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Front Psychol ; 13: 812677, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418923


This study analyzed and explored the cognitive load of Australian energy market operators managing one of the longest inter-connected electrical networks in the world. Each operator uses a workstation with seven screens in an active control room environment, with a large coordination screen to show information and enable collaboration between different control centers. Cognitive load was assessed during both training scenarios and regular control room operations via the integration of subjective and physiological measures. Eye-tracking glasses were also used to analyze the operators gaze behavior. Our results indicate that different events (normal or unexpected), different participants for the same session, and different periods of one session all have varying degrees of cognitive load. The system design was observed to be inefficient in some situations and to have an adverse affect on cognitive load. In critical situations for instance, operator collaboration was high and the coordination screen was used heavily when collaborating between two control centers, yet integration with the system could be improved. Eye tracking data analysis showed that the layout of applications across the seven screens was not optimal for many tasks. Improved layout strategies, potential combination of applications, redesigning of certain applications, and linked views are all recommended for further exploration in addition to improved integration of procedures and linking alarms to visual cues.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1171-1181, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048740


Immersive technologies offer new opportunities to support collaborative visual data analysis by providing each collaborator a personal, high-resolution view of a flexible shared visualisation space through a head mounted display. However, most prior studies of collaborative immersive analytics have focused on how groups interact with surface interfaces such as tabletops and wall displays. This paper reports on a study in which teams of three co-located participants are given flexible visualisation authoring tools to allow a great deal of control in how they structure their shared workspace. They do so using a prototype system we call FIESTA: the Free-roaming Immersive Environment to Support Team-based Analysis. Unlike traditional visualisation tools, FIESTA allows users to freely position authoring interfaces and visualisation artefacts anywhere in the virtual environment, either on virtual surfaces or suspended within the interaction space. Our participants solved visual analytics tasks on a multivariate data set, doing so individually and collaboratively by creating a large number of 2D and 3D visualisations. Their behaviours suggest that the usage of surfaces is coupled with the type of visualisation used, often using walls to organise 2D visualisations, but positioning 3D visualisations in the space around them. Outside of tightly-coupled collaboration, participants followed social protocols and did not interact with visualisations that did not belong to them even if outside of its owner's personal workspace.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1193-1203, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074810


Collaborative visual analytics leverages social interaction to support data exploration and sensemaking. These processes are typically imagined as formalised, extended activities, between groups of dedicated experts, requiring expertise with sophisticated data analysis tools. However, there are many professional domains that benefit from support for short 'bursts' of data exploration between a subset of stakeholders with a diverse breadth of knowledge. Such 'casual collaborative' scenarios will require engaging features to draw users' attention, with intuitive, 'walk-up and use' interfaces. This paper presents Uplift, a novel prototype system to support 'casual collaborative visual analytics' for a campus microgrid, co-designed with local stakeholders. An elicitation workshop with key members of the building management team revealed relevant knowledge is distributed among multiple experts in their team, each using bespoke analysis tools. Uplift combines an engaging 3D model on a central tabletop display with intuitive tangible interaction, as well as augmented-reality, mid-air data visualisation, in order to support casual collaborative visual analytics for this complex domain. Evaluations with expert stakeholders from the building management and energy domains were conducted during and following our prototype development and indicate that Uplift is successful as an engaging backdrop for casual collaboration. Experts see high potential in such a system to bring together diverse knowledge holders and reveal complex interactions between structural, operational, and financial aspects of their domain. Such systems have further potential in other domains that require collaborative discussion or demonstration of models, forecasts, or cost-benefit analyses to high-level stakeholders.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(8): 1936-1951, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448363


Wall-displays allow multiple users to simultaneously view and analyze large amounts of information, such as the increasingly complex graphs present in domains like biology or social network analysis. We focus on how pairs explore graphs on a touch enabled wall-display using two techniques, both adapted for collaboration: a basic localized selection, and a propagation selection technique that uses the idea of diffusion/transmission from an origin node. We assess in a controlled experiment the impact of selection technique on a shortest path identification task. Pairs consistently divided space even if the task is not spatially divisible, and for the basic selection technique that has a localized visual effect, it led to parallel work that negatively impacted accuracy. The large visual footprint of the propagation technique led to close coordination, improving speed and accuracy for complex graphs only. We then observed the use of propagation on additional graph topology tasks, confirming pair strategies on spatial division and coordination.