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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 178, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa faces a high burden of unmet contraceptive need, particularly among adolescent girls and young women. Providing contraception in community-based venues may overcome barriers to contraceptive access. Our objective was to explore the potential impact of the social environment and stylist-client interactions on perceived accessibility of contraceptives within hair salons. METHODS: We conducted 42 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with salon clients (100% identified as female, 100% identified as Black, median age 27.1 years) and 6 focus groups with 43 stylists (95% identified as female, 98% identified as Black, median age 29.6 years) in and around Umlazi Township, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal to explore perspectives on offering contraceptive services in hair salons. We used an inductive and deductive approach to generate the codebook, identified themes in the data, and then organized findings according to Rogers' Individual Adoption Model as applied to community-based health prevention programs. Twenty-five percent of transcripts were coded by two independent coders to ensure reliability. RESULTS: We identified elements of the salon environment and stylist-client relationships as facilitators of and barriers to acceptability of salon-based contraceptive care. Factors that may facilitate perceived contraceptive accessibility in salons include: the anonymous, young, female-centered nature of salons; high trust and kinship within stylist-client interactions; and mutual investment of time. Stylists may further help clients build comprehension about contraceptives through training. Stylists and clients believe salon-based contraceptive delivery may be more accessible due to contraceptive need facilitating client buy-in for the program, as well as a salon environment in which clients may encourage other clients by voluntarily sharing their own contraceptive decisions. The non-judgmental nature of stylist-client relationships can empower clients to make contraceptive decisions, and stylists seek to support clients' continued use of contraceptives through various adherence and support strategies. Some stylists and clients identified existing social barriers (e.g. confidentiality concerns) and made recommendations to strengthen potential contraceptive delivery in salons. CONCLUSION: Stylists and clients were highly receptive to contraceptive delivery in salons and identified several social facilitators as well as barriers within this setting. Hair salons are community venues with a social environment that may uniquely mitigate barriers to contraceptive access in South Africa.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , África do Sul
2.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 595-608, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective long-acting injectable agents for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are needed to increase the options for preventing HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial to compare long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB-LA, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor [INSTI]) at a dose of 600 mg, given intramuscularly every 8 weeks, with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection in at-risk cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and in at-risk transgender women who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive one of the two regimens and were followed for 153 weeks. HIV testing and safety evaluations were performed. The primary end point was incident HIV infection. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 4566 participants who underwent randomization; 570 (12.5%) identified as transgender women, and the median age was 26 years (interquartile range, 22 to 32). The trial was stopped early for efficacy on review of the results of the first preplanned interim end-point analysis. Among 1698 participants from the United States, 845 (49.8%) identified as Black. Incident HIV infection occurred in 52 participants: 13 in the cabotegravir group (incidence, 0.41 per 100 person-years) and 39 in the TDF-FTC group (incidence, 1.22 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.62). The effect was consistent across prespecified subgroups. Injection-site reactions were reported in 81.4% of the participants in the cabotegravir group and in 31.3% of those in the TDF-FTC group. In the participants in whom HIV infection was diagnosed after exposure to CAB-LA, INSTI resistance and delays in the detection of HIV infection were noted. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: CAB-LA was superior to daily oral TDF-FTC in preventing HIV infection among MSM and transgender women. Strategies are needed to prevent INSTI resistance in cases of CAB-LA PrEP failure. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 083 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02720094.).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto Jovem
3.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097209

RESUMO

Men living with HIV (MLWH) often have reproductive goals that can increase HIV-transmission risks to their pregnancy partners. We developed a safer conception intervention for MLWH in South Africa employing cognitive behavioral skills to promote serostatus disclosure, ART uptake, and viral suppression. MLWH were recruited from an HIV clinic near Durban, South Africa, and encouraged to include partners in follow-up visits. Exit in-depth interviews were conducted with eleven men and one female partner. The emerging over-arching theme is that safer conception care mitigates internalized and community-level HIV-stigma among MLWH. Additional related sub-themes include: (1) safer conception care acceptability is high but structural barriers challenge participation; (2) communication skills trainings helped overcome barriers to disclose serostatus; (3) feasibility and perceived effectiveness of strategies informed safer conception method selection. Our findings suggest that offering safer conception care to MLWH is a novel stigma-reducing strategy for motivating HIV prevention and treatment and serostatus disclosure to partners.

