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1.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339593

RESUMO

This review analyses physical drug delivery enhancement technologies with a focus on improving UV damaged skin, actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancer treatment. In recent years, physical drug delivery enhancement has been shown to enhance cosmeceutical and skin cancer treatment efficacy, but there are pros and cons to each approach which we discuss in detail. Mechanisms of action, clinical efficacy, experimental design, outcomes in academic publications, clinical trial reports and patents are explored to evaluate each technology with a critical, translation focused lens. We conclude that the commercial success of cosmeceutical applications, e.g. microneedles, will drive further innovation in this arena that will impact how actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers are clinically managed.

2.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084432

RESUMO

This review critically evaluates the sunscreen delivery and toxicity field. We chose to focus on approved sunscreens in this review. Optimal sunscreen use prevents skin cancer and photoageing but there is an important knowledge gap in sunscreen/skin interactions. Sunscreen delivery is a key for efficacy, but studying sunscreen delivery is not straightforward. We review the strengths and weaknesses of in vitro, excised skin and clinical approaches. Understanding positive and negative sunscreen effects on skin homeostasis is also challenging. The results in this field, especially in vitro testing, are controversial and experimental design varies widely which further supports disparities between some findings. We hypothesize that bias towards showing sunscreen toxicity to increase impact could be problematic. We explore that perception through a detailed review of experimental design, especially in cell culture models. Our conclusion is that emerging, non- and minimally invasive technologies are enabling new approaches to volunteer studies that could significantly improve knowledge of sunscreen delivery and interactions.

3.
Biomed Microdevices ; 21(4): 81, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418068

RESUMO

Conventional skin and blood sampling techniques for disease diagnosis, though effective, are often highly invasive and some even suffer from variations in analysis. With the improvements in molecular detection, the amount of starting sample quantity needed has significantly reduced in some diagnostic procedures, and this has led to an increased interest in microsampling techniques for disease biomarker detection. The miniaturization of sampling platforms driven by microsampling has the potential to shift disease diagnosis and monitoring closer to the point of care. The faster turnaround time for actionable results has improved patient care. The variations in sample quantification and analysis remain a challenge in the microsampling field. The future of microsampling looks promising. Emerging techniques are being clinically tested and monitored by regulatory bodies. This process is leading to safer and more reliable diagnostic platforms. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of current skin and blood microsampling techniques.


Assuntos
Microtecnologia/métodos , Animais , Sangue/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Pele/metabolismo
4.
J Vis Exp ; (144)2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855573

RESUMO

Conventional skin biopsy limits the clinical research that involves cosmetically sensitive areas or pediatric applications due to its invasiveness. Here, we describe the protocol for using an absorbent microneedle-based device, absorbent microbiopsy, for minimally invasive sampling of skin and blood mixture. Our goal is to help facilitate rapid progress in clinical research, the establishment of biomarkers for skin disease and reducing the risk for clinical research participants. In contrast to conventional skin biopsy techniques, the absorbent microbiopsy can be performed within seconds and does not require intensive training due to its simple design. In this report, we describe the use of absorbent microbiopsy, including loading and application, on a volunteer. Then, we show how to isolate RNA from the absorbed sample. Finally, we demonstrate the use of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify mRNA expression levels of both blood (CD3E and CD19) and skin (KRT14 and TYR). The methods that we describe utilize off the shelf kits and reagents. This protocol offers a minimally invasive approach for simultaneous sampling of skin and blood within the same absorbent microbiopsy matrix. We have found human ethics committees, clinicians and volunteers to be supportive of this approach to dermatological research.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , RNA/sangue , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Pele/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Agulhas , RNA/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Control Release ; 288: 264-276, 2018 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227159

