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1.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863820

RESUMO

The poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of proteins participates in numerous functions, most notably the DNA damage response. Cancer vulnerability to DNA damage has led to development of several PARP inhibitors (PARPi). This class of drugs has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in ovarian, breast, and prostate cancers, but with variable response. Consequently, clinics need to select patients likely to benefit from these targeted therapies. In vivo imaging of 18F-FluorThanatrace (18F-FTT) uptake has been shown to correspond to PARP-1 expression in tissue. This study characterizes the pharmacokinetics of 18F-FTT and tests kinetic and static models to guide metric selection in future studies assessing 18F-FTT as a biomarker of response to PARPi therapy. Methods: Fourteen prospectively enrolled ovarian cancer patients were injected with 18F-FTT and imaged dynamically for 60-minutes post-injection followed by up to two whole-body scans, with venous blood activity and metabolite measurements. Maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVpeak) were extracted from dynamic images and whole-body scans. Kinetic parameter estimates and SUVs were assessed for correlations with tissue PARP-1 immunofluorescence (n = 7). Simulations of population kinetic parameters enabled estimation of measurement bias and precision in parameter estimates. Results: 18F-FTT blood clearance was variable, but labeled metabolite profiles were similar across patients, supporting use of a population parent fraction curve. Total distribution volume (VT) from a reversible two-tissue compartment model and Logan reference tissue distribution volume ratio (Logan DVR) from the first hour of PET acquisition correlated with tumor PARP-1 expression by immunofluorescence (r=0.76 and 0.83 respectively, p<0.05). DVR bias and precision estimates were 6.4% and 29.1%, respectively. SUVmax and SUVpeak acquired from images with midpoints of 57.5, 110±3, and 199±4 min highly correlated with PARP-1 expression (mean±standard deviation, r≥0.79, p<0.05). Conclusion: Tumor SUVmax and SUVpeak at 55-60 minutes post-injection and later and DVR from ≥ 60-minutes appear to be robust non-invasive measures of PARP-1 binding. 18F-FTT uptake in ovarian cancer was best described by models of reversible binding. However, pharmacokinetic patterns of tracer uptake were somewhat variable, especially at later time points.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e212274, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755166

RESUMO

Importance: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is approved in the US for treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), but data on PRRT outcomes within US populations remain scarce. Objective: To analyze the first 2 years of PRRT implementation at a US-based NET referral center. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using medical records of patients with metastatic NET receiving PRRT from 2018 through 2020 in a NET program at a tertiary referral center. Included patients were those at the center with metastatic NETs who received at least 1 dose of PRRT over the study period. Laboratory toxic effects were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. Tumor response was determined using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. Survival analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Data were analyzed from August 2018 through August 2020. Exposures: Receiving 4 cycles of lutetium-177-dotatate infusion, separated by 8-week intervals targeted to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi) per dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data were compared from before and after PRRT to determine hematologic, liver, and kidney toxic effects and to assess tumor progression and patient survival. Results: Among 78 patients receiving at least 1 dose of PRRT, median (interquartile range) age at PRRT initiation was 59.8 (53.5-69.2) years and 39 (50.0%) were men. The most common primary NET sites included small bowel, occurring in 34 patients (43.6%), and pancreas, occurring in 22 patients (28.2%). World Health Organization grade 1 or 2 tumors occurred in 62 patients (79.5%). Among all patients, 56 patients underwent pretreatment with tumor resection (71.8%), 49 patients received nonsomatostatin analogue systemic therapy (62.8%), and 49 patients received liver-directed therapy (62.8%). At least 1 grade 2 or greater toxic effect was found in 47 patients (60.3%). Median PFS was 21.6 months for the study group, was not reached by 22 months for patients with small bowel primary tumors, and was 13.3 months for patients with pancreatic primary tumors. Having a small bowel primary tumor was associated with a lower rate of progression compared with having a pancreatic primary tumor (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.55; P = .01). Median overall survival was not reached. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study of patients with metastatic NETs found that PRRT was associated with laboratory-measured toxic effects during treatment for most patients and an overall median PFS of 21.6 months. Patients with small bowel NETs had longer PFS after PRRT compared with patients with pancreatic NETs.

