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1.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased attention to shared decision-making is particularly important in bariatric surgery. It is unclear whether the large shift toward sleeve gastrectomy is evidence of good alignment between patient and surgeon preferences. OBJECTIVE: To identify surgeon preferences for risks, benefits, and other attributes of treatment options available for bariatric surgery and to compare results with patient preferences. SETTING: Online survey. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment of weight loss procedures. Each procedure was described by the following set of attributes: (1) treatment method, (2) recovery and reversibility, (3) years treatment has been available, (4) expected weight loss, (5) effect on other medical conditions, (6) risk of complication, (7) side effects, (8) changes to diet, (9) out-of-pocket costs. Participants chose between surgical profiles by comparing attributes. A convenience sample of providers for the online survey was recruited via LISTSERVs of professional associations. RESULTS: Respondents (n = 121) were most likely to select profiles of hypothetical procedures based on the resolution of existing medical conditions and higher expected weight loss. These results align with patient preferences. However, surgeons selected profiles based on lower risk of complications than did patients and surgeons were less sensitive to out-of-pocket costs than patients. CONCLUSIONS: Results show strong alignment between the preferences of patients and the preferences of surgeons when they are asked to stand in the place of their patients. Some differences, especially those related to sensitivity to risk of complications and out-of-pocket costs indicate that shared decision-making would benefit from providers explaining their concerns about surgical risk and from appreciating the concern many patients have about financial costs. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 2020;X:XXX-XXX.) © 2020 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

2.
Health Psychol Rev ; : 1-19, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937184

RESUMO

Developing and/or tailoring psychological interventions to align with patient preferences is a critical component of patient-centered care and has the potential to improve patient engagement and treatment outcomes. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are a quantitative method of assessing patient preferences that offer numerous strengths (i.e., ability to account for trade-offs), but are not routinely incorporated into health psychology coursework, likely leaving many unaware of the potential benefits of this methodology. To highlight the potential applications of DCEs within health psychology, this systematic review synthesises previous efforts to utilise DCEs to inform the design of patient-centered psychological care, defined as interventions targeting psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety) or behavioural health (e.g., pain management, adherence) concerns. Literature searches were conducted in March 2017 and November 2019 for articles reporting on DCEs using the terms 'discrete choice', 'conjoint', or 'stated preference'. Thirty-nine articles met all inclusion criteria and used DCEs to understand patient preferences regarding psychosocial clinical services (n = 12), lifestyle behaviour change interventions (n = 11), HIV prevention and/or intervention services (n = 10), disease self-management programmes (n = 4), or other interventions (n = 2). Clinical implications as well as limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977272

RESUMO

Compared to many other countries, China offers fewer pediatric vaccines. Future attempts to add mandatory vaccines may run counter to parents' preferences for shot-limiting. The aim of this study was to assess Chinese parents' preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for programmatic attributes of vaccination services. Parents of young infants ≤3 months of age presenting at immunization clinics in Shanghai, China, in 2017 completed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) on vaccination program attributes: waiting time at the clinic, number of shots before 7 months, number of injections per visit, cost per visit, and location of the shot. We estimated preference utilities and WTP using logistic regression. In total, 590 completed the DCE. Caregivers expressed greater utility for less waiting time, fewer office visits, lower cost of vaccines, and fewer injections co-administered. Over the course of their child's first 6 months, parents were willing to pay 113 RMB ($17) to avoid an additional 10 minutes of waiting at each appointment (95% confidence interval [CI]: 213, 929), 474 RMB ($70) to avoid an additional office visit (95% CI: 241, 707), and 703 RMB ($104) to avoid an additional injection at each appointment (95% CI: 337, 1068). As China expands its list of publicly funded vaccines, public health officials will have to counter Chinese parents' strong preferences for limiting the total number of office visits and the number of injections administered at each visit, potentially through the use of combination vaccines.

