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1.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784782

RESUMO

Background: Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Methods: To provide a real-world experience with anti-PD-1/PD-L1-based therapy in UTUC patients, we involved an Italian network in a multicenter retrospective analysis. Results: A total of 78 UTUC patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 25.1 months. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.2 months (95% CI 1.8-2.6), and the median OS (mOS) was 6.0 months (95% CI 3.6-8.4). The Sonpavde score (including performance status > 0, hemoglobin < 10 g/dl, liver metastases, time from prior chemotherapy ≥ 3 months) split the patients into three groups (0 vs 1 vs 2-4 factors), efficiently predicting the OS and PFS outcome at the multivariate analyses (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of unselected UTUC patients is still unsatisfactory. The Sonpavde score was validated for the first time in an UTUC population, as a useful tool for the treatment decision-making process.

2.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior antiangiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The postprogression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5%, and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2, or >2 prior treatment, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48-0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.

3.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab showed an overall survival (OS) benefit in pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The role of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in mRCC remains to be defined. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBRT in combination with nivolumab in second- and third-line mRCC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The NIVES study was a phase II, single-arm, multicenter trial in patients with mRCC with measurable metastatic sites who progressed after antiangiogenic therapy, of whom at least one was suitable for SBRT. INTERVENTION: The patients received SBRT to a lesion at a dose of 10 Gy in three fractions for 7 d from the first infusion of nivolumab. Nivolumab was given at an initial dose of 240 mg every 14 d for 6 mo and then 480 mg q4-weekly in responding patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We hypothesized that nivolumab plus SBRT improves the objective response rate (ORR) compared with nivolumab alone from 25% (derived from historical controls) to 40%. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), OS, disease control rate (DCR) of irradiated and nonirradiated metastases, and safety. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from July 2017 to March 2019. The ORR was 17% and the DCR was 55%. The median PFS was 5.6 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1) and median OS 20 mo (95% CI, 17-not reached). After 1.5 yr of follow-up, 23 patients died. The median time to treatment response was 2.8 mo and median duration of response was 14 mo. No new safety concerns arose. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find sufficient evidence to suggest that nivolumab in combination with SBRT provides an added benefit in pretreated mRCC patients; it should however be evaluated in patients with oligometastatic or oligoprogressive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Nivolumab in combination with stereotactic body radiotherapy does not provide evidence of increased outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. However this approach was safe and showed a good response of the irradiated lesions.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128667, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648011

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with cancer who would benefit from psychosocial care do not receive it. Implementation strategies may favor the integration of psychosocial care into practice and improve patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Humanization in Cancer Care (HuCare) Quality Improvement Strategy vs standard care as improvement of at least 1 of 2 domains (emotional or social function) of patient health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months. A key secondary aim included investigation of the long-term effect. Design, Setting, and Participants: HuCare2 was a multicenter, incomplete, stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, conducted from May 30, 2016, to August 28, 2019, in three 5-center clusters of cancer centers representative of hospital size and geographic location in Italy. The study was divided into 5 equally spaced epochs. Implementation sequence was defined by a blinded statistician; the nature of the intervention precluded blinding for clinical staff. Participants included consecutive adult outpatients with newly diagnosed cancer of any type and stage starting medical cancer treatment. Interventions: The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy comprised (1) clinician communication training, (2) on-site visits for context analysis and problem-solving, and (3) implementation of 6 evidence-based recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference between the means of changes of individual scores in emotional or social functions of health-related quality of life detected at baseline and 3-month follow-up (within each group) and during the postintervention epoch compared with control periods (between groups). Long-term effect of the intervention (at 12 months) was assessed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: A total of 762 patients (475 [62.3%] women) were enrolled (400 HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy and 362 usual care); mean (SD) age was 61.4 (13.1) years. The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved emotional function during treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .008) but not social function (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09; P = .80). Effect on emotional function persisted at 12 months (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved the emotional function aspect of health-related quality of life during cancer treatment and at 12 months, indicating a change in clinician behavior and in ward organization. These findings support the need for strategies to introduce psychosocial care; however, more research is needed on factors that may maximize the effects. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03008993.