3.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1863631, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643689

RESUMO

We conducted a phase I dose-escalation trial of radiation with ipilimumab in patients with melanoma with ≥2 metastatic lesions. Here, we report the final full clinical analysis. Patients received RT (6 or 8 Gy x 2 or 3 doses) to a single lesion followed by 4 cycles of ipilimumab. The primary endpoint was maximum tolerated dose of RT, and secondary endpoint was response at non-radiated sites. Twenty-two patients with treatment-naïve (n = 11) or treatment-refractory (n = 11) Stage IV melanoma were enrolled. There were 31 treatment-related adverse events (AEs), of which 16 were deemed immune-related. Eleven patients had grade 3 AEs (no grade 4/5). There were no dose-limiting toxicities related to the radiation/ipilimumab combination. Five of 22 patients (22.7%, 95% CI 7.8-45.4%) had partial response as best response and three (13.6%) had stable disease. Median overall survival was 10.7 months (95% CI, 4.9 months to not-estimable) and median progression-free survival 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.9 months to 7.8 months). Seven patients were still alive at the time of last follow-up (median follow-up 89.2 months), most of whom received pembrolizumab after progression. Radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab was well tolerated and yielded a response rate that compares favorably to the objective response rate with ipilimumab alone. Furthermore, 32% of patients are long-term survivors, most of whom received pembrolizumab. Based on these results, the recommended dose that was used in subsequent Phase 2 trials was 8 Gy x 3 doses. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01497808 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685867

RESUMO

Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT) using 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (177Lu or 90Y) represent several of the therapeutic options in the management of metastatic/inoperable pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Recently, high-specific-activity-131I-MIBG therapy was approved by the FDA and both 177Lu-DOTATATE and 131I-MIBG therapy were recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. However, a clinical dilemma often arises in the selection of TRT, especially when a patient can be treated with either type of therapy based on eligibility by MIBG and somatostatin receptor imaging. To address this problem, we assembled a group of international experts, including oncologists, endocrinologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, with substantial experience in treating neuroendocrine tumors with TRTs to develop consensus and provide expert recommendations and perspectives on how to select between these two therapeutic options for metastatic/inoperable pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. This article aims to summarize the survival outcomes of the available TRTs; discuss personalized treatment strategies based on functional imaging scans; address practical issues, including regulatory approvals; and compare toxicities and risk factors across treatments. Furthermore, it discusses the emerging TRTs.

5.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 31(1): 3-11, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246634

RESUMO

Radiation oncologists and nuclear medicine physicians have seen a resurgence in the clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals for the curative or palliative treatment of cancer. To enable the discovery and the development of new targeted radiopharmaceutical treatments, the United States National Cancer Institute has adapted its clinical trial enterprise to accommodate the requirements of a development program with investigational agents that have a radioactive isotope as part of the studied drug product. One change in perspective has been the consideration of investigational radiopharmaceuticals as drugs, with maximum tolerable doses determined by normal organ toxicity frequency like in drug clinical trials. Other changes include new clinical trial enterprise elements for biospecimen handling, adverse event reporting, regulatory conduct, writing services, drug master files, and reporting of patient outcomes. Arising from this enterprise, the study and clinical use of alpha-particle and beta-particle emitters have emerged as an important approach to cancer treatment. Resources allocated to this enterprise have brought forward biomarkers of molecular pathophysiology now used to select treatment or to evaluate clinical performance of radiopharmaceuticals. The clinical use of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide pairs is anticipated to accelerate radiopharmaceutical clinical development.