4.
Pain ; 161(2): 361-368, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599852

RESUMO

Our objective was to develop comprehensive national estimates of the total burden of herpes zoster (HZ) among U.S. adults, including direct (ie, medical costs) and indirect (ie, productivity losses) costs, as well as its psychosocial impact (ie, quality of life losses). Using a patient-level microsimulation model, we projected health and economic outcomes among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older using a 10-year time horizon. We conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review to generate parameter values and conducted simulation modeling to generate our outcomes, including numbers of cases of uncomplicated HZ, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and ocular complications, productivity losses, and losses in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We used a societal perspective for outcomes; the costing year was 2015. Projected outcomes for an unvaccinated population included 1.1 million HZ cases, 114,000 PHN cases, and 43,000 ocular complications annually, resulting in approximately 67,000 QALYs lost. HZ and its complications would incur costs of $2.4 billion in direct medical costs and productivity losses annually. Projected QALY losses were most sensitive to HZ and PHN health utility values in the model. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the probability of HZ and to the costs per episode of PHN. The national burden of direct, indirect, and psychosocial HZ costs is substantial. Our results can inform economic analyses for HZ vaccines. Comprehensive, national assessments of the total burden of other painful conditions would be very informative.

5.
Vaccine ; 38(6): 1520-1525, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822426

RESUMO

It is not clear what kind of preferences parents in China would have for vaccines that could be added to a future immunization schedule. This study's aim was to assess Chinese parents' preferences for attributes of vaccines. We surveyed parents of young infants ≤3 months of age at immunization clinics in Shanghai, China, in 2017. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to present parents with choices between two hypothetical profiles of vaccines which were described using the following attributes: cost, risk of side effect, location of vaccine manufacturer, vaccine testing, vaccine effectiveness, severity of disease, disease prevalence. A logistic regression output estimates of preference utilities. In total, 599 caregivers completed the DCE. Parents expressed lower preference for vaccines with a 30% chance of fever as an adverse event vs a 10% chance (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.64), for vaccines only 85% effective vs those 95% effective (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.62), and for imported vaccines (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and those not tested in Chinese children (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.53) compared to domestic vaccines. More affluent groups preferred more expensive vaccines whereas less affluent groups did not express cost-based preferences. Promotion of vaccines in China should focus on parents' stated preferences, which include past testing done in Chinese children - which is, in fact, required of all licensed vaccines in China. Information about these trials could emphasize low risk of adverse events and high effectiveness.

6.
Am J Manag Care ; 25(11): e334-e341, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the most important reasons underlying decisions to stock or not stock adult vaccines. STUDY DESIGN: US physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and administrators of internal medicine, family medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, and multispecialty practices who were involved in vaccine stocking decisions (N = 125) completed a best-worst scaling survey online between February and April 2018. METHODS: Sixteen potential factors influencing stocking decisions were developed based on key informant interviews and focus groups. Respondents selected factors that were most and least important in vaccine stocking decisions. Relative importance scores for the best-worst scaling factors were calculated. Survey respondents described which vaccines their practice stocks and reasons for not stocking specific vaccines. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the respondent's involvement in vaccine decision making, role in the organization, specialty, and affiliation status, as well as practice characteristics such as practice size, insurance mix, and patient age mix. RESULTS: Relative importance scores for stocking vaccines were highest for "cost of purchasing vaccine stock," "expense of maintaining vaccine inventory," and "lack of adequate reimbursement for vaccine acquisition and administration." Most respondents (97%) stocked influenza vaccines, but stocking rates of other vaccines varied from 39% (meningococcal B) to 83% (tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis). Best-worst scaling results were consistent across respondent subgroups, although the range of vaccine types stocked differed by practice type. CONCLUSIONS: Economic factors associated with the purchase and maintenance of vaccine inventory and inadequate reimbursement for vaccination services were the most important to decision makers when considering whether to stock or not stock vaccines for adults.

7.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 21: 100523, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660292

RESUMO

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) imposes a substantial burden on people living with the condition and their families. However, little is known about the time cost and financial burden of having PKU or caring for a child with the condition. Methods and findings: Primary data were collected with a detailed cost and utilization survey. Primary outcomes included utilization and out-of-pocket costs of medical services, medical formula, and prescribed low-protein food consumption, as well as the time and perceived effort involved in following the PKU diet. Respondents were people living with PKU or parents of children with PKU identified through a state newborn screening program database. Secondary administrative claims data were also used to calculate mean total, insurer, and out-of-pocket payments in inpatient, outpatient (office visits, emergency room, and laboratory tests), and pharmacy settings for privately insured persons with PKU. Payments were calculated for sapropterin and for PKU formula.In primary data analysis (children n = 32, adults n = 52), annual out-of-pocket costs were highest for low-protein foods (child = $1651; adult = $967) compared with other categories of care. The time burden of PKU care was high; families reported spending more than 300 h per year shopping for and preparing special diet foods.In secondary data analysis, children 12-17 years old had the highest average medical expenditures ($54,147; n = 140) compared to children 0-11 years old ($19,057; n = 396) and adults 18 years and older ($40,705; n = 454). Medication costs were the largest contributor to medical costs, accounting for 61-81% of total costs across age groups. Sapropterin was the largest driver of medication costs, accounting for 85% of child medication costs and 92% of adult medication costs. Conclusion: Treatment for PKU incurs a substantial time and cost burden on persons with PKU and their families. Estimated medical expenditures using claims data varied by age group, but sapropterin represented the largest cost for PKU treatment from a payer perspective across age groups.

