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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788810

RESUMO

Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Identifying associations between gene expression levels and cIMT may provide insight to atherosclerosis etiology. Here, we use two approaches to identify associations between mRNA levels and cIMT: differential gene expression analysis in whole blood and S-PrediXcan. We used microarrays to measure genome-wide whole blood mRNA levels of 5647 European individuals from four studies. We examined the association of mRNA levels with cIMT adjusted for various potential confounders. Significant associations were tested for replication in three studies totaling 3943 participants. Next, we applied S-PrediXcan to summary statistics from a cIMT genome-wide association study of 71 128 individuals to estimate the association between genetically determined mRNA levels and cIMT and replicated these analyses using S-PrediXcan on an independent genome-wide association study on cIMT that included 22 179 individuals from the UK Biobank. mRNA levels of TNFAIP3, CEBPD, and METRNL were inversely associated with cIMT, but these associations were not significant in the replication analysis. S-PrediXcan identified associations between cIMT and genetically determined mRNA levels for 36 genes, of which six were significant in the replication analysis, including TLN2, which had not been previously reported for cIMT. There was weak correlation between our results using differential gene expression analysis and S-PrediXcan. Differential expression analysis and S-PrediXcan represent complementary approaches for the discovery of associations between phenotypes and gene expression. Using these approaches, we prioritize TNFAIP3, CEBPD, METRNL, and TLN2 as new candidate genes whose differential expression might modulate cIMT.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14397, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750991

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disorders are clinically and genetically diverse, with isolated complex III (CIII) deficiency being relatively rare. Here, we describe two affected cousins, presenting with recurrent episodes of severe lactic acidosis, hyperammonaemia, hypoglycaemia and encephalopathy. Genetic investigations in both cases identified a homozygous deletion of exons 2 and 3 of UQCRH, which encodes a structural complex III (CIII) subunit. We generated a mouse model with the equivalent homozygous Uqcrh deletion (Uqcrh-/- ), which also presented with lactic acidosis and hyperammonaemia, but had a more severe, non-episodic phenotype, resulting in failure to thrive and early death. The biochemical phenotypes observed in patient and Uqcrh-/- mouse tissues were remarkably similar, displaying impaired CIII activity, decreased molecular weight of fully assembled holoenzyme and an increase of an unexpected large supercomplex (SXL ), comprising mostly of one complex I (CI) dimer and one CIII dimer. This phenotypic similarity along with lentiviral rescue experiments in patient fibroblasts verifies the pathogenicity of the shared genetic defect, demonstrating that the Uqcrh-/- mouse is a valuable model for future studies of human CIII deficiency.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681740

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA deletions affect energy metabolism at tissue-specific and cell-specific threshold levels, but the pathophysiological mechanisms determining cell fate remain poorly understood. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is caused by mtDNA deletions and characterized by a mosaic distribution of muscle fibers with defective cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity, interspersed among fibers with retained functional respiratory chain. We used diagnostic histochemistry to distinguish COX-negative from COX-positive fibers in nine muscle biopsies from CPEO patients and performed laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled to genome-wide gene expression analysis. To gain molecular insight into the pathogenesis, we applied network and pathway analysis to highlight molecular differences of the COX-positive and COX-negative fiber transcriptome. We then integrated our results with proteomics data that we previously obtained comparing COX-positive and COX-negative fiber sections from three other patients. By virtue of the combination of LCM and a multi-omics approach, we here provide a comprehensive resource to tackle the pathogenic changes leading to progressive respiratory chain deficiency and disease in mitochondrial deletion syndromes. Our data show that COX-negative fibers upregulate transcripts involved in translational elongation and protein synthesis. Furthermore, based on functional annotation analysis, we find that mitochondrial transcripts are the most enriched among those with significantly different expression between COX-positive and COX-negative fibers, indicating that our unbiased large-scale approach resolves the core of the pathogenic changes. Further enrichments include transcripts encoding LIM domain proteins, ubiquitin ligases, proteins involved in RNA turnover, and, interestingly, cell cycle arrest and cell death. These pathways may thus have a functional association to the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. Overall, the transcriptome and proteome show a low degree of correlation in CPEO patients, suggesting a relevant contribution of post-transcriptional mechanisms in shaping this disease phenotype.

