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3.
Europace ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808520

RESUMO

AIMS: Although cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation is a well-established treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), it's role in persistent AF is unclear. We examined procedural success and long-term outcomes of cryoablation in persistent and longstanding persistent AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: International multicentre registry from three UK and eight European centres. Consecutive patients undergoing cryoablation for persistent AF included. Procedural data, complications, and follow-up were prospectively recorded. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months with an electrocardiogram with open access to arrhythmia nurses thereafter. Ambulatory monitoring was dictated by symptoms. Success was defined as freedom from AF or atrial tachycardia lasting >30 s off antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). Six hundred and nine consecutive cryoablation procedures. Mean procedure and fluoroscopy times were 95 ± 65 and 13 ± 10 min. Single procedure success rates were 368/602 (61%) off AADs over a median of 2.4 (1.0-4.0) years. Arrhythmia-free survival off AADs was 64% and 57% for persistent and longstanding persistent AF at 24 months of follow-up (P = 0.02). Rate of repeat ablations was 20% in persistent and 32% in longstanding persistent AF (P = 0.006). Cox regression analyses showed a significant association between duration of AF and left atrial diameter and arrhythmia recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, P-value 0.01 and HR 1.02, P-value 0.004]. CONCLUSION: Cryoablation for persistent AF is safe, fast and has good outcomes at long-term follow-up. Cryoablation is reasonable as a first line option for these patients. Short procedure times may help increase capacity of cardiac units to meet the rising demand for AF ablation. Randomised control trials are needed to compare outcomes with different techniques.

4.
Curr Med Chem ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838987

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing public health issue, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In addition to pharmacological therapy, catheter ablation is an effective strategy in restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm. However, ablation is not without risk, and AF recurs in a significant proportion of patients. Non-invasive, easily accessible markers or indices that could stratify patients depending on the likelihood of a successful outcome following ablation would allow us to select the most appropriate patients for the procedure, reducing the AF recurrence rate and exposure to potentially life-threatening risks. There has been much attention paid to brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as possible predictive markers of successful ablation. Several studies have demonstrated an association between higher pre-ablation levels of these peptides, and a greater likelihood of AF recurrence. Therefore, there may be a role for measuring brain natriuretic peptides levels when selecting patients for catheter ablation.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750896

RESUMO

AIMS: While data from randomized trials suggest a declining incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among heart failure patients, the extent to which such a trend is present among patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has not been evaluated. We therefore assessed changes in SCD incidence, and associated factors, in CRT recipients over the last 20 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: Literature search from inception to 30 April 2018 for observational and randomized studies involving CRT patients, with or without defibrillator, providing specific cause-of-death data. Sudden cardiac death was the primary endpoint. For each study, rate of SCD per 1000 patient-years of follow-up was calculated. Trend line graphs were subsequently constructed to assess change in SCD rates over time, which were further analysed by device type, patient characteristics, and medical therapy. Fifty-three studies, comprising 22 351 patients with 60 879 patient-years of follow-up and a total of 585 SCD, were included. There was a gradual decrease in SCD rates since the early 2000s in both randomized and observational studies, with rates falling more than four-fold. The rate of decline in SCD was steeper than that of all-cause mortality, and accordingly, the proportion of deaths which were due to SCD declined over the years. The magnitude of absolute decline in SCD was more prominent among CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) patients compared to those receiving CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D), with the difference in SCD rates between CRT-P and CRT-D decreasing considerably over time. There was a progressive increase in age, use of beta-blockers, and left ventricular ejection fraction, and conversely, a decrease in QRS duration and antiarrhythmic drug use. CONCLUSION: Sudden cardiac death rates have progressively declined in the CRT heart failure population over time, with the difference between CRT-D vs. CRT-P recipients narrowing considerably.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to guidelines, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) candidates must have a "reasonable expectation of survival with a good functional status >1 year". Identifying risk for early mortality in ICD candidates could be challenging. We aimed to identify factors associated with a ≤1-year survival among patients implanted with ICDs. METHODS: The DAI-PP program was a multicenter, observational French study that included all patients who received a primary prevention ICD in the 2002-2012 period. Characteristics of patients who survived ≤1 year following the implantation were compared with those who survived >1 year, and predictors of early death determined. RESULTS: Out of the 5539 enrolled patients, survival status at 1 year was known for a total of 5,457, and overall 230 (4.2%) survived ≤1 year. Causes of death were similar in the two groups. Patients with ≤1-year survival had lower rates of appropriate (14 vs. 23%; P = 0.004) and inappropriate ICD therapies (2 vs. 7%; P = 0.009) than patients who lived >1 year after ICD implantation. In multivariate analysis, older age, higher NYHA class (≥III), and atrial fibrillation were significantly associated with ≤1-year survival. Presence of all 3 risk factors was associated with a cumulative 22.63% risk of death within 1 year after implantation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study determining the factors predicting early mortality after ICD implantation. Patients dying within the first year had low ICD therapy rates. A combination of clinical factors could potentially identify patients at risk for early mortality to help improve selection of ICD candidates.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e012253, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581876