8.
Vaccine ; 37(45): 6803-6813, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Provider concern regarding insurance non-payment for vaccines is a common barrier to provision of adult immunizations. We examined current adult vaccination billing and payment associated with two managed care populations to identify reasons for non-payment of immunization insurance claims. METHODS: We assessed administrative data from 2014 to 2015 from Blue Care Network of Michigan, a nonprofit health maintenance organization, and Blue Cross Complete of Michigan, a Medicaid managed care plan, to determine rates of and reasons for non-payment of adult vaccination claims across patient-care settings, insurance plans, and vaccine types. We compared commercial and Medicaid payment rates to Medicare payment rates and examined patient cost sharing. RESULTS: Pharmacy-submitted claims for adult vaccine doses were almost always paid (commercial 98.5%; Medicaid 100%). As the physician office accounted for the clear majority (79% commercial; 69% Medicaid) of medical (non-pharmacy) vaccination services, we limited further analyses of both commercial and Medicaid medical claims to the physician office setting. In the physician office setting, rates of payment were high with commercial rates of payment (97.9%) greater than Medicaid rates (91.6%). Reasons for non-payment varied, but generally related to the complexity of adult vaccine recommendations (patient diagnosis does not match recommendations) or insurance coverage (complex contracts, multiple insurance payers). Vaccine administration services were also generally paid. Commercial health plan payments were greater for both vaccine dose and vaccine administration than Medicare payments; Medicaid paid a higher amount for the vaccine dose, but less for vaccine administration than Medicare. Patients generally had very low (commercial) or no (Medicaid) cost-sharing for vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Adult vaccine dose claims were usually paid. Medicaid generally had higher rates of non-payment than commercial insurance.

10.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 3(1): 51, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult and adolescent vaccination rates are far below coverage targets in the United States. Our objective was to identify the most influential factors related to vaccine uptake among adults, adolescents, and parents of adolescents (parents) in the United States. METHODS: We used a fractional factorial design to create a binary choice survey to evaluate preferences for vaccination. The national survey was fielded to a sample of adults, adolescents ages 13-17 years, and parents, using a national probability-based online research panel in November 2015. Respondents were presented with 5 profiles of a hypothetical vaccine and asked in a series of questions whether they would accept each vaccine. We analyzed the binary choice data using logistic regression in STATA v13 (College Station, TX) to calculate the odds that a participant would choose to accept the vaccine. RESULTS: We received completed responses from 334 (51%) of 652 adults, 316 (21%) of 1516 adolescents, and 339 (33%) of 1030 parents. Respondents were generally representative of the U.S. POPULATION: Vaccine effectiveness was the most influential factor in the choice to vaccinate for all groups. Other most influential factors were primary care provider (PCP) recommendation and the out-of-pocket cost of the vaccine. Other factors such as risk of illness, risk of vaccine side effects, vaccination location, and time for vaccination were not important in the decision to get vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Adults, adolescents, and parents are most sensitive to vaccine effectiveness, PCP recommendation, and out-of-pocket cost for vaccination in their decision to get vaccinated. Strong PCP recommendations that focus on vaccine effectiveness and health care policies that minimize out-of-pocket costs for vaccinations may increase vaccine uptake by adults and adolescents.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e193673, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074819