5.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

Background: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. Objective: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. Design setting and participants: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. Results and limitation: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. Conclusion: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

6.
Oncology ; 99(12): 747-755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tivozanib is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3, recently approved in Europe for the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of safety and activity of tivozanib administered at 1.34 mg daily (3 weeks on, 1 week off) within a compassionate-use program to patients with mRCC with no prior systemic treatment in Italy. RESULTS: From August 2018 to April 2019, 64 patients have started tivozanib in 9 oncology units. The median age was 67.5 years (range 40-85), 62.5% males. According to International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria, 27.1% of patients were good prognosis, 57.6% intermediate, and 15.3% poor. Primary tumor had been removed in 71.9% of patients. Histology was clear cell 89%, papillary 4.7%, and unclassified 6.3%. The response rate was 34.4%, stable disease 40.6%, and progression 15.6%. Grade 3-4 toxicities were 7.8% hypertension, 4.7% anemia, 3.1% mucositis, 3.1% asthenia, 1.6% diarrhea, 1.6% anorexia, 1.6% worsening of renal function, and 3.1% cardiac events. Dose reduction to 0.89 mg was applied to 17.2% of patients, and the discontinuation rate due to toxicity was 5.8%. Median progression-free survival was 12.4 months, with 68.7% of patients alive at 12 months. The developing of hypertension predicted increased progression-free survival at multivariate analysis (HR, 0.128; 95% CI, 0.03-0.59; p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Tivozanib showed good activity and favorable safety profile in a real-world cohort of unselected patients with mRCC. Predictive biomarkers of response to antiangiogenic therapy are urgently needed in order to identify RCC patients who could still receive a monotherapy with VEGFR inhibitors in the first line.

7.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 328, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs) develop in 10-27% of patients treated with Immune-Oncology (IO) [Powles (Lancet 391:748-757, 2018); Galsky (Lancet 395:1547-1557, 2020); Haanen (Ann Oncol 28:119-142, 2017)]. The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and clinical outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients who stopped Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) due to early Grade (G) 3-G4 irAEs. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 204 mRCC patients treated with ICIs in 6 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro group, between February 2017 and January 2020. To properly weight the results, patients who did not report early G3-G4 toxicities have been included as control group. Primary endpoint was to evaluate 6 months Progression Free Survival (PFS) after early treatment interruption for Grade (G) 3-4 toxicities compared to the control group. Secondary endpoints were to evaluate Time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS) in both groups. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 19.00, SPSS, Chicago). RESULTS: 18/204 (8.8%) patients had early treatment interruption for serious (G3-G4) irAEs. Early was defined as interruption of IO after only one or two administrations. Immune related nephritis and pancreatitis were the most common irAE that lead to treatment interruption. 6/18 patients received IO-IO combination whereas 12/18 patients antiPD1. In the study group, 12/18 (66.6%) were free from progression at 6 months since IO interruption, TTF was 1.6 months (95% CI 1.6-2.1), mPFS was 7.4 months (95% CI 3.16-11.6) and mOS was 15.5 months (5.1-25.8). In the control group 111/184 (60.3%) patients were free from progression at 6 months, TTF was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6), mPFS was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). In the overall population, mPFS was 5.0 months (95% CI 4.0-5.9) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). CONCLUSIONS: ICIs seem to maintain efficacy even after early interruption due to severe irAE.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359706

RESUMO

Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC) comprise several rare and poorly described diseases, often characterized by bad prognosis and with no standard treatments available. The gap in their clinical management is linked to the poor molecular characterization in handling the treatment of non clear-cell RCC with untailored therapies. Due to their rarity, non-clear RCC are in fact under-represented in prospective randomized trials. Thus, treatment choices are based on extrapolating results from clear cell RCC trials, retrospective data, or case reports. Over the last two decades, various options have been considered as the mainstay for the treatment of metastatic RCC (mRCC), including angiogenesis inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), as well as MET inhibitors and mammalian targeting of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. More recently, the therapeutic armamentarium has been enriched with immunotherapy, alone or in combination with targeted agents that have been shown to significantly improve outcomes of mRCC patients, if compared to TKI single-agent. It has been widely proven that non-clear cell RCC is a morphologically and clinically distinct entity from its clear cell counterpart but more knowledge about its biology is certainly needed. Histology-specific collaborative trials are in fact now emerging to investigate different treatments for non-clear cell RCC. This review summarizes pathogenetic mechanisms of non-clear cell RCC, the evolution of treatment paradigms over the last few decades, with a focus on immunotherapy-based trials, and future potential treatment options.