RESUMO

This study demonstrates, for the first time, clinical testing of elongated silica microparticles (EMP) combined with tailorable nanoemulsions (TNE) to enhance topical delivery of hydrophobic drug surrogates. Likewise, this is the first report of 6-carboxyfluorescein (a model molecule for topically delivered hydrophobic drugs) AM1 & DAMP4 (novel short peptide surfactants) used in volunteers. The EMP penetrates through the epidermis and stop at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ). TNE are unusually stable and useful because the oil core allows high drug loading levels and the surface properties can be easily controlled. At first, we chose alginate as a crosslinking agent between EMP and TNE. We initially incorporated a fluorescent lipophilic dye, DiI, as a hydrophobic drug surrogate into TNE for visualization with microscopy. We compared four different coating approaches to combine EMP and TNE and tested these formulations in freshly excised human skin. The delivery profile characterisation was imaged by dye- free coherent anti-Stoke Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to detect the core droplet of TNE that was packed with pharmaceutical grade lipid (glycerol) instead of DiI. These data show the EMP penetrating to the DEJ followed by controlled release of the TNE. Freeze-dried formulations with crosslinking resulted in a sustained release profile, whereas a freeze-dried formulation without crosslinking showed an immediate burst-type release profile. Finally, we tested the crosslinked TNE coated EMP formulation in volunteers using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to document the penetration depth characteristics. These forms of microscopy have limitations in terms of image acquisition speed and imaging area coverage but can detect fluorescent drug delivery through the superficial skin in volunteers. 6-Carboxyfluorescein was selected as the fluorescent drug surrogate for the volunteer study based on the similarity of size, charge and hydrophobicity characteristics to small therapeutic drugs that are difficult to deliver through skin. The imaging data showed a 6-carboxyfluorescein signal deep in volunteer skin supporting the hypothesis that EMP can indeed enhance the delivery of TNE in human skin. There were no adverse events recorded at the time of the study or after the study, supporting the use of 6-carboxyfluorescein as a safe and detectable drug surrogate for topical drug research. In conclusion, dry formulations, with controllable release profiles can be obtained with TNE coated EMP that can effectively enhance hydrophobic payload delivery deep into the human epidermis.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Pele/metabolismo , Emulsões , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem
6.
Lasers Surg Med ; 50(1): 70-77, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is an acknowledged technique to increase uptake of topical agents in skin. Micro thermal ablation zones (MAZs) consist of ablated vertical channels surrounded by a coagulation zone (CZ). Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) images individual MAZs at 733 nm (reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)). Further, LSCM can image sodium fluorescein (NaF) fluorescence with 488 nm excitation (fluorescence confocal microcopy (FCM)), a small hydrophilic test molecule (370 MW, log P -1.52), which may simulate uptake, bio-distribution and kinetics of small hydrophilic drugs. OBJECTIVES: To explore LSCM for combined investigations of CZ thickness and uptake, bio-distribution and kinetics of NaF in AFXL-exposed skin. STUDY DESIGNS/METHODS AND MATERIALS: Excised human abdominal skin samples were exposed to AFXL (15 mJ/microbeam, 2% density) and NaF gel (1000 µg/ml, 10 µl/cm2) in six repetitions, including untreated control samples. CZ thickness and spatiotemporal fluorescence intensities (FI) were quantified up to four hours after NaF application by RCM and FCM. Test sites were scanned to a depth of 200 µm, quantifying thickness of skin compartments (stratum corneum, epidermis, upper dermis), individual CZ thicknesses and FI in CZ and surrounding skin. RESULTS: RCM images established skin morphology to a depth of 200 µm. The CZ thickness measurements were feasible to a depth of 50 µm, and remained unchanged over time at 50 µm (P > 0.5). FI were detected to a depth of 160 µm and remained constant in CZ up to four hours after NaF application (15 minutes: 79 AU (73-92 AU), 60 minutes: 72 AU (58-82 AU), four hours: 78 AU (71-90 AU), P > 0.1). In surrounding skin, FI increased significantly over time, but remained lower than FI in CZ (15 minutes: 21 AU (17-22 AU), 60 minutes: 21 AU (19-26 AU), four hours: 42 (31- 48 AU), P = 0.03). AFXL-processed skin generated higher FI compared to non-laser processed skin in epidermis and upper dermis at 60 minutes and four hours (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: By LSCM, assessment of the AFXL-induced CZ thickness was feasible to a depth of 50 µm, and assessment of FI from a small hydrophilic test molecule, NaF in CZ and surrounding skin feasible to a depth of 160 µm. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:70-77, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Fotocoagulação a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Confocal , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
7.
PeerJ ; 5: e3631, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852586

