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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1260-1266, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936464

RESUMO

Schilbach-Rott syndrome (SRS, OMIM%164220) is a disorder of unknown aetiology that is characterised by hypotelorism, epichantal folds, cleft palate, dysmorphic face, hypospadia in males and mild mental retardation in some patients. To date, 5 families and 17 patients have exhibited this phenotype, and recurrence in two of these families suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance. SRS overlaps with a mild form of holoprosencephaly (HPE), but array-CGH analysis and sequencing of some HPE-related genes (SEPT9, SHH and TWIST) did not reveal any variants in at least one family. Herein, we investigated by array-CGH analysis a 11-year-old female patient and her father, both exhibiting the typical SRS phenotype, disclosing in the daughter-father couple the same microduplication of chromosome 9q22.32q22.33 [arr[hg19]9q22.32(98,049,611_98,049,636)x3,9q22.33 (99,301,483_99,301,508)x3], involving eight genes, including PTCH1. The duplication segregated with the disease, since it was not found in the healthy paternal grandparents of the proband. The gain-of-function variants of the PTCH1 gene are responsible for a mild form of HPE. This is the first genetic variant found in SRS. This finding reinforces the hypothesis that SRS belongs to the HPE clinical spectrum and suggests to perform array-CGH in patients with SRS phenotype and, if negative, to consider a potential benefit from sequencing of HPE-related genes.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691194

RESUMO

Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by megaloblastic anemia, benign mild proteinuria, and other nonspecific symptoms. Several pathogenetic variants in the amnionless (AMN) or cubilin (CUBN) genes have been described in IGS. We describe a case of IGS with urinary tract infection and mild but persistent proteinuria at onset in an 11-month-old female child. With the appearance of macrocytic anemia, aphthous stomatitis, and neurological signs, IGS was clinically suspected, and vitamin B12 parenteral therapy was started. Sequence analysis showed the presence of a novel intronic variant c.513+5G>A of AMN, never before described in the literature, that was in compound heterozygosity with the known pathogenetic variant c.1006+34_1007-31del. Analysis extension to the parents revealed the presence of variant c.1006+34_1007-31 in the father and c.513+5G>A in the mother. In the present case with IGS, the novel intronic variant of AMN was identified in "trans" with a known pathogenic variant (c.1006-31 del) and the new variant was interpreted to be pathogenetic since it was not found in the public database of polymorphisms and because it was predicted to alter a donor splicing site. Our case underlines the relevance in detecting certain subtle symptoms, such as mild but persistent proteinuria associated with megaloblastic anemia, to reach a correct diagnosis of a rare but treatable disorder.


Assuntos
Anemia Megaloblástica/tratamento farmacológico , Variação Genética , Síndromes de Malabsorção/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas/genética , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Anemia Megaloblástica/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infusões Parenterais , Íntrons , Síndromes de Malabsorção/genética , Proteinúria/genética , Processamento de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332768

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is one of the most common overgrowth diseases and it predisposes patients to cancer, generally in childhood. The prevalence of this genetic disorder is 1:10,000⁻1:50,000, and it is characterized by wide allelic heterogeneity, with more than 100 different known mutations in the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain containing protein 1 (NSD1) gene. Most of these alterations are deletions and common micro-deletions with haploinsufficiency. Singular variants are missense mutations. The present study reports a case of a 4-year-old boy with specific clinical features of Sotos syndrome and a particular complex skin hamartoma on the right femoral side, in addition to other minor findings, such as a "café-au-lait" spot on the right hemithorax and syndactyly of the second and third right toes. NSD1 gene analysis identified a de novo missense mutation, "c.[5867T>A]+[=]"; "p.[Leu1956Gln]+[=]", that was not previously described in the literature. This mutation was localized to the functional domain of the gene and was likely the cause of Sotos syndrome in our patient. We also compared aspects of our patient's condition with the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis (TSC), which is an autosomal neurocutaneous syndrome caused by mutations in the TSC1/TSC2 genes. These genes control cell growth and cell survival. This disorder is characterized by hamartomas in multiple organ systems, several coetaneous abnormalities, epilepsy, and increased risk of several types of tumors.