10.
Tumori ; : 3008916211037732, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To give an updated overview on clinical aspects and survival effects of lutetium-177-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) (177Lu-PSMA) radioligand therapy (RLT), a novel treatment option for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for relevant articles published up to March 2021. The search was restricted to English-language articles. RESULTS: Current evidence from the literature consistently demonstrated the efficacy, safety, and survival benefit of 177Lu-PSMA RLT in mCRPC. However, current data rely predominantly on retrospective analyses, showing heterogeneity of patient population and treatment protocols. More recently, results from the first randomized phase II study (TheraP) demonstrated that 177Lu-PMSA therapy significantly improved prostate-specific antigen response rate (66% vs 37%) and had fewer grade 3/4 adverse events when compared to cabazitaxel in patients with docetaxel-pretreated, progressive mCRPC. This review is intended to provide an updated overview of treatment protocols and responses, toxicity profile, and survival effects of 177Lu-PSMA RLT. CONCLUSIONS: 177Lu-PSMA RLT has emerged as a promising targeted treatment in mCRPC. It is currently applied in compassionate use programs and following exhaustion of approved therapies. Crucial for establishing this treatment in routine clinical management will be the results of the phase III VISION trial, which may confirm the encouraging patient outcomes reported to date.

11.
Target Oncol ; 16(5): 625-632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a highly aggressive form of kidney cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers. Overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: We collected data from 66 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma receiving cabozantinib as second-line (51%) or third-line (49%) therapy. The median progression-free survival from the start of cabozantinib was 7.59 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.75-17.49) and was longer in male patients (8.81 vs 5.95 months, p = 0.042) and in patients without bone metastases (7.59 vs 5.11 months, p = 0.010); the median overall survival was 9.11 months (95% CI 7.13-23.80). At the multivariate analysis, female sex (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.046), bone metastases (hazard ratio = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.10, p = 0.005), and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (hazard ratio = 3.04; 95% CI 1.54-5.99, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that cabozantinib is active in pretreated patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Biomarkers are needed in this field to select patients for multi-kinase inhibitors or other options.

12.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211021667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290538

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently the standard of care for metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) after the failure of previous platinum-based chemotherapy. The choice of further therapy after ICI progression is a new challenge, and scarce data support it. We aimed to examine the outcomes of mUC patients after progression to ICI, especially when receiving chemotherapy. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of mUC patients whose disease progressed to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy at 14 Italian centers. Patients were grouped according to ICI therapy setting into SALVAGE (ie, ICI delivered ⩾ second-line therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy) and NAÏVE (ie, first-line therapy) groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared among subgroups. Cox regression assessed the effect of treatments after progression to ICI on OS. Objective response rate (ORR) was calculated as the sum of partial and complete radiologic responses. Results: The study population consisted of 201 mUC patients who progressed after ICI: 59 in the NAÏVE cohort and 142 in the SALVAGE cohort. Overall, 52 patients received chemotherapy after ICI progression (25.9%), 20 (9.9%) received ICI beyond progression, 115 (57.2%) received best supportive care only, and 14 (7.0%) received investigational drugs. Objective response rate to chemotherapy in the post-ICI setting was 23.1% (28.0% in the NAÏVE group and 18.5% in the SALVAGE group). Median PFS and OS to chemotherapy after ICI-PD was 5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-11) and 13 months (95% CI: 7-NA) for the NAÏVE group; 3 months (95% CI: 2-NA) and 9 months (95% CI: 6-NA) for the SALVAGE group, respectively. Overall survival from ICI initiation was 17 months for patients receiving chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.09, p < 0.001), versus 8 months for patients receiving ICI beyond progression (HR = 0.13, p < 0.001), and 2 months for patients who did not receive further active treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chemotherapy administered after ICI progression for mUC patients is advisable irrespective of the treatment line.

13.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211022870, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211586

RESUMO

Currently, conventional treatments for metastatic RCC (mRCC) include immune-based combination regimens and/or targeted therapies, the latter mainly acting on angiogenesis, a key element of the process of tumor growth and spread. Although these agents proved able to improve patients' outcomes, drug resistance and disease progression are still experienced by a substantial number of VEGFR-TKIs-treated mRCC patients. Following the inhibition of the VEGF/VEGFRs axis, two strategies have emerged: either specifically targeting resistance pathways, at the same time continuing to inhibit angiogenesis, or using a completely different approach aimed at re-activating the immune system through the use of inhibitors of specific negative immune checkpoints. These two approaches, practically represented by the use of either cabozantinib or nivolumab, seem to remain a rational therapeutic approach also when first-line immune-based combinations are used. The objective of this study is to design a preferential therapeutic pathway for the second-line treatment of mRCC. The procedure applied in this project was a group discussion, based on the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method in a meeting session, aimed at defining the therapeutic choice for the second-line treatment of mRCC. The NGT process defined the most relevant parameters that, according to the interviewed panelists, clinicians should consider for the selection of the second-line therapy in the context of advanced renal cell carcinoma of mRCC. The algorithm developed for the treatment selection as a result of this process should thus be considered by clinicians as reference for therapy selection. Plain language summary: The result of this paper was the definition of an algorithm intended to suggest a preferential therapeutic pathway considering both the outputs of the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) process and the actual clinical practice and the experience of selected panelists. During the NGT process and the discussion phase, panelists defined the most important parameters to be included in the algorithm that are important for the treatment definition. Cabozantinib and nivolumab are identified as the most reasonable therapeutic options for patients progressing after first-line treatment and are the medication options included in the algorithm for therapy selection.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200770