RESUMO

Identification of appropriate reference genes (RGs) is critical to accurate data interpretation in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments. In this study, we have utilised next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyse the transcriptome of a panel of non-melanoma skin cancer lesions, identifying genes that are consistently expressed across all samples. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins were amongst the most stable in this dataset. Validation of this RNA-seq data was examined using qPCR to confirm the suitability of a set of highly stable genes for use as qPCR RGs. These genes will provide a valuable resource for the normalisation of qPCR data for the analysis of non-melanoma skin cancer.

8.
Int J Parasitol ; 47(10-11): 609-616, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455239

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially lethal, sand fly-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani species complex. There are several adequate methods for diagnosing VL, but the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, comprising potential parasite reservoirs for transmission of the disease. The gold standard for assessing host infectiousness to biting vector insects is xenodiagnosis (i.e. scoring infection rates among insectary-reared insects that had fed on humans suspected of being infected). However, when it comes to sand flies and leishmaniasis, xenodiagnosis is an intricate operation burdened by logistical hurdles and ethical concerns that prevent its effective application for mass screening of widely dispersed communities, particularly in rural regions of underdeveloped countries. Minimally invasive microbiopsy (MB) devices were designed to penetrate the skin to a depth of ∼200µm and absorb blood as well as skin cell lysates, mimicking the mode by which phlebotomine sand flies acquire blood meals, as well as their composition. MBs taken from 137 of 262 volunteers, living in endemic VL foci in Ethiopia, detected Leishmania parasites that could potentially be imbibed by feeding sand flies. Although the volume of MBs was 10-fold smaller than finger-prick blood samples, Leishmania DNA detection rates from MBs were significantly higher, implying that skin, more often than blood, was the source of parasites. Volunteers with histories of VL were almost as likely as healthy volunteers to test positive by MBs (southern Ethiopian focus: 95% CI: 0.35-2.59, P=1.0. northern Ethiopian focus 0.87: 95% CI: 0.22-3.76, P=1), suggesting the importance of asymptomatic patients as reservoirs of L. donovani. Minimally invasive, painless MBs should be considered for reliably and efficiently evaluating both L. donovani infection rates among large numbers of asymptomatic carriers and their infectiousness to blood-feeding sand flies.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Animais , Biópsia/métodos , Portador Sadio , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Parasitemia , Pele/parasitologia
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(9)2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27598157

RESUMO

Optical interrogation of suspicious skin lesions is standard care in the management of skin cancer worldwide. Morphological and functional markers of malignancy are often combined to improve expert human diagnostic power. We propose the evaluation of the combination of two independent optical biomarkers of skin tumours concurrently. The morphological modality of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is combined with the functional modality of laser Doppler flowmetry, which is capable of quantifying tissue perfusion. To realize the idea, we propose laser feedback interferometry as an implementation of RCM, which is able to detect the Doppler signal in addition to the confocal reflectance signal. Based on the proposed technique, we study numerical models of skin tissue incorporating two optical biomarkers of malignancy: (i) abnormal red blood cell velocities and concentrations and (ii) anomalous optical properties manifested through tissue confocal reflectance, using Monte Carlo simulation. We also conduct a laboratory experiment on a microfluidic channel containing a dynamic turbid medium, to validate the efficacy of the technique. We quantify the performance of the technique by examining a signal to background ratio (SBR) in both the numerical and experimental models, and it is shown that both simulated and experimental SBRs improve consistently using this technique. This work indicates the feasibility of an optical instrument, which may have a role in enhanced imaging of skin malignancies.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Interferometria , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
11.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153208, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088865

