second-generation zirconia materials presented higher fatigue failure load, number of cycles for failure, and survival probability than 3rd generation. Similar topographical characteristics of the YSZs could be noted. Phase transformation (t- to m-phase) after YSZ air-abrasion was only observed for 2nd generation materials. All failures started from the surface/sub-surface defects located at the cementation interface. 2nd generation zirconia presented higher load-bearing capacity under cyclic loading than 3rd generation materials.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários/química , Teste de Materiais , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Adesividade , Propriedades de Superfície , Suporte de Carga
13.
Braz Dent J ; 29(5): 492-499, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517449

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of different hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations on the bond strength between a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic and a resin cement. Eighty ceramic-blocks (12×7×2 mm) of IPS e.Max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) were produced and randomly assigned to 8 groups, considering 2 study factors: HF concentration in 4 levels, i.e., 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), and 10% (HF10), and storage in 2 levels, i.e., baseline (tests were performed 24 h after cementation), and aged (storage for 150 days + 12,000 thermal-cycles at 5°C and 55°C). Acid etching (20 s) was performed, followed by washing, drying, and silanization. Four resin cement cylinders (ϕ= 0.96 mm) were built-up from starch matrices on each ceramic sample (n= 40). Additional ceramic samples were etched and analyzed for contact angle, micro-morphology, and roughness. In baseline condition (without aging), the HF3, HF5, and HF10 groups showed similar bond strength values (13.9 - 15.9 MPa), and HF1 (11.2 MPa) presented lower values than HF5, being that statistically different (p= 0.012). After aging, all the mean bond strengths statistically decreased, being that HF3, HF5, and HF10 (7.8 - 11 MPa) were similar and higher than HF1 (1.8 MPa) (p= 0.0001). For contact angle, HF3, HF5, and HF10 presented similar values (7.8 - 10.4°), lower than HF1 and CTRL groups. HF5 and HF10 presented rougher surfaces than other conditions. For better bond strength results, the tested ceramic may be etched by HF acid in concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Ácido do Dente/métodos , Cerâmica/química , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Porcelana Dentária/química , Ácido Fluorídrico/química , Cimentos de Resina/química , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 492-499, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-974174

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of different hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations on the bond strength between a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic and a resin cement. Eighty ceramic-blocks (12×7×2 mm) of IPS e.Max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) were produced and randomly assigned to 8 groups, considering 2 study factors: HF concentration in 4 levels, i.e., 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), and 10% (HF10), and storage in 2 levels, i.e., baseline (tests were performed 24 h after cementation), and aged (storage for 150 days + 12,000 thermal-cycles at 5°C and 55°C). Acid etching (20 s) was performed, followed by washing, drying, and silanization. Four resin cement cylinders (ϕ= 0.96 mm) were built-up from starch matrices on each ceramic sample (n= 40). Additional ceramic samples were etched and analyzed for contact angle, micro-morphology, and roughness. In baseline condition (without aging), the HF3, HF5, and HF10 groups showed similar bond strength values (13.9 - 15.9 MPa), and HF1 (11.2 MPa) presented lower values than HF5, being that statistically different (p= 0.012). After aging, all the mean bond strengths statistically decreased, being that HF3, HF5, and HF10 (7.8 - 11 MPa) were similar and higher than HF1 (1.8 MPa) (p= 0.0001). For contact angle, HF3, HF5, and HF10 presented similar values (7.8 - 10.4°), lower than HF1 and CTRL groups. HF5 and HF10 presented rougher surfaces than other conditions. For better bond strength results, the tested ceramic may be etched by HF acid in concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido fluorídrico (HF) na resistência de união entre uma cerâmica vítrea à base de dissilicato de lítio e um cimento resinoso. Oitenta blocos cerâmicos (12×7×2 mm) de IPS e.Max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) foram produzidos e distribuídos aleatoriamente em 8 grupos, considerando 2 fatores de estudo: concentração de HF em 4 níveis, isto é, 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), e 10% (HF10), e armazenamento em 2 níveis, isto é, condição inicial (testes foram realizados 24 h após a cimentação), e envelhecidos (150 dias de armazenamento + 12.000 ciclos térmicos a 5°C e 55°C). Condicionamento ácido (20 s) foi realizado, seguido por lavagem, secagem e silanização. Quatro cilindros de cimento resinoso (ϕ= 0.96 mm) foram construídos a partir de matrizes de amido em cada amostra cerâmica (n= 40). Amostras cerâmicas adicionais foram condicionadas e analisadas quanto ao ângulo de contato, micro-morfologia e rugosidade. Na condição inicial (sem envelhecimento), os grupos HF3, HF5, e HF10 mostraram valores de resistência de união similares (13.9 - 15.9 MPa), e HF1 apresentou valores menores que HF5, sendo estatisticamente diferente (p= 0.012). Após o envelhecimento, todas as médias de resistência de união diminuíram estatisticamente, sendo que HF3, HF5 e HF10 foram similares e maiores que HF1 (p= 0.0001). Para o ângulo de contato, HF3, HF5 e HF10 apresentaram valores similares (7.8 - 10.4°), menores que os grupos HF1 e CTRL. HF5 e HF10 apresentaram superfícies mais rugosas que as outras condições. Para melhores resultados de resistência de união, a cerâmica testada pode ser condicionada com ácido fluorídrico nas concentrações de 3%, 5% e 10%.