RESUMO

Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare and highly aggressive kidney cancer subtype with poor prognosis and no standard treatments. To date, only a few studies have examined the transcriptomic portrait of CDC. Through integration of multiple datasets, we compared CDC to normal tissue, upper-tract urothelial carcinomas, and other renal cancers, including clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe histologies. Association between CDC gene expression signatures and in vitro drug sensitivity data was evaluated using the Cancer Therapeutic Response Portal, Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer datasets, and connectivity map. We identified a CDC-specific gene signature that predicted in vitro sensitivity to different targeted agents and was associated to worse outcome in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We showed that CDC are transcriptionally related to the principal cells of the collecting ducts providing evidence that this tumor originates from this normal kidney cell type. Finally, we proved that CDC is a molecularly heterogeneous disease composed of at least two subtypes distinguished by cell signaling, metabolic and immune-related alterations. Our findings elucidate the molecular features of CDC providing novel biological and clinical insights. The identification of distinct CDC subtypes and their transcriptomic traits provides the rationale for patient stratification and alternative therapeutic approaches.

15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 682449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168997

RESUMO

Background: Immune-Oncology (IO) improves Overall Survival (OS) in metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic impact of previous Cytoreductive Nephrectomy (CN) and radical nephrectomy (RN), with curative intent, in patients treated with IO is not well defined. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the impact of previous nephrectomy on outcome of mRCC patients treated with IO. Methods: 287 eligible patients were retrospectively collected from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the MeetUro association. Patients treated with IO as second and third line were included, whereas patients treated with IO as first line were excluded. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were performed to compare Progression Free Survival (PFS) and OS between groups. In our analysis, both CN and RN were included. The association between nephrectomy and other variables was analyzed in univariate and multivariate setting using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: 246/287 (85.7%) patients had nephrectomy before IO treatment. Median PFS in patients who underwent nephrectomy (246/287) was 4.8 months (95%CI 3.9-5.7) vs 3.7 months (95%CI 1.9-5.5) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.78; 95%CI 0.53 to 1.15; p = 0.186). Median OS in patients who had previous nephrectomy (246/287) was 20.9 months (95%CI 17.6-24.1) vs 13 months (95%CI 7.7-18.2) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.504; 95%CI 0.337 to 0.755; p = 0.001). In the multivariate model, nephrectomy showed a significant association with OS (HR log rank 0.638; 95%CI 0.416 to 0.980), whereas gland metastases were still associated with better outcome in terms of both OS (HR log rank 0.487; 95%CI 0.279 to 0.852) and PFS (HR log rank 0.646; 95%CI 0.435 to 0.958). Conclusions: IO treatment, in patients who had previously undergone nephrectomy, was associated with a better outcome in terms of OS. Further prospective trials would assess this issue in order to guide clinicians in real word practice.

16.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(6): e434, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with standard therapies is becoming a common approach for overcoming resistance to cancer immunotherapy in most human malignancies including metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In this regard, insights into the immunomodulatory properties of antiangiogenic agents may help designing multidrug schedules based on specific immune synergisms. METHODS: We used orthogonal transcriptomic and phenotyping platforms combined with functional analytic pipelines to elucidate the immunomodulatory effect of the antiangiogenic agent pazopanib in mRCC patients. Nine patients were studied longitudinally over a period of 6 months. We also analyzed transcriptional data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RCC cohort (N = 571) to assess the prognostic implications of our findings. The effect of pazopanib was assessed in vitro on NK cells and T cells. Additionally, myeloid-derived suppressor (MDSC)-like cells were generated from CD14+ monocytes transfected with mimics of miRNAs associated with MDSC function in the presence or absence of pazopanib. RESULTS: Pazopanib administration caused a rapid and dramatic reshaping in terms of frequency and transcriptional activity of multiple blood immune cell subsets, with a downsizing of MDSC and regulatory T cells in favor of a strong enhancement in PD-1 expressing cytotoxic T and Natural Killer effectors. These changes were paired with an increase of the expression of transcripts reflecting activation of immune-effector functions. This immunomodulation was marked but transient, peaking at the third month of treatment. Moreover, the intratumoral expression level of a MDSC signature (MDSC INT) was strongly associated with poor prognosis in RCC patients. In vitro experiments indicate that the observed immunomodulation might be due to an inhibitory effect on MDSC-mediated suppression, rather than a direct effect on NK and T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The marked but transient nature of this immunomodulation, peaking at the third month of treatment, provides the rationale for the use of antiangiogenics as a preconditioning strategy to improve the efficacy of ICB.