4.
Cell ; 175(4): 1088-1104.e23, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318146

RESUMO

Despite the known causality of copy-number variations (CNVs) to human neurodevelopmental disorders, the mechanisms behind each gene's contribution to the constellation of neural phenotypes remain elusive. Here, we investigated the 7q11.23 CNV, whose hemideletion causes Williams syndrome (WS), and uncovered that mitochondrial dysfunction participates in WS pathogenesis. Dysfunction is facilitated in part by the 7q11.23 protein DNAJC30, which interacts with mitochondrial ATP-synthase machinery. Removal of Dnajc30 in mice resulted in hypofunctional mitochondria, diminished morphological features of neocortical pyramidal neurons, and altered behaviors reminiscent of WS. The mitochondrial features are consistent with our observations of decreased integrity of oxidative phosphorylation supercomplexes and ATP-synthase dimers in WS. Thus, we identify DNAJC30 as an auxiliary component of ATP-synthase machinery and reveal mitochondrial maladies as underlying certain defects in brain development and function associated with WS.

5.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the contribution of rare variants in the genetic background toward variability of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in individuals with rare copy-number variants (CNVs) and gene-disruptive variants. METHODS: We analyzed quantitative clinical information, exome sequencing, and microarray data from 757 probands and 233 parents and siblings who carry disease-associated variants. RESULTS: The number of rare likely deleterious variants in functionally intolerant genes ("other hits") correlated with expression of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in probands with 16p12.1 deletion (n=23, p=0.004) and in autism probands carrying gene-disruptive variants (n=184, p=0.03) compared with their carrier family members. Probands with 16p12.1 deletion and a strong family history presented more severe clinical features (p=0.04) and higher burden of other hits compared with those with mild/no family history (p=0.001). The number of other hits also correlated with severity of cognitive impairment in probands carrying pathogenic CNVs (n=53) or de novo pathogenic variants in disease genes (n=290), and negatively correlated with head size among 80 probands with 16p11.2 deletion. These co-occurring hits involved known disease-associated genes such as SETD5, AUTS2, and NRXN1, and were enriched for cellular and developmental processes. CONCLUSION: Accurate genetic diagnosis of complex disorders will require complete evaluation of the genetic background even after a candidate disease-associated variant is identified.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195408

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Shapiro syndrome (SS) is characterized by spontaneous recurrent episodes of hypothermia, hyperhidrosis and corpus callosum (CC) agenesis. Less than 60 cases have been reported to date and the pathogenic mechanism as well as the prognosis of this syndrome are still debated. We describe the clinical features and long-term follow-up of a pediatric cohort of SS patients. METHODS: We collected 13 (10 novel) pediatric cases of SS and report their long-term follow-up and neurological outcome. RESULTS: All patients experienced recurring hypothermia, with body temperature below 35 °C during the episodes, often accompanied by hyperidrosis. CC agenesis was an inconstant structural feature in the present series (2/13 patients). Seven patients received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or other drug therapy for a mean period of 12 months. At long-term follow-up (mean = 61 months, range: 60-96), all individuals were free from episodes of paroxysmal hypothermia independently from previous AED use or other drug therapy. CONCLUSION: Paroxysmal hypothermia, the core symptom of SS, behaved as a age-dependent feature in our cohort, supporting a good long-term prognosis for SS. A prompt diagnosis of SS is crucial to avoid unnecessary diagnostic investigations.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986434

RESUMO

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEEs) are a group of neurological disorders characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, severe electroencephalographic abnormalities, and developmental delay or intellectual disability. Recently, genetic studies have indicated that a significant portion of previously cryptogenic EIEEs are single-gene disorders. SPTAN1 is among the genes whose mutations are associated with EIEE development (OMIM# 613477). Here, a case of the c.6923_6928dup (p.Arg2308_Met2309dup) SPTAN1 mutation associated with a severe EIEE is reported. This case shows that mutations in the α20 repeat in the C-terminal of αII spectrin can be associated with EIEE. Duplication seems essential to cause EIEE. This causation is not demonstrated for amino acid deletions in the same spectrin residues. Reportedly, children with p.(Asp2303_Leu2305del) and p.(Gln2304_Gly2306del) deletions have childhood-onset epilepsy and no or marginal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, suggesting that not only the location but also the type of mutation plays a role in conditioning nervous system damage. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the phenotype/genotype correlation in SPTAN1-related encephalopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Mutação , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Espasmos Infantis/sangue , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Bone ; 114: 125-136, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929043