6.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277396

RESUMO

In 2018, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the NRG Oncology partnered for the first time to host a joint Workshop on Systemic Radiopharmaceutical Therapy (RPT) to specifically address issues and strategies of dosimetry for future clinical trials. The workshop focused on (1) current dosimetric approaches for clinical trials, (2) strategies under development that would provide optimal dose reporting, and (3) future desired/optimized approaches for the new and novel emerging radionuclides and carriers in development. In this proceedings, we review the main approaches that are applied clinically to calculate the absorbed dose: These include absorbed doses calculated over a variety of spatial scales including organ, suborgan, and voxel, all achievable within the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema (S-value) can be calculated with analytic methods or Monte Carlo methods, the latter in most circumstances. This proceeding will also contrast currently available methods and tools with those used in the past, to propose a pathway whereby dosimetry helps the field by optimizing the biological effect of the treatment and trial design in the drug approval process to reduce financial and logistical costs. We will also discuss the dosimetric equivalent of biomarkers to help bring a precision medicine approach to RPT implementation-when merited by evidence collected during early-phase trial investigations. Advances in the methodology and related tools have made dosimetry the optimum biomarker for RPT.

7.
J Nucl Med ; 61(Suppl 2): 83S-84S, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293454
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249143

RESUMO

Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) is an area of projected growth and importance with several agents in clinical use, new agents in late-phase clinical trials, as well as many others under testing and development. This manuscript proposes a framework for developing pathways of care that can be broadly applied to all RPTs, representing the the current status of RPT, suggests foundational elements for many pathways of care for patients with cancer and concludes with areas in active development and the future horizon for RPT treatment centers. Developing a framework for patient-centered pathways of care is a critical step in establishing RPT as standard therapy for patients with a diverse spectrum of cancers. This expected increase in RPT treatment options will impact a much larger population of complex cancer patients. It will also require enhanced coordination and collaboration among appropriately qualified personnel with diverse expertise in image acquisition, image interpretation, quantitative imaging, dosimetry calculation, radiation QA and safety as well as oncology care and RPT-induced sequelae and response assessment. The essential role of this evolving RPT care team within multidisciplinary oncology care is a cornerstone of this framework for a patient-centered pathway of care for RPT. Given the status of current RPT practice and the horizon for future applications, this patient-centered pathway of care guidance is timely and should help inform future clinical RPT practice paradigms.

9.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(12): 2007-2013.e1, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate total blood radioactivity (BR) after SIR-Spheres yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization and differences in BR based on delivery method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty participants with hepatic metastases undergoing first radioembolization were prospectively enrolled from December 2017 to June 2018. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and 0, 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes after 90Y administration. BR was measured with a γ-counter and scaled by estimated blood volume. Percentage of instilled radioactivity in the bloodstream was calculated as area under the fitted curve, and differences between delivery methods were examined with nonparametric statistical tests. RESULTS: In 10 participants, resin microspheres were instilled with 50% Isovue 300 diluted in saline solution in the D line, and 10 others were treated with dextrose 5% in water (D5W) in the D line. Median administered activities were 944 MBq (range, 746-1,993 MBq) and 1,213 MBq (range, 519-2,066 MBq), respectively. Fraction of 90Y in blood was significantly higher with dilute contrast agent than with D5W (median, 0.5% of injected activity vs 0.2%; P = .001). Among all participants, the maximum activity delivered was 2,066 MBq, and a maximum of 1% of administered radioactivity was measured as free 90Y in blood. Assuming these highest-case values and complete decay of all free 90Y in bone, a dose to red marrow of 132.3 mGy was calculated by Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modeling. CONCLUSIONS: Blood sampling after radioembolization allowed for estimation of the time-activity curve and BR. Delivery with 50% contrast agent in saline solution resulted in a significant increase in BR vs D5W, even though the total BR for both groups was nominal.