4.
Mitochondrion ; 62: 13-23, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656796

RESUMO

Leigh syndrome (LS) is one of the most common mitochondrial diseases in children, for which at least 90 causative genes have been identified. However, many LS patients have no genetic diagnosis, indicating that more disease-related genes remain to be identified. In this study, we identified a novel variant, m.3955G > A, in mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) in two unrelated LS patients, manifesting as infancy-onset frequent seizures, neurodegeneration, elevated lactate levels, and bilateral symmetrical lesions in the brainstem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Transfer of the mutant mtDNA with m.3955G > A into cybrids disturbed the MT-ND1 expression and CI assembly, followed by remarkable mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential reduction. Our findings demonstrated the pathogenicity of the novel m.3955G > A variant, and extend the spectrum of pathogenic mtDNA variants.

5.
Clin Genet ; 100(6): 766-770, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490615

RESUMO

Neurological symptoms are frequent and often a leading feature of childhood-onset mitochondrial disorders (MD) but the exact incidence of MD in unselected neuropediatric patients is unknown. Their early detection is desirable due to a potentially rapid clinical decline and the availability of management options. In 491 children with neurological symptoms, a comprehensive diagnostic work-up including exome sequencing was performed. The success rate in terms of a molecular genetic diagnosis within our cohort was 51%. Disease-causing variants in a mitochondria-associated gene were detected in 12% of solved cases. In order to facilitate the clinical identification of MDs within neuropediatric cohorts, we have created an easy-to-use bedside-tool, the MDC-NP. In our cohort, the MDC-NP predicted disease conditions related to MDs with a sensitivity of 0.83, and a specificity of 0.96.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360601

RESUMO

Mutations in the SPATA5 gene are associated with epilepsy, hearing loss and mental retardation syndrome (EHLMRS). While SPATA5 is ubiquitously expressed and is attributed a role within mitochondrial morphogenesis during spermatogenesis, there is only limited knowledge about the associated muscular and molecular pathology. This study reports on a comprehensive workup of muscular pathology, including proteomic profiling and microscopic studies, performed on an 8-year-old girl with typical clinical presentation of EHLMRS, where exome analysis revealed two clinically relevant, compound-heterozygous variants in SPATA5. Proteomic profiling of a quadriceps biopsy showed the dysregulation of 82 proteins, out of which 15 were localized in the mitochondrion, while 19 were associated with diseases presenting with phenotypical overlap to EHLMRS. Histological staining of our patient's muscle biopsy hints towards mitochondrial pathology, while the identification of dysregulated proteins attested to the vulnerability of the cell beyond the mitochondria. Through our study we provide insights into the molecular etiology of EHLMRS and provide further evidence for a muscle pathology associated with SPATA5 deficiency, including a pathological histochemical pattern accompanied by dysregulated protein expression.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Mutação , Proteoma/metabolismo , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/deficiência , Criança , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Perda Auditiva/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/complicações , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Síndrome
7.
Bone Rep ; 15: 101110, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381850

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited genetic disorder characterized by frequent bone fractures and reduced bone mass. Most cases of OI are caused by dominantly inherited heterozygous mutations in one of the two genes encoding type I collagen, COL1A1 and COL1A2. Here we describe a five-year-old boy with typical clinical, radiological and bone ultrastructural features of OI type I. Establishing the molecular genetic cause of his condition proved difficult since clinical exome and whole exome analysis was repeatedly reported negative. Finally, manual analysis of exome data revealed a silent COL1A2 variant c.3597 T > A (NM_000089.4), which we demonstrate activates a cryptic splice site. The newly generated splice acceptor in exon 50 is much more accessible than the wild-type splice-site between the junction of exon 49 and 50, and results in an in-frame deletion of 24 amino acids of the C-terminal propeptide. In vitro collagen expression studies confirmed cellular accumulation and decreased COL1A2 secretion to 45%. This is the first report of a cryptic splice site within the coding region of COL1A2. which results in abnormal splicing causing OI. The experience from this case demonstrates that routine diagnostic approaches may miss cryptic splicing mutations in causative genes due to the lack of universally applicable algorithms for splice-site prediction. In exome-negative cases, in-depth analysis of common causative genes should be conducted and trio-exome analysis is recommended.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(8): 1781-1793, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386911

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic NBAS variants manifest as a multisystem disorder with heterogeneous clinical phenotypes such as recurrent acute liver failure, growth retardation, and susceptibility to infections. This study explores how NBAS-associated disease affects cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory parameters were combined with functional multi-parametric immunophenotyping methods in fifteen NBAS-deficient patients to discover possible alterations in their immune system. RESULTS: Our study revealed reduced absolute numbers of mature CD56dim natural killer (NK) cells. Notably, the residual NK cell population in NBAS-deficient patients exerted a lower potential for activation and degranulation in response to K562 target cells, suggesting an NK cell-intrinsic role for NBAS in the release of cytotoxic granules. NBAS-deficient NK cell activation and degranulation was normalized upon pre-activation by IL-2 in vitro, suggesting that functional impairment was reversible. In addition, we observed a reduced number of naïve B cells in the peripheral blood associated with hypogammaglobulinemia. CONCLUSION: In summary, we demonstrate that pathogenic biallelic variants in NBAS are associated with dysfunctional NK cells as well as impaired adaptive humoral immunity.