RESUMO

Background Outcomes of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) are variable and the predictors of success require further elucidation since the identification of correctable risk factors could help to optimize therapy. We aimed to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) in the overall safety and efficacy of catheter ablation of AF, with emphasis on the use of cryoballoon ablation and novel oral anticoagulants. Methods and Results There were 2497 consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF in 7 European high volume centers were stratified according to BMI (normal weight <25 kg/m2, pre-obese 25-30 kg/m2, obesity 30-35 kg/m2, and morbid obesity ≥35 kg/m2) and comparisons of procedural outcomes evaluated. Pre-obese and obese patients presented more comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sleep apnea), and had higher rates of non-paroxysmal AF ablation procedures. The rate of atrial 12-month arrhythmia relapse increased alongside with BMI (35.2%, 35.7%, 43.6%, and 48.0% P<0.001). During a median follow-up of 18.8 months (interquartile range 11-28), after adjusting for all baseline differences, BMI was an independent predictor of relapse (hazard ratio=1.01 per kg/m2; 95% CI 1.01-1.02; P=0.002), adding incremental predictive value to obstructive sleep apnea. BMI was not a predictor for any of the reported complications. Using novel oral anticoagulants and cryoballoon ablation was safe and efficacy was comparable with vitamin-K antagonists and radiofrequency ablation. Conclusions Obese patients present with a more adverse comorbidity profile, more advanced forms of AF, and have lower chances of being free from AF relapse after ablation. Use of novel oral anticoagulants and cryoballoon ablation may be an option in this patient group.

8.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(12): 2900-2906, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578806

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implantable loop recorders (ILR) are predominantly implanted by cardiologists in the catheter laboratory. We developed a nurse-delivered service for the implantation of LINQ (Medtronic; Minnesota) ILRs in the outpatient setting. This study compared the safety and cost-effectiveness of the introduction of this nurse-delivered ILR service with contemporaneous physician-led procedures. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing an ILR at our institution between 1st July 2016 and 4th June 2018 were included. Data were prospectively entered into a computerized database, which was retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 475 patients underwent ILR implantation, 271 (57%) of these were implanted by physicians in the catheter laboratory and 204 (43%) by nurses in the outpatient setting. Six complications occurred in physician-implants and two in nurse-implants (P = .3). Procedural time for physician-implants (13.4 ± 8.0 minutes) and nurse-implants (14.2 ± 10.1 minutes) were comparable (P = .98). The procedural cost was estimated as £576.02 for physician-implants against £279.95 with nurse-implants, equating to a 57.3% cost reduction. In our center, the total cost of ILR implantation in the catheter laboratory by physicians was £10 513.13 p.a. vs £6661.55 p.a. with a nurse-delivered model. When overheads for running, cleaning, and maintaining were accounted for, we estimated a saving of £68 685.75 was performed by moving to a nurse-delivered model for ILR implants. Over 133 catheter laboratory and implanting physician hours were saved and utilized for other more complex procedures. CONCLUSION: ILR implantation in the outpatient setting by suitably trained nurses is safe and leads to significant financial savings.

10.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(8-9): 523-531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471226

RESUMO

This review summarizes the main findings of the French multicentre DAI-PP pilot programme, and discusses the related clinical and research perspectives. This project included retrospectively (2002-2012 period) more than 5000 subjects with structural heart disease who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death, and were followed for a mean period of 3 years. The pilot phase of the DAI-PP programme has provided valuable information on several practical and clinically relevant aspects of primary prevention ICD implantation in the real-world population, which are summarized in this review. This pilot has led to a prospective evaluation that started in May 2018, assessing ICD therapy in primary and secondary prevention in patients with structural and electrical heart diseases, with remote monitoring follow-up using a dedicated platform. This should further enhance our understanding of sudden cardiac death, to eventually optimize the field of preventative actions.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13016, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506584

RESUMO

Almost a third of patients fulfilling current guidelines criteria have suboptimal responses following cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Circulating biomarkers may help identify these patients. We aimed to assess the predictive role of full blood count (FBC) parameters in prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients undergoing CRT device implantation. We enrolled 612 consecutive CRT patients and FBC was measured within 24 hours prior to implantation. The follow-up period was a median of 1652 days (IQR: 837-2612). The study endpoints were i) composite of all-cause mortality or transplant, and ii) reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling. On multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI)] only red cell count (RCC) (p = 0.004), red cell distribution width (RDW) (p < 0.001), percentage of lymphocytes (p = 0.03) and platelet count (p < 0.001) predicted all-cause mortality. Interestingly, RDW (p = 0.004) and platelet count (p = 0.008) were independent predictors of reverse LV remodeling. This is the first powered single-centre study to demonstrate that RDW and platelet count are independent predictors of long-term all-cause mortality and/or heart transplant in CRT patients. Further studies, on the role of these parameters in enhancing patient selection for CRT implantation should be conducted to confirm our findings.