RESUMO

Importance: Most prescription opioid misuse involves opioids prescribed to others-a form of opioid diversion. However, few indicators of diversion risk exist. Because family members can often access patients' opioids, one such indicator may be the frequency with which opioid prescriptions are filled by patients when their family members are engaged in opioid prescriber and pharmacy shopping ("doctor and pharmacy shopping"). To date, this frequency has not been estimated. Objective: To estimate the proportion of opioid prescription fills for which family members meet prescriber and pharmacy shopping criteria. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional analysis of 2015-2016 claims from a national commercial insurer was conducted from August to October, 2018. The sample included patients without cancer who were covered by family insurance plans and had 1 or more opioid prescription fill in 2016, as measured by prescription drug claims. Fills were the unit of analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: For each fill in 2016 by the patient and each family member enrolled in the same plan (eg, spouse or child), the number of prescribers and number of pharmacies in the prior 12 months were counted. Prescriber and pharmacy shopping was defined as 4 or more prescribers and 4 or more pharmacies, following a National Quality Forum-endorsed measure. The proportion of fills for which 1 or more family member met criteria and the proportion for which the patient met criteria were calculated. Results: Among 554 417 patients in the sample, 301 297 (54.3%) were female and 48 047 (8.7%) were children. Mean (SD) age was 41.4 (16.4) years. Patients were enrolled in 469 913 plans and, after exclusions, filled 1 471 971 opioid prescriptions in 2016. For 8485 fills (0.6%), 1 or more family member met prescriber and pharmacy shopping criteria. For 44 547 fills (3.0%), the patient met criteria. For 6947 of the 8485 fills (81.9%) for which 1 or more family member met criteria, patients did not meet criteria. When criteria were 3 or more prescribers at 3 or more pharmacies, the proportion of fills for which 1 or more family member met criteria increased to 1.9%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this national study of US patients with private family insurance plans, 0.6% of opioid prescription fills occurred when at least 1 of the patient's family members met prescriber and pharmacy shopping criteria. For most of these fills, patients did not meet criteria. Findings suggest the potential for opioid diversion within families.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 25(4): 322-331, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136505

RESUMO

CONTEXT: As a result of additional requirements for tax exemption, many nonprofit hospitals have become more actively involved in community health improvement. There is an open question, however, as to how decision makers in hospitals decide which kind of improvement projects should receive priority and how hospital managers' priorities compare with those of decision makers in public health agencies and community-based nonprofits. OBJECTIVE: To understand the priorities that guide decision makers in public health, nonprofit hospitals, and community nonprofits when allocating resources to community health projects. DESIGN: We conducted an online survey with a discrete choice experiment, asking respondents to choose between different types of community health projects, which varied along several project characteristics. Respondents included managers of community health and community benefit at nonprofit hospitals (n = 225), managers at local public health departments (n = 200), and leaders of community nonprofits (n = 136). Respondents were located in 47 of 50 US states. A conditional logit model was used to estimate how various project characteristics led to greater or lesser support of a given health project. Open-ended questions aided in interpretation of results. RESULTS: Respondents from all 3 groups showed strong agreement on community health priorities. Projects were more likely to be selected when they addressed a health issue identified on community health needs assessment, involved cross-sector collaboration, or were supported by evidence. Project characteristics that mattered less included the time needed to measure the project's impact and the project's target population. CONCLUSION: Elements often considered central to community health, such as long-term investment and prioritizing vulnerable populations, may not be considered by decision makers as important as other aspects of resource allocation. If we want greater priority for ideas such as health equity and social determinants of health, it will take a concerted effort from practitioners and policy makers to reshape expectations.

14.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(4): 475-499, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of research has identified health-related quality-of-life effects for caregivers and family members of ill patients (i.e. 'spillover effects'), yet these are rarely considered in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to catalog spillover-related health utilities to facilitate their consideration in CEAs. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the medical and economic literatures (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EconLit, from inception through 3 April 2018) to identify articles that reported preference-based measures of spillover effects. We used keywords for utility measures combined with caregivers, family members, and burden. RESULTS: Of 3695 articles identified, 80 remained after screening: 8 (10%) reported spillover utility per se, as utility or disutility (i.e. utility loss); 25 (30%) reported a comparison group, either population values (n = 9) or matched, non-caregiver/family member or unaffected individuals' utilities (n = 16; 3 reported both spillover and a comparison group); and 50 (63%) reported caregiver/family member utilities only. Alzheimer's disease/dementia was the most commonly studied disease/condition, and the EQ-5D was the most commonly used measurement instrument. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive catalog of utilities showcases the spectrum of diseases and conditions for which caregiver and family members' spillover effects have been measured, and the variation in measurement methods used. In general, utilities indicated a loss in quality of life associated with being a caregiver or family member of an ill relative. Most studies reported caregiver/family member utility without any comparator, limiting the ability to infer spillover effects. Nevertheless, these values provide a starting point for considering spillover effects in the context of CEA, opening the door for more comprehensive analyses.