RESUMO

Acrofrontofacionasal Dysostosis type 1 (AFFND1) is an extremely rare, autosomal recessive syndrome, comprising facial and skeletal abnormalities, short stature and intellectual disability. We analyzed an Indian family with two affected siblings by exome sequencing and identified a novel homozygous truncating mutation in the Neuroblastoma-Amplified Sequence (NBAS) gene in the patients' genome. Mutations in the NBAS gene have recently been associated with different phenotypes mainly involving skeletal formation, liver and cognitive development. The NBAS protein has been implicated in two key cellular processes, namely the non-sense mediated decay and the Golgi-to-Endoplasmic Reticulum retrograde traffic. Both functions were impaired in HEK293T cells overexpressing the truncated NBAS protein, as assessed by Real-Time PCR, Western blot analysis, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence analysis. We examined the expression of NBAS protein in mouse embryos at various developmental stages by immunohistochemistry, and detected expression in developing chondrogenic and osteogenic structures of the skeleton as well as in the cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, which is compatible with a role in bone and brain development. Functional genetics in the zebrafish model showed that depletion of endogenous z-nbas in fish embryos results in defective morphogenesis of chondrogenic cranial skeletal elements. Overall, our data point to a conserved function of NBAS in skeletal morphogenesis during development, support the hypothesis of a causative role of the mutated NBAS gene in the pathogenesis of AFFND1 and extend the spectrum of phenotypes associated with defects in this gene.

9.
Neurology ; 90(23): e2059-e2067, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment response of Parkinson disease (PD) in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), and to determine if these patients differ from those with idiopathic PD. METHODS: In this international observational study, we characterized the clinical and neuroimaging features of 45 individuals with 22q11.2DS and PD (mean follow-up 7.5 ± 4.1 years). RESULTS: 22q11.2DS PD had a typical male excess (32 male, 71.1%), presentation and progression of hallmark motor symptoms, reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding with molecular imaging, and initial positive response to levodopa (93.3%). Mean age at motor symptom onset was relatively young (39.5 ± 8.5 years); 71.4% of cases had early-onset PD (<45 years). Despite having a similar age at onset, the diagnosis of PD was delayed in patients with a history of antipsychotic treatment compared with antipsychotic-naive patients (median 5 vs 1 year, p = 0.001). Preexisting psychotic disorders (24.5%) and mood or anxiety disorders (31.1%) were common, as were early dystonia (19.4%) and a history of seizures (33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Major clinical characteristics and response to standard treatments appear comparable in 22q11.2DS-associated PD to those in idiopathic PD, although the average age at onset is earlier. Importantly, treatment of preexisting psychotic illness may delay diagnosis of PD in 22q11.DS patients. An index of suspicion and vigilance for complex comorbidity may assist in identifying patients to prioritize for genetic testing.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692759

RESUMO

Heterozygous mutations in the SHOX gene or in the upstream and downstream enhancer elements are associated with 2-22% of cases of idiopathic short stature (OMIM #300582) and with 60% of cases of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (OMIM #127300) with which female subjects are generally more severely affected. Approximately 80-90% of SHOX pathogenic variants are deletions or duplications, and the remaining 10-20% are point mutations that primarily give rise to missense variants. The clinical interpretation of novel variants, particularly missense variants, can be challenging and can remain of uncertain significance. Here, we describe a novel missense variant (c.1044 G>T, p.Arg118Met) in a Moroccan boy with a disproportionately short stature and without any radiological traits or bone deformities and in his mother, who had a disproportionately short stature and a Madelung deformity. This variant has not been reported to date in the updated SHOX allelic variant or Human Gene Mutation Databases nor is it listed as a polymorphism in the ExAC browser, dbSNP, or 1000G. This mutation was predicted to be deleterious by three different bioinformatics tools since it modifies an amino acid in a highly conserved DNA-binding domain of the SHOX protein. Based on this evidence, the patient was treated with recombinant human growth hormone.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(2)2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364180

RESUMO

N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency (NAGSD) is an extremely rare urea cycle disorder (UCD) with few adult cases so far described. Diagnosis of late-onset presentations is difficult and delayed treatment may increase the risk of severe hyperammonemia. We describe a 52-year-old woman with recurrent headaches who experienced an acute onset of NAGSD. As very few papers focus on headaches in UCDs, we also report a literature review of types and pathophysiologic mechanisms of UCD-related headaches. In our case, headaches had been present since puberty (3-4 days a week) and were often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, or behavioural changes. Despite three previous episodes of altered consciousness, ammonia was measured for the first time at 52 years and levels were increased. Identification of the new homozygous c.344C>T (p.Ala115Val) NAGS variant allowed the definite diagnosis of NAGSD. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that an order/disorder alteration of the mutated form could affect the arginine-binding site, resulting in poor enzyme activation and late-onset presentation. After optimized treatment for NAGSD, ammonia and amino acid levels were constantly normal and prevented other headache bouts. The manuscript underlies that headache may be the presenting symptom of UCDs and provides clues for the rapid diagnosis and treatment of late-onset NAGSD.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/diagnóstico , Idade de Início , Aminoácido N-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Glutamatos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/metabolismo , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/patologia , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/terapia
12.
Neurol Genet ; 3(6): e206, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264397