12.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(8): 1553-1558, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446474

RESUMO

The patterns and prevalence of early repolarization pattern (ER) in pediatric populations from ethnic backgrounds other than Caucasian have not been determined. Black African children (ages 4-12) from north-west Madagascar were prospectively recruited and their ECGs compared with those of age- and sex-matched Caucasian ethnicity individuals. ER was defined by ≥ 0.1 mV J-point elevation in at least two contiguous inferior and/or lateral ECG leads. A total of 616 children were included. There was a trend toward a higher frequency of ER in the Africans compared to the Caucasians (23.3% vs. 17.1%, respectively, p = 0.053). The subtype (slurred vs. notched) and location of ER (lateral, inferior, or inferior-lateral) were significantly different in the two groups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.020, respectively). There was no significant difference in the number of high-risk ECG features of ERP (i.e., horizontal/descendent pattern, inferior or inferior-lateral location or J-waves ≥ 2 mm) between African and Caucasian children. On the multivariate analysis, African ethnicity was an independent predictive factor of ER (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.04-6.25, p < 0.001). African children have an increased risk of ER compared to Caucasian counterparts. Future studies should clarify the clinical and prognostic significance of ER in the pediatric population, and whether ethnicity has an impact on the outcomes.

14.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(8): 1270-1277, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been recently shown to have an impact on the outcome of patients with heart failure and reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF). We aimed to assess patients with reduced LVEF referred to catheter ablation of AF, and the efficacy and safety of this procedure compared with healthier patients. METHODS: 2083 consecutive procedures of catheter ablation of AF in six centers were divided into two groups on the basis of LVEF (≤ vs >35%) and comparisons were performed regarding procedural safety and efficacy. RESULTS: Only 51 (2.4%) of patients had low LVEF. Complication rate was comparable: 8.0% vs 6.9% (P = .760). Low LVEF patients are more frequently in persistent AF at the time of the procedure, have a higher degree of left atrial dilation, and higher CHA2 DS2 VASc score. The rate of atrial arrhythmia relapse post-blanking period in the first 12 months was higher in the low LVEF group: 58.0% vs 37.6% (P < .001). During a median follow-up of 14 months (IQR 5-24), after adjusting for all baseline differences, AF duration, paroxysmal AF, CHA2 DS2 VASc score, BMI, and indexed LA volume were independent predictors of relapse. LVEF and LVEF ≤ 35% were not identified as predictors of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with reduced LVEF account for only a minority of patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF. However, ablation appears to be as safe as for the general population, and albeit the efficacy seems lower, this appears to be driven by other comorbidities or features, which are more frequent in this population.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2121-2127, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046090

RESUMO

AIMS: The very long-term outcome of patients who survive the first few years after receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has not been well described thus far. We aimed to provide long-term outcomes, especially with regard to the occurrence of sudden cardiac death (SCD), in CRT patients without (CRT-P) and with defibrillator (CRT-D). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1775 patients, with ischaemic or non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy, who were alive 5 years after CRT implantation, were enrolled in this multicentre European observational cohort study. Overall long-term mortality rates and specific causes of death were assessed, with a focus on late SCD. Over a mean follow-up of 30 months (interquartile range 10-42 months) beyond the first 5 years, we observed 473 deaths. The annual age-standardized mortality rates of CRT-D and CRT-P patients were 40.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.3-45.5] and 97.2 (95% CI 85.5-109.9) per 1000 patient-years, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 0.99 (95% CI 0.79-1.22). Twenty-nine patients in total died of late SCD (14 with CRT-P, 15 with CRT-D), corresponding to 6.1% of all causes of death in both device groups. Specific annual SCD rates were 8.5 and 5.8 per 1000 patient-years in CRT-P and CRT-D patients, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (adjusted HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.45-2.44). Death due to progressive heart failure represented the principal cause of death (42.8% in CRT-P patients and 52.6% among CRT-D recipients), whereas approximately one-third of deaths in both device groups were due to non-cardiovascular death. CONCLUSION: In this first description of very long-term outcomes among CRT recipients, progressive heart failure death still represented the most frequent cause of death in patients surviving the first 5 years after CRT implant. In contrast, SCD represents a very low proportion of late mortality irrespective of the presence of a defibrillator.