17.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

18.
Future Oncol ; 17(9): 1097-1104, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538178

RESUMO

We presented the rationale for the use of thymosin α1 as prophylaxis of severe COVID-19 in cancer patients undergoing active treatment, constituting the background for the PROTHYMOS study, a prospective, multicenter, open-label, Phase II randomized study, currently in its start-up phase (Eudract no. 2020-006020-13). We aim to offer new hope for this incurable disease, especially to frail patient population, such as patients with cancer. The hypothesis of an effective prophylactic approach to COVID-19 would have immediate clinical relevance, especially given the lack of curative approaches. Moreover, in the 'COVID-19 vaccine race era' both clinical and biological results coming from the PROTHYMOS trials could even support the rationale for future combinatorial approaches, trying to rise vaccine efficacy in frail individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Timalfasina/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(3): 121-125, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to collect data about of the outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients who progressed after immune checkpoint inhibitors in order to enhance data about efficacy and safety of treatment beyond immune-oncology (IO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 162 eligible patients, progressing to IO, were enrolled from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro association. Baseline characteristics, outcome data and toxicities were retrospectively collected. Descriptive analysis was made using median values and ranges. Kaplan-Meier method and Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test were performed to compare differences between groups. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients (68.5%) were treated after IO progression. In all, 51 patients (31.5%) did not receive further treatment for clinical deterioration. Median IO progression free survival (PFS) was 4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.1-4.8). IO-PFS tends to be longer in patients reporting adverse events (AE) of any grade (5.03 [95% CI: 3.8-6.1] vs. 2.99 [95% CI: 2.4-3.5] months P=0.004). Subsequent therapies included cabozantinib (n=79, 48%), everolimus (n=11, 6.7%), and others (n=21, 12.9%).Median PFS post-IO was 6.5 months (95% CI: 5.1-7.8). Cabozantinib showed longer PFS compared with everolimus (7.6 mo [95% CI: 5.2-10.1] vs. 3.2 mo [95% CI: 1.8-4.5]) (hazard ratio: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1026-0.7968) and other drugs (4.3 mo [95% CI: 1.3-7.4]) (hazard ratio: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.35-1.23). All grade AE were reported in 83 patients (74%) and G3 to G4 AE in 39 patients (35%). Target therapies post-IO showed median overall survival of 14.7 months (95% CI: 0.3-21.4). CONCLUSIONS: In our real world experience after progression to IO, vascular endotelial groth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, given to patients, proved to be active and safe choices. Cabozantinib was associated with a better outcome in terms of median PFS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
N Engl J Med ; 384(14): 1289-1300, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenvatinib in combination with pembrolizumab or everolimus has activity against advanced renal cell carcinoma. The efficacy of these regimens as compared with that of sunitinib is unclear. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1 ratio) patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and no previous systemic therapy to receive lenvatinib (20 mg orally once daily) plus pembrolizumab (200 mg intravenously once every 3 weeks), lenvatinib (18 mg orally once daily) plus everolimus (5 mg orally once daily), or sunitinib (50 mg orally once daily, alternating 4 weeks receiving treatment and 2 weeks without treatment). The primary end point was progression-free survival, as assessed by an independent review committee in accordance with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Overall survival and safety were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 1069 patients were randomly assigned to receive lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab (355 patients), lenvatinib plus everolimus (357), or sunitinib (357). Progression-free survival was longer with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab than with sunitinib (median, 23.9 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.49; P<0.001) and was longer with lenvatinib plus everolimus than with sunitinib (median, 14.7 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.80; P<0.001). Overall survival was longer with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab than with sunitinib (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88; P = 0.005) but was not longer with lenvatinib plus everolimus than with sunitinib (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.50; P = 0.30). Grade 3 or higher adverse events emerged or worsened during treatment in 82.4% of the patients who received lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab, 83.1% of those who received lenvatinib plus everolimus, and 71.8% of those who received sunitinib. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurring in at least 10% of the patients in any group included hypertension, diarrhea, and elevated lipase levels. CONCLUSIONS: Lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival than sunitinib. (Funded by Eisai and Merck Sharp and Dohme; CLEAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02811861.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida
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