15.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 87: 306-311, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103112

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of etching with distinct hydrofluoric (HF) acid concentrations on the cyclic load-to-failure (CLf) of simplified lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue (n = 20): non-etched/control (CTRL), or etched for 20 s with HF acid at 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), or 10% (HF10). A silane coating was then applied onto the ceramic surfaces. Fatigue tests followed the staircase approach (initial load= 720 N; step-size= 70 N; 500,000 cycles per sample; 20 Hz) using a hemispheric stainless-steel piston (Ø= 40 mm) under water. The CLf data were analyzed using Dixon and Mood method. Topographic and fractographic analyses were conducted. CLf (in N) of HF3 (1355 ±â€¯32.0) and HF5 (1335 ±â€¯58.8) groups were the highest and statistically similar; HF10 presented intermediate CLf (1175 ±â€¯132.9), while the non-etched group had the lowest one (965 ±â€¯145.0). Topographical analysis showed that the higher the HF acid concentration, the more pronounced the topographical changes. All failures (radial cracks) started from the inner surface of the ceramic discs. Topographical changes promoted by intermediate HF acid concentrations (3% and 5%) may improve fatigue performance for adhesively-cemented lithium disilicate restorations.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária/química , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Ácido Fluorídrico/química , Animais , Teste de Materiais , Suporte de Carga
16.
Dent Mater ; 34(9): e255-e263, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of the etching with different hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations on the cyclic load-to-failure (CLf) of machined lithium disilicate crowns cemented to dentin analogue material. METHODS: Pairs of dentin analogue prosthetic preparations and lithium disilicate ceramic crowns with simplified and standardized designs were machined (n=18). The preparations were etched with 10% HF (60s), followed by primer application. The intaglio surface of the ceramic crowns was treated as follows: non-etched (control, CTRL); or etched for 20s with different HF concentrations - 3% (HF3), or 5% (HF5), or 10% (HF10). A silane coating was then applied onto the treated ceramic surfaces, and they were adhesively cemented to the preparations. To perform the fatigue tests (staircase approach), a hemispheric stainless-steel piston (Ø=40mm) applied cyclic loads in the center of the crowns under water (initial load: 720N; step-size: 70N; cycles: 500,000; frequency: 20Hz). Additionally, topographic, fractographic, and fractal analyses were carried out. The fatigue data were analyzed using the Dixon and Mood method. RESULTS: Although the topographic and fractal analyses depicted the action of HF etching altering the superficial complexity and topography, the preponderant topography pattern was established by machining on CAD/CAM. All groups showed similar CLf (in N) (CTRL=805.00±91.23; HF3=781.25±29.87; HF5=755.00±154.49; HF10=833.75±100.74). SIGNIFICANCE: Etching with different HF acid concentrations did not promote a deleterious effect on the cyclic load-to-failure of machined lithium disilicate crowns.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Ácido do Dente/métodos , Coroas , Porcelana Dentária/química , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Ácido Fluorídrico/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Silanos/química , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
J Prosthet Dent ; 120(5): 755-761, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961617