10.
Oncologist ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the frontline antitumor therapy in advanced well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). A subset of patients demonstrate early disease progression on SSA therapy, yet the currently known predictors for treatment failure lack specificity to affect therapeutic decision. SSAs target tumor somatostatin receptors, the level of which can be quantitatively assessed with 68 Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT). We investigated the ability of 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT to predict response to SSA therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 108 consecutive patients with well-differentiated grade 1-2 GEP-NETs on SSA monotherapy who received 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT scans were retrospectively reviewed to obtain baseline characteristics, 68 Ga-DOTATATE maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and progression-free survival (PFS) data. The optimal SUVmax cutoff for patient stratification was obtained with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. PFS in the high versus low SUVmax groups was compared with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The effects of baseline characteristics and SUVmax on PFS were examined with univariate and multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: 68 Ga-DOTATATE SUVmax predicted therapeutic failure with sensitivity and specificity of 39% and 98%, respectively. SUVmax of <18.35 was associated with shorter PFS, which was reproduced in the subgroup analysis of SSA-naive patients. Low SUVmax was the only predictor of early treatment failure (hazard ratio, 6.85) in multivariate analysis, as well as in the subgroup analysis of grade 2 GEP-NETs. CONCLUSION: Low SUVmax on 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT independently predicts early failure on SSA monotherapy in patients with well-differentiated grade 1-2 GEP-NET. Patients with lack of expected benefit from SSA therapy can be readily identified using routine 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT with very high specificity. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Based on 68 Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging, clinicians can better inform patients on the expected benefit of somatostatin analog therapy for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, especially when access to the therapy is difficult, and offer proactive discussion on alternative management options.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): 1110-1122, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for children and adults with advanced soft tissue sarcoma are poor with traditional therapy. We investigated whether the addition of pazopanib to preoperative chemoradiotherapy would improve pathological near complete response rate compared with chemoradiotherapy alone. METHODS: In this joint Children's Oncology Group and NRG Oncology multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial, we enrolled eligible adults (aged ≥18 years) and children (aged between 2 and <18 years) from 57 hospitals in the USA and Canada with unresected, newly diagnosed trunk or extremity chemotherapy-sensitive soft tissue sarcoma, which were larger than 5 cm in diameter and of intermediate or high grade. Eligible patients had Lansky (if aged ≤16 years) or Karnofsky (if aged >16 years) performance status score of at least 70. Patients received ifosfamide (2·5 g/m2 per dose intravenously on days 1-3 with mesna) and doxorubicin (37·5 mg/m2 per dose intravenously on days 1-2) with 45 Gy preoperative radiotherapy, followed by surgical resection at week 13. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a web-based system, in an unmasked manner, to receive oral pazopanib (if patients <18 years 350 mg/m2 once daily; if patients ≥18 years 600 mg once daily) or not (control group), with pazopanib not given immediately before or after surgery at week 13. The study projected 100 randomly assigned patients were needed to show an improvement in the number of participants with a 90% or higher pathological response at week 13 from 40% to 60%. Analysis was done per protocol. This study has completed accrual and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02180867. FINDINGS: Between July 7, 2014, and Oct 1, 2018, 81 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the pazopanib group (n=42) or the control group (n=39). At the planned second interim analysis with 42 evaluable patients and a median follow-up of 0·8 years (IQR 0·3-1·6) in the pazopanib group and 1 year (0·3-1·6) in the control group, the number of patients with a 90% pathological response or higher was 14 (58%) of 24 patients in the pazopanib group and four (22%) of 18 patients in the control group, with a between-group difference in the number of 90% or higher pathological response of 36·1% (83·8% CI 16·5-55·8). On the basis of an interim analysis significance level of 0·081 (overall one-sided significance level of 0·20, power of 0·80, and O'Brien-Fleming-type cumulative error spending function), the 83·8% CI for response difference was between 16·5% and 55·8% and thus excluded 0. The improvement in pathological response rate with the addition of pazopanib crossed the predetermined boundary and enrolment was stopped. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were leukopenia (16 [43%] of 37 patients), neutropenia (15 [41%]), and febrile neutropenia (15 [41%]) in the pazopanib group, and neutropenia (three [9%] of 35 patients) and febrile neutropenia (three [9%]) in the control group. 22 (59%) of 37 patients in the pazopanib group had a pazopanib-related serious adverse event. Paediatric and adult patients had a similar number of grade 3 and 4 toxicity. There were seven deaths (three in the pazopanib group and four in the control group), none of which were treatment related. INTERPRETATION: In this presumed first prospective trial of soft tissue sarcoma spanning nearly the entire age spectrum, adding pazopanib to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy improved the rate of pathological near complete response, suggesting that this is a highly active and feasible combination in children and adults with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. The comparison of survival outcomes requires longer follow-up. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, St Baldrick's Foundation, Seattle Children's Foundation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/radioterapia , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(8): 539-544, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520788

