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1.
Exp Brain Res ; 238(10): 2257-2268, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719908

RESUMO

Affective touch plays an important role in human social bonding, affiliative behavior, and in general emotional well-being. A system of unmyelinated low-threshold mechanosensitive C-type afferents innervating hairy skin (C-tactile or CT system) is postulated to provide the neurophysiological background of affective touch perception. C-tactile afferents respond optimally to soft and slow strokes, and this response correlates positively with pleasure ratings of tactile stimuli. As gentle touch is consistently associated with oxytocin release further promoting prosocial behavior, it has been suggested that this effect is mediated by the response of C-tactile afferents. This study assesses a possible link between CT-optimal touch, its subjective pleasantness, EEG indices of cortical arousal, and peripheral oxytocin response. EEG was recorded in 28 healthy volunteers during resting state and tactile stimulation[gentle slow brush strokes on forearm (CT-targeted touch) and palm (non-CT-targeted touch)]. Saliva samples were collected before and after the touch stimulation. Oxytocin concentration increase was significantly associated with greater subjective ratings of CT-targeted touch but not of non-CT-targeted touch, and with lower peak alpha frequency values indicating decreased cortical arousal. The findings suggest that CT-targeted stimulation triggers oxytocin release but only when the touch is perceived at an individual level as having clearly positive affective salience. This corresponds to previous studies reporting that oxytocin response to touch can be related to different personality factors, and bears important implications for planning touch-based interventions in social and medical care.

2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(7)2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functionalized fullerenes (FF) can be considered regulators of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis; their direct oxidative damage-as well as regulation of oxidant enzymes and signaling pathways-should be considered. METHODS: Uptake of two water-soluble functionalized C70 fullerenes with different types of aromatic addends (ethylphenylmalonate and thienylacetate) in human fetal lung fibroblasts, intracellular ROS visualization, superoxide scavenging potential, NOX4 expression, NRF2 expression, oxidative DNA damage, repair genes, cell proliferation and cell cycle were studied. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The intracellular effects of ethylphenylmalonate C70 derivative (FF1) can be explained in terms of upregulated NOX4 activity. The intracellular effects of thienylacetate C70 derivative (FF2) can be probably resulted from its superoxide scavenging potential and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. FF1 can be considered a NOX4 upregulator and potential cytotoxicant and FF2, as a superoxide scavenger and a potential cytoprotector.

3.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481516

RESUMO

Endohedral metal fullerene are potential nanopharmaceuticals for MRI; thus, it is important to study their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Superoxide anion radical is one of the key ROS. The reactivity of aqueous dispersions of pristine (non-functionalized) fullerenes and Gd@C82 endofullerene have been studied with respect to superoxide in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence system. It was found that C60 and C70 in aqueous dispersions react with superoxide as scavengers by a similar mechanism; differences in activity are determined by cluster parameters, primarily the concentration of available, acting molecules at the surface. Gd endofullerene is characterized by a significantly (one-and-a-half to two orders of magnitude) higher reactivity with respect to C60 and C70 and is likely to exhibit nanozyme (SOD-mimic) properties, which can be accounted for by the nonuniform distribution of electron density of the fullerene cage due to the presence of the endohedral atom; however, in the cell model, Gd@C82 showed the lowest activity compared to C60 and C70, which can be accounted for by its higher affinity for the lipid phase.

4.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235534

RESUMO

Free radical reactions play an important role in biological functions of living systems. The balance between oxidants and antioxidants is necessary for the normal homeostasis of cells and organisms. Experimental works demonstrate the role of oxidative stress that is caused by influenza virus as well as the toxic effects of some antiviral drugs. Therefore, antiviral drugs should be characterized by its pro- and antioxidant activity, because it can affect its therapeutic efficiency. The aim of the study was to quantify the antioxidant capacity and propose the mechanism of the antioxidant effect of the antiviral drug Umifenovir (Arbidol®). The kinetic chemiluminescence with the 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride + luminol system was used to quantify the antioxidant capacity of Umifenovir relative to the standard compound Trolox. With computer simulation, the reaction scheme and rate constants were proposed. The antioxidant capacity of 0.9 µM Umifenovir (maximum concentration of Umifenovir in blood after oral administration of 200 mg) was as high as 1.65 ± 0.18 µM of Trolox. Thus, the total antioxidant capacity of Umifenovir is comparable to the antioxidant capacity of Trolox. Unlike Trolox, Umifenovir reacts with free radicals in two stages. For Trolox, the free radical scavenging rate constant was k = 2000 nM-1 min.-1, for Umifenovir k1 = 300 nM-1min.-1, k2 = 4 nM-1min.-1. Slower kinetics of Umifenovir provides the prolonged antioxidant effect when compared to Trolox. This phenomenon can make a serious contribution to the compensation of oxidative stress that is caused by a viral disease and the therapeutic effect of the drug.

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