9.
Front Genet ; 12: 685035, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322155

RESUMO

Objective: The cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor 7 (COA7) gene encodes a protein localized to mitochondria that is involved in the assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV. Here, we report the clinical, genetic and biochemical analysis of a female patient with suspected mitochondrial disorder and novel variants in COA7, that presented with a considerably different phenotype and age of onset than the five COA7 patients reported to date. Methods: We performed trio-exome sequencing in the affected patient and both parents. To verify the pathogenicity of the detected variants in COA7, mitochondrial enzyme activities and oxygen consumption rate were investigated in fibroblasts of the patient and her parents. Results: A Chinese girl was referred at 9 months of age with a history of developmental delay and regression since 3 months of age. In the following months, she lost previously acquired skills and developed progressive spasticity of the lower extremities. Trio-exome sequencing revealed compound heterzygous variants in COA7 (c.511G > A/p.Ala171Thr and c.566A > G/p.Asn189Ser). Functional validation experiments revealed isolated complex IV deficiency and a significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration rate in patient-derived fibroblasts. Interpretation: Hitherto, characteristic features of COA7 patients were described as slowly progressing neuropathy and spinocerebellar ataxia, starting at the toddler age and progressing into adulthood. In contrast, our patient was reported to show developmental delay from 3 months of age, which was found to be due to a rapidly progressive encephalopathy and brain atrophy seen at 9 months of age. Unexpectedly, the genetic investigation revealed a COA7-associated mitochondrial disease, which was confirmed functionally. Thus, this report broadens the genetic and clinical spectrum of this heterogeneous mitochondriopathy and highlights the value of the presented unbiased approach.

10.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 666, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079053

RESUMO

Calcium dynamics control synaptic transmission. Calcium triggers synaptic vesicle fusion, determines release probability, modulates vesicle recycling, participates in long-term plasticity and regulates cellular metabolism. Mitochondria, the main source of cellular energy, serve as calcium signaling hubs. Mitochondrial calcium transients are primarily determined by the balance between calcium influx, mediated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and calcium efflux through the sodium/lithium/calcium exchanger (NCLX). We identified a human recessive missense SLC8B1 variant that impairs NCLX activity and is associated with severe mental retardation. On this basis, we examined the effect of deleting NCLX in mice on mitochondrial and synaptic calcium homeostasis, synaptic activity, and plasticity. Neuronal mitochondria exhibited basal calcium overload, membrane depolarization, and a reduction in the amplitude and rate of calcium influx and efflux. We observed smaller cytoplasmic calcium transients in the presynaptic terminals of NCLX-KO neurons, leading to a lower probability of release and weaker transmission. In agreement, synaptic facilitation in NCLX-KO hippocampal slices was enhanced. Importantly, deletion of NCLX abolished long term potentiation of Schaffer collateral synapses. Our results show that NCLX controls presynaptic calcium transients that are crucial for defining synaptic strength as well as short- and long-term plasticity, key elements of learning and memory processes.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/genética , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Proteínas Mitocondriais/deficiência , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/metabolismo , Linhagem , Mutação Puntual , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/química , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
12.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 647277, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141720

RESUMO

Rare diseases, although individually rare, collectively affect approximately 350 million people worldwide. Currently, nearly 6,000 distinct rare disorders with a known molecular basis have been described, yet establishing a specific diagnosis based on the clinical phenotype is challenging. Increasing integration of whole exome sequencing into routine diagnostics of rare diseases is improving diagnostic rates. Nevertheless, about half of the patients do not receive a genetic diagnosis due to the challenges of variant detection and interpretation. During the last years, RNA sequencing is increasingly used as a complementary diagnostic tool providing functional data. Initially, arbitrary thresholds have been applied to call aberrant expression, aberrant splicing, and mono-allelic expression. With the application of RNA sequencing to search for the molecular diagnosis, the implementation of robust statistical models on normalized read counts allowed for the detection of significant outliers corrected for multiple testing. More recently, machine learning methods have been developed to improve the normalization of RNA sequencing read count data by taking confounders into account. Together the methods have increased the power and sensitivity of detection and interpretation of pathogenic variants, leading to diagnostic rates of 10-35% in rare diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the methods used for RNA sequencing and illustrate how these can improve the diagnostic yield of rare diseases.