RESUMO

Objective: To describe electroclinical features and outcome of 6 patients harboring KCNB1 mutations. Methods: Clinical, EEG, neuropsychological, and brain MRI data analysis. Targeted next-generation sequencing of a 95 epilepsy gene panel. Results: The mean age at seizure onset was 11 months. The mean follow-up of 11.3 years documented that 4 patients following an infantile phase of frequent seizures became seizure free; the mean age at seizure offset was 4.25 years. Epilepsy phenotypes comprised West syndrome in 2 patients, infantile-onset unspecified generalized epilepsy, myoclonic and photosensitive eyelid myoclonia epilepsy resembling Jeavons syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and focal epilepsy with prolonged occipital or clonic seizures in each and every one. Five patients had developmental delay prior to seizure onset evolving into severe intellectual disability with absent speech and autistic traits in one and stereotypic hand movements with impulse control disorder in another. The patient with Jeavons syndrome evolved into moderate intellectual disability. Mutations were de novo, 4 missense and 2 nonsense, 5 were novel, and 1 resulted from somatic mosaicism. Conclusions: KCNB1-related manifestations include a spectrum of infantile-onset generalized or focal seizures whose combination leads to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy including West, Lennox-Gastaut, and Jeavons syndromes. Long-term follow-up highlights that following a stormy phase, seizures subside or cease and treatment may be eased or withdrawn. Cognitive and motor functions are almost always delayed prior to seizure onset and evolve into severe, persistent impairment. Thus, KCNB1 mutations are associated with diffuse brain dysfunction combining seizures, motor, and cognitive impairment.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(11)2017 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109381

RESUMO

Malformations of the cerebral cortex are an important cause of developmental disabilities and epilepsy. Neurological disorders caused by abnormal neuronal migration have been observed to occur with mutations in tubulin genes. The α- and ß-tubulin genes encode cytoskeletal proteins, which play a role in the developing brain. TUBA1A mutations are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological problems, which are characterized by peculiar clinical details and neuroradiologic patterns. This manuscript describes the case of a nine-year-old girl with microcephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms, epileptic seizures, and severe developmental delay, with a de novo heterozygous c.320A>G [p.(His 107 Arg)] mutation in TUBA1A gene, and the clinical aspects and neuroimaging features of "lissencephaly syndrome" are summarized. This case shows that TUBA1A mutations lead to a variety of brain malformations ranging from lissencephaly with perisylvian pachygyria to diffuse posteriorly predominant pachygyria, combined with internal capsule dysgenesis, cerebellar dysplasia, and callosal hypotrophy. This peculiar neuroradiological pattern, in combination with the usually severe clinical presentation, suggests the need for future molecular studies to address the mechanisms of TUBA1A mutation-induced neuropathology.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Criança , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico , Síndrome
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(9)2017 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926972

RESUMO

Moyamoya angiopathy (MA) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder characterised by the progressive occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Its aetiology is uncertain, but a genetic background seems likely, given the high MA familial rate. To investigate the aetiology of craniosynostosis and juvenile moyamoya in a 14-year-old male patient, we performed an array-comparative genomic hybridisation revealing a de novo interstitial deletion of 8.5 Mb in chromosome region 1p32p31. The deletion involved 34 protein coding genes, including NF1A, whose haploinsufficiency is indicated as being mainly responsible for the 1p32-p31 chromosome deletion syndrome phenotype (OMIM 613735). Our patient also has a deleted FOXD3 of the FOX gene family of transcription factors, which plays an important role in neural crest cell growth and differentiation. As the murine FOXD3-/- model shows craniofacial anomalies and abnormal common carotid artery morphology, it can be hypothesised that FOXD3 is involved in the pathogenesis of the craniofacial and vascular defects observed in our patient. In support of our assumption, we found in the literature another patient with a syndromic form of MA who had a deletion involving another FOX gene (FOXC1). In addition to describing the clinical history of our patient, we have reviewed all of the available literature concerning other patients with a 1p32p31 deletion, including cases from the Decipher database, and we have also reviewed the genetic disorders associated with MA, which is a useful guide for the diagnosis of syndromic form of MA.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Doença de Moyamoya/genética , Adolescente , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico , Síndrome
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(11): 3961-3969, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938448