RESUMO

AIM/OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: The goal of therapy with unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources is to provide either cure or significant prolongation of disease-specific survival, and effective reduction and/or prevention of adverse disease-related symptoms or untoward events while minimizing treatment-associated side effects and complications. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) is an alpha particle-emitting isotope used for targeted bone therapy. This practice parameter is intended to guide appropriately trained and licensed physicians performing therapy with radium-223. Such therapy requires close cooperation and communication between the physicians who are responsible for the clinical management of the patient and those who administer radiopharmaceutical therapy and manage the attendant side effects. Adherence to this parameter should help to maximize the efficacious use of radium-223, maintain safe conditions, and ensure compliance with applicable regulations. METHODS: This practice parameter was developed according to the process described on the American College of Radiology (ACR) website ("The Process for Developing ACR Practice Parameters and Technical Standards," www.acr.org/ClinicalResources/Practice-Parameters-and-Technical-Standards) by the Committee on Practice Parameters of the ACR Commission on Radiation Oncology in collaboration with the American College of Nuclear Medicine (ACNM), the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). All these societies contributed to the development of the practice parameter and approved the final document. RESULTS: This practice parameter addresses the many factors which contribute to appropriate, safe, and effective clinical use of radium-223. Topics addressed include qualifications and responsibilities of personnel, specifications of patient examination and treatment; documentation, radiation safety, quality control/improvement, infection control, and patient education. CONCLUSIONS: This practice parameter is intended as a tool to guide clinical use of radium-223 with the goal of facilitating safe and effective medical care based on current knowledge, available resources and patient needs. The sole purpose of this document is to assist practitioners in achieving this objective.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Radioisótopos/uso terapêutico
14.
Nucl Med Biol ; 86-87: 1-8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361089

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: [68Ga]Ga-P15-041 ([68Ga]Ga-HBED-CC-BP) is a novel bone-seeking PET radiotracer that can be generator-produced. We undertook a Phase 0/I clinical trial to assess its potential for imaging bone metastases in prostate cancer including assessment of radiotracer biodistribution and dosimetry. METHODS: Subjects with prostate cancer and known or suspected osseous metastatic disease were enrolled into one of two arms: dosimetry or dynamic. Dosimetry was performed with 6 whole body PET acquisitions and urine collection spanning 3 h; normal organ dosimetry was calculated using OLINDA/EXM. Dynamic imaging included a 60 min acquisition over a site of known or suspected disease followed by two whole body scans. Bootstrapping and subsampling of the acquired list-mode data were conducted to recommend image acquisition parameters for future clinical trials. RESULTS: Up to 233 MBq (6.3 mCi) of [68Ga]Ga-P15-041 was injected into 12 enrolled volunteers, 8 in dosimetry and 4 in dynamic cohorts. Radiotracer accumulated in known bone lesions and cleared rapidly from blood and soft tissue. The highest individual organ dose was 0.135 mSv/MBq in the urinary bladder wall. The average effective dose was 0.0173 ± 0.0036 mSv/MBq. An average injected activity of 166.5 MBq (4.5 mCi) resulted in absorbed dose estimates of 22.5 mSv to the urinary bladder wall, 8.2 mSv to the kidneys, and an effective dose of 2.9 mSv. Lesion signal to noise ratios on images generated from subsampled data were significantly higher for injected activities above 74 MBq (2 mCi) and were also significantly higher for imaging at 90 min than at 180 min post-injection. CONCLUSIONS: Dosimetry estimates are acceptable and [68Ga]Ga-P15-041 uptake characteristics in patients with confirmed bone metastases support its continued development. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE: Use of [68Ga]Ga-P15-041 would not require cyclotron infrastructure for manufacturing and distribution, allowing for improved patient access to a promising PET bone imaging agent.