13.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; (Forthcoming)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial disorders are among the most common heritable diseases, with an overall lifetime risk of approximately one in 1500. Nonetheless, their diagnosis is often missed because of their extreme phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective literature search on the clinical features, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial diseases. RESULTS: Pathogenic defects of energy metabolism have been described to date in over 400 genes. Only a small number of these genes lie in the mitochondrial DNA; the corresponding diseases are either maternally inherited or of sporadic distribution. The remaining diseaseassociated genes are coded in nuclear DNA and cause diseases that are inherited according to Mendelian rules, mostly autosomal recessive. The most severely involved organs are generally those with the highest energy requirements, including the brain, the sensory epithelia, and the extraocular, cardiac, and skeletal musculature. Typical manifestations include epileptic seizures, stroke-like episodes, hearing loss, retinopathy, external ophthalmoparesis, exercise intolerance, and diabetes mellitus. More than two manifestations of these types should arouse suspicion of a disease of energy metabolism. The severity of mitochondrial disorders ranges from very severe disease, already evident in childhood, to relatively mild disease arising in late adulthood. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with molecular-genetic methods. Symptomatic treatment can improve patients' quality of life. The only disease-modifying treatment that has been approved to date is idebenone for the treatment of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Intravitreal gene therapy has also been developed for the treatment of this disease; its approval by the European Medicines Agency is pending. CONCLUSION: Patients with mitochondrial diseases have highly varied manifestations and can thus present to physicians in practically any branch of medicine. A correct diagnosis is the prerequisite for genetic counseling and for the initiation of personalized treatment.

14.
Mol Genet Metab ; 133(4): 362-371, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140213

RESUMO

Cardiac dysfunction is a common phenotypic manifestation of primary mitochondrial disease with multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA pathogenic variants as a cause, including disorders of mitochondrial translation. To date, five patients have been described with pathogenic variants in MRPL44, encoding the ml44 protein which is part of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome). Three presented as infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mild lactic acidosis, and easy fatigue and muscle weakness, whereas two presented in adolescence with myopathy and neurological symptoms. We describe two infants who presented with cardiomyopathy from the neonatal period, failure to thrive, hypoglycemia and in one infant lactic acidosis. A decompensation of the cardiac function in the first year resulted in demise. Exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous variants in the MRPL44 gene including the known pathogenic variant c.467 T > G and two novel pathogenic variants. We document a combined respiratory chain enzyme deficiency with emphasis on complex I and IV, affecting heart muscle tissue more than skeletal muscle or fibroblasts. We show this to be caused by reduced mitochondrial DNA encoded protein synthesis affecting all subunits, and resulting in dysfunction of complex I and IV assembly. The degree of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction correlated with the impairment of mitochondrial protein synthesis due to different pathogenic variants. These functional studies allow for improved understanding of the pathogenesis of MRPL44-associated mitochondrial disorder.

16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 45(6): 633-650, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082474

RESUMO

It is still unclear how genetic information, provided as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), can be most effectively integrated into risk prediction models for coronary heart disease (CHD) to add significant predictive value beyond clinical risk models. For the present study, a population-based case-cohort was used as a trainingset (451 incident cases, 1488 noncases) and an independent cohort as testset (160 incident cases, 2749 noncases). The following strategies to quantify genetic information were compared: A weighted genetic risk score including Metabochip SNPs associated with CHD in the literature (GRSMetabo ); selection of the most predictive SNPs among these literature-confirmed variants using priority-Lasso (PLMetabo ); validation of two comprehensive polygenic risk scores: GRSGola based on Metabochip data, and GRSKhera (available in the testset only) based on cross-validated genome-wide genotyping data. We used Cox regression to assess associations with incident CHD. C-index, category-free net reclassification index (cfNRI) and relative integrated discrimination improvement (IDIrel ) were used to quantify the predictive performance of genetic information beyond Framingham risk score variables. In contrast to GRSMetabo and PLMetabo , GRSGola significantly improved the prediction (delta C-index [95% confidence interval]: 0.0087 [0.0044, 0.0130]; IDIrel : 0.0509 [0.0131, 0.0894]; cfNRI improved only in cases: 0.1761 [0.0253, 0.3219]). GRSKhera yielded slightly worse prediction results than GRSGola .