15.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(4): 541-551, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have used preference-based quality-of-life outcomes to assess how autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect children and parents, and none have examined variation by ASD severity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to derive parent valuations of child and parent health associated with varying ASD severity levels. METHODS: Parents of children aged 3-17 years with and without ASD were selected from a nationally representative research panel to complete a survey. We asked parents time trade-off (TTO) questions to value their own and their child's current health. Parents of children with ASD were asked to report the severity of their child's core ASD symptoms. We calculated utility values from each TTO amount, and used a two-part regression model to estimate the change in parent-reported child health utility, as well as parent health utility, associated with ASD diagnosis and increasing symptom severity, controlling for respondent and child characteristics. RESULTS: Sixty-nine percent of parents responded (final sample size was 135 in the ASD group and 120 in the comparison group). In adjusted analyses, there was a 0.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.21) decrease in the parent-reported health utility of children with ASD, a 15% decrease from the mean health utility of children without ASD. On average, having a child with ASD was not significantly associated with a decrease in parent health utility, but there was a 0.14 (95% CI 0.01-0.26) reduction in health utility among parents of children with severe ASD, a 15% decrease from the comparison group mean. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, ASD had a significant impact on parent-reported child health utility, and the health utility of parents of children with severe ASD.

17.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(6): 380-388, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776797

RESUMO

Background: The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently developed recommendations for use of a new recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV). Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV compared with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and no vaccination, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV for persons who have previously received ZVL, and the cost-effectiveness of preferential vaccination with RZV over ZVL. Design: Simulation (state-transition) model using U.S. epidemiologic, clinical, and cost data. Data Sources: Published data. Target Population: Hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent U.S. adults aged 50 years or older. Time Horizon: Lifetime. Perspective: Societal and health care sector. Intervention: Vaccination with RZV (recommended 2-dose regimen), vaccination with ZVL, and no vaccination. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results of Base-Case Analysis: For vaccination with RZV compared with no vaccination, ICERs ranged by age from $10 000 to $47 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), using a societal perspective and assuming 100% completion of the 2-dose RZV regimen. For persons aged 60 years or older, ICERs were less than $60 000 per QALY. Vaccination with ZVL was dominated by vaccination with RZV for all age groups 60 years or older. Results of Sensitivity Analysis: Results were most sensitive to changes in vaccine effectiveness, duration of protection, herpes zoster incidence, and probability of postherpetic neuralgia. Vaccination with RZV after previous administration of ZVL yielded an ICER of less than $60 000 per QALY for persons aged 60 years or older. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, RZV remained the preferred strategy in at least 95% of simulations, including those with 50% completion of the second dose. Limitation: Few data were available on risk for serious adverse events, adherence to the recommended 2-dose regimen, and probability of recurrent zoster. Conclusion: Vaccination with RZV yields cost-effectiveness ratios lower than those for many recommended adult vaccines, including ZVL. Results are robust over a wide range of plausible values. Primary Funding Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/economia , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Política de Saúde , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Prevenção Secundária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/economia
18.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 3(1): 4, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement of health utilities is required for economic evaluations. Few studies have evaluated health utilities for rare conditions; even fewer have incorporated disutility that may be experienced by caregivers. This study aimed to (1) estimate health utilities for three rare conditions currently recommended for newborn screening at the state or federal level, and (2) estimate the disutility, or spillover, experienced by parents of patients diagnosed with a rare, heritable disorder. METHODS: A stated-preference survey using a time trade-off approach elicited health utilities for Krabbe disease, phenylketonuria, and Pompe disease at varying stages (mild, moderate, severe) and onset of disease symptoms (infancy, childhood, and adulthood). We recruited respondents from a nationally representative community sample (n = 862). Respondents valued disease specific health states in three consecutive question frames: (1) adult health state (> = 18 years of age), (2) child health state (< 18 years of age), and (3) as a parent of a child with a condition (parent spillover state). Corresponding mean utilities were calculated for plausible disease states in adulthood and childhood. Mean disutility was estimated for parental spillover. Predictors of utilities were evaluated using a negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: More severe conditions and infant health states received lower estimated utility and greater estimated disutility among parents. Conditions with the lowest estimated health utilities were severe infantile Pompe disease (0.40, CI: 0.34-0.46) and infantile Krabbe disease (0.37, CI: 0.32-0.43). Disutility was evident for all conditions evaluated (range: 0.07-0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Rare childhood conditions are associated with substantial estimated losses in quality of life. Evidence of disutility among parents further warrants the inclusion of spillover effects in cost-effectiveness analyses. Continued research is needed to assess and measure the effects of childhood disease from a family perspective.