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: It is unclear whether an extended glaze firing could improve the long-term mechanical performance of densely sintered CAD-CAM ceramics. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the effect of an extended glaze firing on the flexural fatigue strength (FFS) of densely sintered milled (hard-machined) leucite-based (LEU) and lithium disilicate-based (DIS) ceramics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disks were machined from ceramic blocks and divided into 6 groups (n=20) according to the material, LEU or DIS, and to the applied glaze firing: manufacturer-recommended glaze (G group), extended glaze (EG group), and control/no firing (C group). The surface roughness of the disks was measured before and after firing by using a contact profilometer, and data were compared by paired sample tests. Specimens were submitted to fatigue by using the staircase test design in water (piston-on-3 balls; 500 000 cycles, 20 Hz, and sinusoidal loading). Mean (±SD) FFS values were then calculated and analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (α=.05). RESULTS: Surface roughness did not change after the firing (P>.05). The highest FFS value in both ceramics was obtained after EG firing (LEU-EG=80.52 ±6.3 MPa; DIS-EG=147.25 ±10.5 MPa), which was statistically superior to G firing (LEU-G=73 ±6.8 MPa, P=.003; DIS-G=134.34 ±15.6 MPa; P=.023) and C group (LEU-C=61.94 ±6.3 MPa; P<.001; DIS-C=134.13 ±17.3 MPa; P=.023). CONCLUSIONS: EG firing optimized the biaxial flexural fatigue strength of hard-machined leucite and lithium disilicate ceramics compared with conventional glaze firing.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Cerâmica/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Porcelana Dentária/química , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Resistência à Flexão , Dureza , Temperatura Alta , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Dent Mater ; 34(9): e225-e235, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intaglio surface adjustment of simplified lithium disilicate ceramic restorations adhesively cemented to a dentin-like material on its fatigue behavior. METHODS: Ceramic discs (IPS e.max CAD) were prepared and an in-Lab simulation of machining roughness was performed by grinding with SiC paper (#60). Ceramic discs were divided into 4 groups according to the internal adjustment of the cementation surface: no adjustments (CTRL); adjustment with a medium (M), fine (F), or extra fine (FF) diamond bur. Dentin-like material discs were also produced. Ceramic disc intaglio surfaces were etched (5% hydrofluoric acid; 20s) and received a silane coating. Dentin-like material discs were etched (10% hydrofluoric acid; 1min) and received a primer coating. Pairs of ceramic/dentin-like material were adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix), and fatigue failure load tests were performed using the Staircase approach (250,000 cycles; 20Hz). Roughness, topographic and fractographic analyses were performed. Statistical analyses were carried out through ANOVA tests. RESULTS: All ground groups (M=521.3 N; F=536.9 N; FF=676.2 N) presented lower fatigue failure load values than the control (1241.6 N). M diamond bur created a rougher surface than F (Ra and Rz parameters). However, FF was similar to F and M for Ra, and similar to F for Rz. SIGNIFICANCE: Bur adjustments on the intaglio surface of simplified lithium disilicate ceramic restorations greatly decreased the fatigue failure load even using an extra-fine diamond bur. Care should be taken when internal adjustments are needed.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária/métodos , Porcelana Dentária/química , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Cerâmica/química , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Materiais Dentários , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina/química , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 32: e53, 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898029

RESUMO

This in vitro study evaluated the fatigue strength of different ceramic materials indicated for monolithic restorations. Disc-shaped specimens were made according to ISO 6872 from five different ceramic materials: feldspathic ceramic (FC), polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PIC), lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD), zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic (ZLS), and high translucent tetragonal zirconia polycrystals doped by yttrium (YZ-HT). After obtaining the mean of each material (n = 5) from monotonic load-to-failure tests, specimens (n = 20) were subjected to fatigue tests (staircase method) using a biaxial flexural setup (piston-on-three-balls), to determine the fatigue strength. The parameters used for fatigue tests were: 100,000 cycles at 10 Hz, initial load of ~ 60% of mean load-to-failure, and step size of 5% of the initial load (specific for each ceramic material). Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni's test (α = 0.05) were used to analyze the fatigue strength data. Fatigue strength (MPa) of the materials was statistically different among each other as follows: YZ-HT (370.2 ± 38.7) > LD (175.2 ± 7.5) > ZLS (152.1 ± 7.5) > PIC (81.8 ± 3.9) > FC (50.8 ± 1.9). Thus, it can be concluded that, in terms of fatigue, high translucent polycrystalline zirconia is the best choice for monolithic restorations as it bears the highest load before cracking/fracturing.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Estresse Mecânico , Porcelana Dentária/química , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Maleabilidade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Zircônio/química
20.
Dent Mater ; 34(8): 1134-1143, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of different glass-ceramic surface treatments and aging on the fatigue failure load of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue material. METHODS: One hundred and twenty (120) disc-shaped lithium disilicate specimens (Ø=10mm, thickness=1.5mm) were produced and randomly allocated (n=20) into 6 groups, considering 2 study factors: "surface treatment" in 3 levels (SIL-silane application only; HF5+SIL-5% hydrofluoric acid etching and silane application; ME&P-etching with an one-step ceramic primer), and "storage" in 2 levels (baseline-storage for 7 days; aging-storage for 90 days+12,000 thermal cycles). Ceramic discs were adhesively cemented to discs of a dentin analogue material (Ø=10mm, thickness=2.0mm) following the manufacturers' instructions. The fatigue failure load was determined by the staircase approach (250,000 cycles; 20Hz; initial load=1050N [∼70% of mean load-to-failure]; step size=52.5N [5% of initial load]). Micro-morphologic, fractographic, and atomic force microscope analysis were also performed. Fatigue failure load data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni and t-tests for independent samples. RESULTS: HF5+SIL presented higher fatigue failure load in both conditions (baseline and aging); ME&P presented intermediary mean values, while the SIL group presented the worst performance. All groups had a statistically significant decrease in the fatigue performance after aging. SIGNIFICANCE: Hydrofluoric acid followed by silane application showed the best fatigue performance for an adhesively-cemented lithium disilicate ceramic. Aging negatively influenced the fatigue performance for all tested groups.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Cerâmica/química , Porcelana Dentária/química , Difosfatos/química , Etanol/química , Metacrilatos/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Cimentos de Resina , Silanos/química , Propriedades de Superfície
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