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Modelos Genéticos , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Mamm Genome ; 32(5): 332-349, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043061

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the WDR45 (OMIM: 300,526) gene on chromosome Xp11 are the genetic cause of a rare neurological disorder characterized by increased iron deposition in the basal ganglia. As WDR45 encodes a beta-propeller scaffold protein with a putative role in autophagy, the disease has been named Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN). BPAN represents one of the four most common forms of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). In the current study, we generated and characterized a whole-body Wdr45 knock-out (KO) mouse model. The model, developed using TALENs, presents a 20-bp deletion in exon 2 of Wdr45. Homozygous females and hemizygous males are viable, proving that systemic depletion of Wdr45 does not impair viability and male fertility in mice. The in-depth phenotypic characterization of the mouse model revealed neuropathology signs at four months of age, neurodegeneration progressing with ageing, hearing and visual impairment, specific haematological alterations, but no brain iron accumulation. Biochemically, Wdr45 KO mice presented with decreased complex I (CI) activity in the brain, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction accompanies Wdr45 deficiency. Overall, the systemic Wdr45 KO described here complements the two mouse models previously reported in the literature (PMIDs: 26,000,824, 31,204,559) and represents an additional robust model to investigate the pathophysiology of BPAN and to test therapeutic strategies for the disease.

18.
Front Genet ; 12: 638749, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054915

RESUMO

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease. Most cases of MELAS are caused by the m.3243A > G variant in the MT-TL1 gene encoding tRNALeu(UUR). However, the genetic cause in 10% of patients with MELAS is unknown. We investigated the pathogenicity of the novel mtDNA variant m.9396G > A/MT-CO3 (p.E64K), which affects an extremely conserved amino acid in the CO3 subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex IV (CIV) in a patient with MELAS. Biochemical assays of a muscle biopsy confirmed remarkable CIV deficiency, and pathological examination showed ragged red fibers and generalized COX non-reactive muscle fibers. Transfer of the mutant mtDNA into cybrids impaired CIV assembly, followed by remarkable mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production. Our findings highlight the pathogenicity of a novel m.9396G > A variant and extend the spectrum of pathogenic mtDNA variants.

19.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive cavitating leukoencephalopathy (PCL) is thought to result from mutations in nuclear genes affecting mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. To date, mutations in two subunits of complex I, NDUFS1 and NDUFV1, have been reported to be related to PCL. METHODS: Patients underwent clinical examinations, brain MRI, skin biopsy and muscle biopsy. Whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing was performed on the index patients from two unrelated families with PCL. The effects of the mutations were examined through complementation of the NDUFV2 mutation by cDNA expression. RESULTS: The common clinical features of the patients in this study were recurring episodes of acute or subacute developmental regression that appeared in the first years of life, followed by gradual remissions and prolonged periods of stability. MRI showed leukoencephalopathy with multiple cavities. Three novel NDUFV2 missense mutations were identified in these families. Complex I deficiency was confirmed in affected individuals' fibroblasts and a muscle biopsy. Functional and structural analyses revealed that these mutations affect the structural stability and function of the NDUFV2 protein, indicating that defective NDUFV2 function is responsible for the phenotypes in these individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report the clinical presentations, neuroimaging and molecular and functional analyses of novel mutations in NDUFV2 in two sibling pairs of two Chinese families presenting with PCL. We hereby expand the knowledge on the clinical phenotypes associated with mutations in NDUFV2 and the genotypes causative for PCL.

20.
FEBS Lett ; 595(8): 1132-1158, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655490

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disorders are monogenic disorders characterized by a defect in oxidative phosphorylation and caused by pathogenic variants in one of over 340 different genes. The implementation of whole-exome sequencing has led to a revolution in their diagnosis, duplicated the number of associated disease genes, and significantly increased the diagnosed fraction. However, the genetic etiology of a substantial fraction of patients exhibiting mitochondrial disorders remains unknown, highlighting limitations in variant detection and interpretation, which calls for improved computational and DNA sequencing methods, as well as the addition of OMICS tools. More intriguingly, this also suggests that some pathogenic variants lie outside of the protein-coding genes and that the mechanisms beyond the Mendelian inheritance and the mtDNA are of relevance. This review covers the current status of the genetic basis of mitochondrial diseases, discusses current challenges and perspectives, and explores the contribution of factors beyond the protein-coding regions and monogenic inheritance in the expansion of the genetic spectrum of disease.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Humanos
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