18.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(1): 58-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying drivers in persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) remains challenging. We sought to validate an automated system for detection of focal activation using basket and PentaRay catheters in AF. METHODS: Patients having ablation for atrial tachycardia (AT) and persistent AF were mapped. Thirty-second unipolar basket and PentaRay recordings were analyzed using CARTOFINDER. Focal activation or "region of interest" (ROI) was defined as more than or equal to 2 consecutive focal activations with one electrode leading relative to its neighbors with QS morphology on the unipolar electrogram. ROI was validated in AT. AF patients were mapped to (1) look for evidence of focal activations on wavefront maps, (2) evaluate whether these were detected as ROI on basket recordings, and (3) whether these sites could be identified on sequential PentaRay recordings. RESULTS: ROIs were identified in five focal ATs but none of 16 reentrant ATs. Twenty-eight AF patients had 35 focal drivers identified from basket wavefront maps with an ablation response in all (16 cycle length slowing and 19 AF termination). Thirty focal activations were detected on basket ROI maps (86%). Twenty-three of 28 patients had sequential PentaRay mapping and 22 of 30 focal drivers in these patients (73%) were identified as ROI. These drivers had greater temporal stability (3.6 ± 0.6 vs 2.7 ± 0.6; P < 0.001), higher recurrence rate (12.4 ± 2.7 vs 7.2 ± 0.9; P < 0.001), and more frequently were associated with AF termination ( P < 0.001) compared with those not identified as ROI. CONCLUSIONS: Focal activations can be detected in AF using sequential recordings. The ablation response at focal sources suggests they may be viable therapeutic targets.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 277: 110-117, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the long term outcomes after catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the context of structural heart disease in a multicenter cohort. The impact of different ablation strategies (substrate ablation versus activation guided versus combined) and non-inducibility as an end-point was evaluated. METHODS: Data was pooled from prospective registries at 5 centres over a 5 year period. Success was defined as survival free from recurrent ventricular arrhythmias (VA). Multivariate analysis of factors predicting survival free from VA was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-six patients underwent CA for VT. Patients were 64 ±â€¯15 years. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 35 ±â€¯15% and 66% had ischaemic heart disease. At 2.3 (IQR 1.0-4.2) years, success was achieved in 44% after a single procedure, rising to 60% after repeat procedures. Mortality at final follow up was 22%. Multivariate analysis showed that higher left ventricular ejection fraction, younger age, ischaemic heart disease, and non-inducibility of VA predicted long term survival free from VA (all p < 0.05). There was no impact of the approach to ablation. CONCLUSION: CA eliminates VT in a large proportion of patients long term. Ablation strategy did not impact outcome and hence substrate ablation is a reasonable initial strategy. Non-inducibility of VA predicted survival free from VA and may be worth pursuing as a procedural end-point.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/tendências , Determinação de Ponto Final/tendências , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Idoso , Ablação por Cateter/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Determinação de Ponto Final/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Taquicardia Ventricular/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(6): 943-951, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) T wave to intracardiac repolarization is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intracardiac ventricular repolarization and the T wave on the body surface ECG (SECGTW). METHODS: Ten patients with a normal heart (age 35 ± 15 years; 6 men) were studied. Decapolar electrophysiological catheters were placed in the right ventricle (RV) and lateral left ventricle (LV) to record in an apicobasal orientation and in the lateral LV branch of the coronary sinus (CS) for transmural recording. Each catheter (CS, LV, RV) was sequentially paced using an S1-S2 restitution protocol. Intracardiac repolarization time and apicobasal, RV-LV, and transmural repolarization dispersion were correlated with the SECGTW, and a total of 23,946 T waves analyzed. RESULTS: RV endocardial repolarization occurred on the upslope of lead V1, V2, and V3 SECGTW, with sensitivity of 0.89, 0.91, and 0.84 and specificity of 0.67, 0.68, and 0.65, respectively. LV basal endocardial, epicardial, and mid-endocardial repolarization occurred on the upslope of leads V6 and I, with sensitivity of 0.79 and 0.8 and specificity of 0.66 and 0.67, respectively. Differences between the end of the upslope in V1, V2, and V3 vs V6 strongly correlated with right to left dispersion of repolarization (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81, 0.83, and 0.85, respectively; P <.001). Poor association between the T wave and apicobasal and transmural dispersion of repolarization was seen. CONCLUSION: The precordial SECGTW reflects regional repolarization differences between right and left heart. These findings have important implications for accurately identifying biomarkers of arrhythmogenic risk in disease.

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