RESUMO

Context: Familial isolated hypoparathyroidism (FIH) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), glial cells missing-2 (GCM2), guanine nucleotide binding protein α11 (GNA11), or parathyroid hormone (PTH) genes. Thus far, only four cases with homozygous and two cases with heterozygous mutations in the PTH gene have been reported. Objective: To clinically describe an FIH family and identify and characterize the causal gene mutation. Design: Genomic DNA of the family members was subjected to CASR, GCM2, GNA11, and PTH gene mutational analysis. Functional assays were performed on the variant identified. Participants: Six subjects of a three-generation FIH family with three affected individuals having severe hypocalcemia and inappropriately low serum PTH. Results: No mutations were detected in the CASR, GCM2, and GNA11 genes. A heterozygous variant that segregated with the disease was identified in PTH gene exon 2 (c.41T>A; p.M14K). This missense variant, in the hydrophobic core of the signal sequence, was predicted in silico to impair cleavage of preproPTH to proPTH. Functional assays in HEK293 cells demonstrated much greater retention intracellularly but impaired secretion into the medium of the M14K mutant relative to wild type. The addition of the pharmacological chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid, led to a reduction of cellular retention and increased accumulation in the cell medium of the M14K mutant. Conclusions: We report a heterozygous PTH mutation in an FIH family and demonstrate accumulation of the mutant intracellularly and its impaired secretion. An accurate genetic diagnosis in such hypoparathyroid patients is critical for appropriate treatment and genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Genes Dominantes , Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Família , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Linhagem
17.
Public Health Genomics ; 19(6): 336-341, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27728908

RESUMO

Genetic testing strategies and counseling in cystic fibrosis (CF) can be problematic due to its extreme allelic heterogeneity and the difficult clinical interpretation of rare variants. Since in a previous survey of Italian CF patients, Umbria (a small region with about 900,000 inhabitants) was excluded due to the low number of chromosomes tested (<50), we have performed a comprehensive retrospective clinical and molecular survey of 62 CF patients coming from this region. We have summarized all the genotypic and phenotypic data in a table, and we interviewed the older patients in order to obtain a comprehensive overview of their conditions. We found that the c.2052_2053insA (2184insA) variant, a class I mutation with high frequency in Eastern Europe but very rare in Italy, is the fourth most frequent allele in Umbria. The 2184insA variant was not included in the first-level regional screening, and we therefore suggest the implementation of this variant in the future.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Revelação , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 123(11): 1301-1307, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27250986

RESUMO

Approximately 15 % of PD patients with Parkinson Disease (PD) have the familial type and 5-10 % of these are known to have monogenic forms with either an autosomal dominant or a recessive inheritance pattern. Here, we report on a family carrying the A53T SNCA mutation and we review SNCA mutation phenotypes by comparing point mutations within each other as well as with duplication and triplication.


Assuntos
Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(9): 2377-82, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27312080

RESUMO

Mutations of the MED12 gene have been reported mainly in males with FG (Opitz-Kaveggia), Lujan-Fryns, or X-linked Ohdo syndromes. Recently, a different phenotype characterized by minor anomalies, severe intellectual disability (ID), and absent language was reported in female and male patients belonging to the same family and carrying a frameshift MED12 mutation (c.5898dupC). Here, we report on two brothers and their niece affected by severe and mild ID, respectively, where whole exome sequencing combined with variant analysis within a panel of ID-related genes, disclosed a novel c.2312T>C (p.Ile771Thr) MED12 mutation. This variant, which has not been reported as a polymorphism, was not present in a third unaffected brother, and was predicted to be deleterious by five bioinformatic databases. This finding together with the phenotypic analogies shared with the carriers of c.5898dupC mutation suggests the existence of a fourth MED12-related disorder, characterized by severe ID, absent or deficient language and, milder, clinical manifestation in heterozygotes. We have reviewed the literature on MED12 heterozygotes, their clinical manifestations, and discuss the possible biological causes of this condition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/patologia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
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