RESUMO

Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis). This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20-30 and 50-70 years of age). The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 µm, 6.0 µm and 5.5 µm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Adulto , Idoso , Epiderme/patologia , Epiderme/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Vaccine ; 33(39): 5172-80, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296498

RESUMO

Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine and antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia and disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Nus , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Viremia/prevenção & controle
13.
Curr Pharm Des ; 21(20): 2830-47, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925114

RESUMO

The skin has evolved to resist the penetration of foreign substances and particles. Effective topical drug delivery into and/or through the skin is hindered by these epidermal barriers. A range of physical enhancement methods has been developed to selectively overcome this barrier. This review discusses recent advances in physical drug delivery by broadly separating the techniques into two main areas; indirect and direct approaches. Indirect approaches consist of electrical, vibrational or laser instrumentation that creates pores in the skin followed by application of the drug. Direct approaches consist of mechanical disruption of the epidermis using techniques such as microdermabrasion, biolistic injectors and microneedles. Although, in general, physical techniques are yet to be established in a clinical setting, the potential gains of enhancing delivery of compounds through the skin is of great significance and will no doubt continue to receive much attention.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Pele/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Dermabrasão/instrumentação , Dermabrasão/métodos , Dermabrasão/tendências , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Eletroporação/instrumentação , Eletroporação/métodos , Eletroporação/tendências , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Iontoforese/instrumentação , Iontoforese/métodos , Iontoforese/tendências , Lasers , Imãs , Agulhas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Fonoforese/instrumentação , Fonoforese/métodos , Fonoforese/tendências
14.
Ther Deliv ; 6(2): 197-216, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25690087

RESUMO

The skin has evolved to resist the penetration of foreign substances and particles. Topical therapeutic and cosmeceutical delivery is a growing field founded on selectively overcoming this barrier. Both the biology of the skin and the nature of the formulation/active ingredient must be aligned for efficient transcutaneous delivery. This review discusses the biological changes in the skin barrier that occur with common dermatological conditions. This context is the foundation for the discussion of formulation strategies to improve penetration profiles of common active ingredients in dermatology. Finally, we compare and contrast those approaches to recent advances described in the research literature with an eye toward the future of topical formulation design.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacocinética , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/fisiopatologia , Absorção Cutânea , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia
15.
JAMA Dermatol ; 151(4): 417-21, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607474

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The BRAF V600E mutation accounts for the majority of BRAF mutations found in cutaneous melanoma and is also commonly found in nevi. We used dermoscopy-targeted sampling and a microbiopsy device coupled with DNA sequence analysis to highlight BRAF V600E heterogeneity within a multicomponent melanocytic proliferation. This sampling technique demonstrates the prospect of in vivo application in a clinical setting. OBSERVATIONS: A man in his 50s with Fitzpatrick skin type II presented with an irregularly pigmented melanocytic lesion on his back that met melanoma-specific dermoscopic criteria, and diagnostic shave excision of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic analysis revealed a melanoma in situ arising in a dysplastic nevus. Dermoscopy-targeted microbiopsy specimens were taken across the lesion, and genotyping was carried out on extracted DNA samples for BRAF and NRAS mutations. The melanoma in situ showed only BRAF wild-type results, while the dysplastic nevus showed both BRAF wild-type and BRAF V600E mutations. Sequencing in all DNA samples revealed NRAS wild-type genotype. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Dermoscopy-targeted sampling and genotyping of a melanoma in situ arising in a dysplastic nevus revealed a phenotype-genotype paradox that confounds the exclusive significance of BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanoma pathogenesis. Further studies are required to investigate the importance of other candidate genes linked to melanomagenesis.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Nevo Displásico/genética , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Dermoscopia/métodos , Síndrome do Nevo Displásico/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 10(1): e0112447, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25615930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis is known to have intra- and inter-observer variability, and there is currently no non-invasive and objective measure to diagnose these lesions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to determine if automatically detecting and circumscribing actinic keratoses in clinical photographs is feasible. METHODS: Photographs of the face and dorsal forearms were acquired in 20 volunteers from two groups: the first with at least on actinic keratosis present on the face and each arm, the second with no actinic keratoses. The photographs were automatically analysed using colour space transforms and morphological features to detect erythema. The automated output was compared with a senior consultant dermatologist's assessment of the photographs, including the intra-observer variability. Performance was assessed by the correlation between total lesions detected by automated method and dermatologist, and whether the individual lesions detected were in the same location as the dermatologist identified lesions. Additionally, the ability to limit false positives was assessed by automatic assessment of the photographs from the no actinic keratosis group in comparison to the high actinic keratosis group. RESULTS: The correlation between the automatic and dermatologist counts was 0.62 on the face and 0.51 on the arms, compared to the dermatologist's intra-observer variation of 0.83 and 0.93 for the same. Sensitivity of automatic detection was 39.5% on the face, 53.1% on the arms. Positive predictive values were 13.9% on the face and 39.8% on the arms. Significantly more lesions (p<0.0001) were detected in the high actinic keratosis group compared to the no actinic keratosis group. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method was inferior to assessment by the dermatologist in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value. However, this pilot study used only a single simple feature and was still able to achieve sensitivity of detection of 53.1% on the arms.This suggests that image analysis is a feasible avenue of investigation for overcoming variability in clinical assessment. Future studies should focus on more sophisticated features to improve sensitivity for actinic keratoses without erythema and limit false positives associated with the anatomical structures on the face.