19.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 17(2): 163-174, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can impose significant costs and health strains on family members, but these are not routinely captured by pediatric economic evaluations. This review investigated how family "spillover effects" related to costs and health outcomes are considered in pediatric cost-utility analyses (CUAs). METHODS: We reviewed pediatric CUAs published between 2000 and 2015 using the Tufts Medical Center Cost-effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry and the Pediatric Economic Database Evaluation (PEDE) Registry. We selected studies conducted from the societal perspective and included in both registries. We investigated how frequently family spillover was incorporated into analyses, and how the inclusion of spillover health effects and costs changed CUA results. RESULTS: We found 142 pediatric CUAs meeting inclusion criteria. Of those, 105 (72%) considered either family spillover costs (n = 98 time costs, n = 33 out-of-pocket costs, n = 2 caregiver healthcare costs) or health outcomes (n = 15). Twenty-four studies included 43 pairs of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) with and without spillover. In 19 pairs of ICERs, adding spillover changed the ICER enough to cross a common cost-effectiveness threshold (i.e., $50,000/QALY, $100,000/QALY, $150,000/QALY; values are in 2016 US$). Incorporating spillover generally made interventions more cost-effective (n = 18; 42%), or did not change CUA results enough to cross a threshold (n = 24; 56%). Including family spillover reduced ICERs by 31% ($40,000/QALY) on average. CONCLUSION: Most pediatric CUAs conducted from a societal perspective include family costs but fewer include family health effects. Inclusion of family spillover effects tends to make CUA results more favorable. Future pediatric CUAs should aim to more fully incorporate the family burden of illness.

20.
JAMA Surg ; 154(1): e184375, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484820

RESUMO

Importance: Surgical options for weight loss vary considerably in risks and benefits, but the relative importance of procedure-associated characteristics in patient decision making is largely unknown. Objective: To identify patient preferences for risks, benefits, and other attributes of treatment options available to individuals who are candidates for bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This discrete choice experiment of weight loss procedures was performed as an internet-based survey administered to patients recruited from bariatric surgery information sessions in the State of Michigan. Each procedure was described by the following set of attributes: (1) treatment method, (2) recovery and reversibility, (3) time that treatment has been available, (4) expected weight loss, (5) effect on other medical conditions, (6) risk of complication, (7) adverse effects, (8) changes to diet, and (9) out-of-pocket costs. Participants chose between surgical profiles by comparing attributes. Survey data were collected from May 1, 2015, through January 30, 2016, and analyzed from February 1 to June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimated relative value of risks and benefits for leading weight-loss surgical options and marginal willingness to pay for procedure attributes. A latent class analysis identified respondent subgroups. Results: Among the 815 respondents (79.9% women; mean [SD] age, 44.5 [12.0] years), profiles of hypothetical procedures that included resolution of medical conditions (coefficient for full resolution, 0.229 [95% CI, 0.177 to 0.280; P < .001]; coefficient for no resolution, -0.207 [95% CI, -0.254 to -0.159; P < .001]), higher total weight loss (coefficient for each additional 20% loss, 0.185 [95% CI, 0.166 to 0.205; P < .001]), and lower out-of-pocket costs (coefficient for each additional $1000, -0.034 [95% CI, -0.042 to -0.025; P < .001]) were most likely to be selected. Younger respondents were more likely than older respondents to choose treatments with higher weight loss (coefficient for loss of 80% excess weight 0.543 [95% CI, 0.435-0.651] vs 0.397 [95% CI, 0.315-0.482]) and were more sensitive to out-of-pocket costs (coefficient for $100 out-of-pocket costs, 0.346 [95% CI, 0.221-0.470] vs 0.262 [95% CI, 0.174 to 0.350]; coefficient for $15 000 in out-of-pocket costs, -0.768 [95% CI, -0.938 to -0.598] vs -0.384 [95% CI, -0.500 to -0.268]). Marginal willingness to pay indicated respondents would pay $5470 for losing each additional 20% of excess body weight and $12 843 for resolution of existing medical conditions, the most desired procedure attributes. Latent class analysis identified the following 3 unobserved subgroups: cost-sensitive (most concerned with costs); benefit-focused (most concerned with excess weight loss and resolution of medical conditions); and procedure-focused (most concerned with how the treatment itself worked, including recovery and reversibility). Conclusions and Relevance: Candidates for bariatric surgery identified costs, expected weight loss, and resolution of medical conditions as the most important characteristics of weight loss surgery decisions. Other information, such as risk of complications and adverse effects, were important to patients but less so.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso
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