15.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 22: 69-75, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274426

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Radiation esophagitis is a clinically important toxicity seen with treatment for locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer. There is considerable disagreement among prior studies in identifying predictors of radiation esophagitis. We apply machine learning algorithms to identify factors contributing to the development of radiation esophagitis to uncover previously unidentified criteria and more robust dosimetric factors. Materials and Methods: We used machine learning approaches to identify predictors of grade ≥ 3 radiation esophagitis in a cohort of 202 consecutive locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with definitive chemoradiation from 2008 to 2016. We evaluated 35 clinical features per patient grouped into risk factors, comorbidities, imaging, stage, histology, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and dosimetry. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a panel of 11 machine learning algorithms combined with predictive power assessments. Results: All patients were treated to a median dose of 66.6 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction using photon (89.6%) and proton (10.4%) beam therapy, most often with concurrent chemotherapy (86.6%). 11.4% of patients developed grade ≥ 3 radiation esophagitis. On univariate analysis, no individual feature was found to predict radiation esophagitis (AUC range 0.45-0.55, p ≥ 0.07). In multivariate analysis, all machine learning algorithms exhibited poor predictive performance (AUC range 0.46-0.56, p ≥ 0.07). Conclusions: Contemporary machine learning algorithms applied to our modern, relatively large institutional cohort could not identify any reliable predictors of grade ≥ 3 radiation esophagitis. Additional patients are needed, and novel patient-specific and treatment characteristics should be investigated to develop clinically meaningful methods to mitigate this survival altering toxicity.

16.
Oncologist ; 25(7): 572-578, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is effective for treating midgut neuroendocrine tumors (NETs); however, incorporation of PRRT into routine practice in the U.S. is not well studied. Herein we analyze the first year of PRRT implementation to determine tolerance of PRRT and factors that increase risk of PRRT discontinuation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were reviewed and data were abstracted on all patients with NETs scheduled for PRRT during the first year of PRRT implementation at a U.S. NET referral center (August 2018 through July 2019). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with PRRT discontinuation. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (56% male) were scheduled for PRRT over the study period. The most common primary NET location was small bowel (47%), followed by pancreas (26%), and 84% of the NETs were World Health Organization grade 1 or 2. The cohort was heavily pretreated with somatostatin analog (SSA) therapy (98%), non-SSA systemic therapy (64%), primary tumor resection (73%), and liver-directed therapy (55%). At the time of analysis, 52 patients completed at least one PRRT treatment. Toxicities including bone marrow suppression and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities were comparable to prior publications. Eleven patients (21%) prematurely discontinued PRRT because of toxicity or an adverse event. Pretreatment LFT abnormality was associated with increased risk of PRRT cancellation (odds ratio: 12; 95% confidence interval: 2.59-55.54; p < .001). CONCLUSION: PRRT can be administered to a diverse NET population at a U.S. NET referral center. Baseline liver function test abnormality increases the likelihood of PRRT discontinuation. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) can be successfully implemented at a U.S. neuroendocrine tumor (NET) referral center in a NET population that is diverse in tumor location, grade, and prior treatment history. Toxicity and adverse effects of PRRT are comparable to prior reports; however, 21% of individuals prematurely discontinued PRRT. Patients with baseline liver function test abnormalities were more likely to discontinue PRRT than patients with normal liver function tests, which should be taken into consideration when selecting treatment options for NETs.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053688