Assuntos
Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Ceratose Actínica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Curr Probl Dermatol ; 46: 77-84, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561210

RESUMO

Clinical assessment of actinic keratosis is known to be a variable process; however, there are currently no non-invasive alternatives for objectively assessing the condition besides excision and histopathology. While a number of technologies for examining potential actinic keratoses are under development, each of these still requires subjective human assessment. The existing approaches focus on assessing colour and texture features in clinical-scale images, such as those from dermoscopy and digital photography, and on structural or cellular characteristics in cellular-scale images, such as those from multiphoton microscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy. The future of actinic keratosis management is likely to be a combination of analysing regional photography to determine potential lesion locations and analysis of the structural and cellular features by reflectance confocal microscopy for an in vivo pathology diagnosis.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Dermoscopia/tendências , Humanos , Queratinócitos/patologia , Ceratose Actínica/diagnóstico
19.
Curr Probl Dermatol ; 46: 85-94, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561211

RESUMO

Actinic keratosis is a common result of severe sun damage and is usually present on sun-exposed skin. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a non-invasive clinical imaging modality that results in quasi-histological, en face skin images. In this chapter, we review the available literature and distill the common features of actinic keratosis, as seen by reflectance confocal microscopy. Finally, several examples are discussed in the context of matching clinical, histopathological and reflectance confocal microscopy images. Of all of the morphological features of actinic keratoses, the epidermal honeycomb pattern is the most telling when viewing the lesions using reflectance confocal microscopy. In the near future, we expect the definition of consensus criteria for diagnosing actinic keratoses and differentiating this precursor lesion.


Assuntos
Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Interferência/métodos , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/diagnóstico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
20.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 12(1): 78-85, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25176162

RESUMO

Nanodermatology is a rapidly emerging field of study receiving significant interest because of its potential application in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. However, nanoparticulate penetration into and through the skin is not feasible through topical application alone. Many physical and chemical approaches have been developed to enhance particulate penetration into skin. The most successful have been physical penetration enhancers. We have found that elongated microparticles can significantly improve topical nano- and microsphere delivery in an in vivo porcine model. The delivery efficiency was inversely related to the diameter of the payload. These data support a role for elongated microparticle enhanced delivery of nano- and submicron particulate cosmeceutical or therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Absorção Cutânea , Pele/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Química Farmacêutica , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Nanomedicina , Tamanho da Partícula , Dióxido de Silício/química , Dióxido de Silício/metabolismo , Suínos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos
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