RESUMO

Cardiac perfusion PET is increasingly used to assess ischemia and cardiovascular risk and can also provide quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) and flow reserve (MBFR) values. These have been shown to be prognostic biomarkers of adverse outcomes, yet MBF and MBFR quantification remains underutilized in clinical settings. We compare MBFR to traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a large and diverse clinical population (60% African-American, 35.3% Caucasian) to rank its relative contribution to cardiovascular outcomes. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including unstable angina, non-ST and ST-elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and death, were assessed for consecutive patients who underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb PET cardiac imaging from 2012-2015 at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (n = 1283, mean follow-up 2.3 years). Resting MBF (1.1 ± 0.4 ml/min/g) was associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. MBFR (2.1 ± 0.8) was independently and inversely associated with MACE. Furthermore, MBFR was more strongly associated with MACE than both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and the presence of perfusion defects in regression analysis. Decision tree analysis identified MBFR as superior to established cardiovascular risk factors in predicting outcomes. Incorporating resting MBF and MBFR in CAD assessment may improve clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Idoso , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Nucl Med ; 61(5): 665-670, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836680

RESUMO

The σ2 receptor is a potential in vivo target for measuring proliferative status in cancer. The feasibility of using N-(4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)butyl)-2-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)-5-methylbenzamide (18F-ISO-1) to image solid tumors in lymphoma, breast cancer, and head and neck cancer has been previously established. Here, we report the results of the first dedicated clinical trial of 18F-ISO-1 in women with primary breast cancer. Our study objective was to determine whether 18F-ISO-1 PET could provide an in vivo measure of tumor proliferative status, and we hypothesized that uptake would correlate with a tissue-based assay of proliferation, namely Ki-67 expression. Methods: Twenty-eight women with 29 primary invasive breast cancers were prospectively enrolled in a clinical trial (NCT02284919) between March 2015 and January 2017. Each received an injection of 278-527 MBq of 18F-ISO-1 and then underwent PET/CT imaging of the breasts 50-55 min later. In vivo uptake of 18F-ISO-1 was quantitated by SUVmax and distribution volume ratios and was compared with ex vivo immunohistochemistry for Ki-67. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests assessed uptake differences across Ki-67 thresholds, and Spearman correlation tested associations between uptake and Ki-67. Results: Tumor SUVmax (median, 2.0 g/mL; range, 1.3-3.3 g/mL), partial-volume-corrected SUVmax, and SUV ratios were tested against Ki-67. Tumors stratified into the high-Ki-67 (≥20%) group had SUVmax greater than the low-Ki-67 (<20%) group (P = 0.02). SUVmax exhibited a positive correlation with Ki-67 across all breast cancer subtypes (ρ = 0.46, P = 0.01, n = 29). Partial-volume-corrected SUVmax was positively correlated with Ki-67 for invasive ductal carcinoma (ρ = 0.51, P = 0.02, n = 21). Tumor-to-normal-tissue ratios and tumor distribution volume ratio did not correlate with Ki-67 (P > 0.05). Conclusion: 18F-ISO-1 uptake in breast cancer modestly correlates with an in vitro assay of proliferation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transporte Biológico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
20.
J Nucl Med ; 61(1): 144-151, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562224

RESUMO

The PennPET Explorer, a prototype whole-body imager currently operating with a 64-cm axial field of view, can image the major body organs simultaneously with higher sensitivity than that of commercial devices. We report here the initial human imaging studies on the PennPET Explorer, with each study designed to test specific capabilities of the device. Methods: Healthy subjects were imaged with FDG on the PennPET Explorer. Subsequently, clinical subjects with disease were imaged with 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTATATE, and research subjects were imaged with experimental radiotracers. Results: We demonstrated the ability to scan for a shorter duration or, alternatively, with less activity, without a compromise in image quality. Delayed images, up to 10 half-lives with 18F-FDG, revealed biologic insight and supported the ability to track biologic processes over time. In a clinical subject, the PennPET Explorer better delineated the extent of 18F-FDG-avid disease. In a second clinical study with 68Ga-DOTATATE, we demonstrated comparable diagnostic image quality between the PennPET scan and the clinical scan, but with one fifth the activity. Dynamic imaging studies captured relatively noise-free input functions for kinetic modeling approaches. Additional studies with experimental research radiotracers illustrated the benefits from the combination of large axial coverage and high sensitivity. Conclusion: These studies provided a proof of concept for many proposed applications for a PET scanner with a long axial field of view.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/instrumentação , Imagem Corporal Total/instrumentação
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