4.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 20(2): 149-157, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003077

RESUMO

Unintended pregnancy impacts many young women in South Africa, and rates of consistent contraceptive use among this population are suboptimal. Limited empirical work has investigated reasons for inconsistency between pregnancy intention and contraceptive use behaviour with data collected during pregnancy. We explored pregnancy intentions and discordance between intentions and contraceptive use prior to conception among young pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 35 women during pregnancy (mean age = 19.3; range = 18-21) in 2011 and 2012. Data were analysed using content analysis. All participants reported unintended pregnancies; almost half were not using contraception near conception. Reasons for not intending to become pregnant spanned personal, social, health, and economic domains. Participants living with HIV (n = 13) expressed specific concerns related to impacts of pregnancy on HIV disease management and fear of transmission of HIV to the infant. Discordance between pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use prior to conception was attributed to personal, social, health and structural domains. Findings indicate a need for interventions that address barriers to contraceptive use in order to minimise unintended pregnancy and support safe, desired pregnancies among young women.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 220, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to implementing a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) demonstration study, we sought to explore cisgender women's experiences with HIV prevention, PrEP knowledge and attitudes, and anticipated barriers and facilitators for PrEP uptake and adherence in Southern California. METHODS: Three focus groups were held with cisgender women of mixed HIV serostatus in San Diego and Los Angeles between November 2015 and January 2016. Women were recruited through local testing sites, community-based organizations, and social media. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-two women participated in focus groups, with median age 44 (IQR 30-53) and 6 identifying as non-Hispanic Black, 7 non-Hispanic White, 8 Latina and 1 mixed race. Despite limited prior PrEP knowledge and no PrEP experience, participants expressed interest in taking PrEP. Anticipated benefits were freedom from worry about HIV and control over sexual health; however, these were tempered by concerns including the possibility of increased HIV risk behaviors and potential side effects. Cisgender women reported potential barriers to PrEP uptake and adherence barriers, like competing priorities and poor PrEP access. Conversely, PrEP facilitators included utilizing practical tools such as phone apps and pill boxes as well as receiving encouragement from loved ones and support from other cisgender women on PrEP, women living with HIV and their medical providers. CONCLUSIONS: Although PrEP awareness was low, participants recognized the importance of PrEP and ways to facilitate adherence. Exploring perspectives of cisgender women is integral to developing effective interventions to support PrEP uptake and adherence for women at elevated risk for HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): 1149-1156, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is effective for reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among cisgender women. We report results from the first US observational open-label demonstration project of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among at-risk cisgender women. METHODS: Adherence Enhancement Guided by Individualized Texting and Drug Levels was a 48-week, single-arm, open-label demonstration study of daily oral TDF/FTC in cisgender women ≥18 years old at risk for HIV. Adherence was supported using 2-way text messaging and titrated adherence counseling based on rapid-turnaround tenofovir diphosphate concentrations from dried blood spots. Study visits occurred at baseline, weeks 4 and 12, and quarterly through week 48. Outcomes included TDF/FTC adherence, retention, and persistence. RESULTS: From June 2016 to October 2018, 136 cisgender women enrolled (mean age, 40 years (standard deviation, 11); 38% non-Hispanic Black and 19% Latina). At 48 weeks, 84 (62%) participants were retained and 62 (46%) remained on PrEP. More than one-third (12/31) of those on study but off PrEP throughout the study discontinued TDF/FTC because of side effects, and 1 adverse event led to study discontinuation. Of 120 participants with drug concentrations measured, 67 (56%) had at least 1 concentration consistent with 6 doses/week; 22 (18%) had consistent ≥6 doses/week across all study visits attended. There were no incident HIV infections and 4 incident bacterial sexually transmitted infections. CONCLUSION: Adequate PrEP adherence for protective drug concentrations was not achieved for most study participants. More work needs to be done to fully explicate the reasons for nonadherence and low retention in cisgender women.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0240990, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many men living with HIV want to have children. Opportunities to reduce periconception HIV transmission include antiretroviral therapy as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis, limiting condomless sex to peak fertility, and sperm processing. Whether men have knowledge of or want to adopt these strategies remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with men accessing HIV care in South Africa in 2014 to inform a safer conception intervention for men. Eligible men were 25-45 years old, living with HIV, not yet accessing treatment, and wanting to have a child with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus female partner (referred to as the "desired pregnancy partner"). FGDs explored motivations for having a healthy baby, feasibility of a clinic-based safer conception intervention, and acceptability of safer conception strategies. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twelve participants from three FGDs had a median age of 37 (range 23-45) years, reported a median of 2 (range 1-4) sexual partners, and 1 (range 1-3) desired pregnancy partner(s). A third (N = 4) had disclosed HIV-serostatus to the pregnancy partner. Emergent themes included opportunities for and challenges to engaging men in safer conception services. Opportunities included enthusiasm for a clinic-based safer conception intervention and acceptance of some safer conception strategies. Challenges included poor understanding of safer conception strategies, unfamiliarity with risk reduction [versus "safe" (condoms) and "unsafe" (condomless) sex], mixed acceptability of safer conception strategies, and concerns about disclosing HIV-serostatus to a partner. CONCLUSIONS: Men living with HIV expressed interest in safer conception and willingness to attend clinic programs. Imprecise prevention counseling messages make it difficult for men to conceptualize risk reduction. Effective safer conception programs should embrace clear language, e.g. undetectable = untransmittable (U = U), and support multiple approaches to serostatus disclosure to pregnancy partners.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fertilização , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
8.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 22(1): 1-13, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Background: Women with HIV (WWH) are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to men with HIV. Lifestyle interventions, like the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), may reduce CVD risk, but most fail to address barriers to healthy behaviors facing WWH. OBJECTIVE: Objective: To inform the adaptation of the DPP for midlife WWH, pilot the modified intervention, and assess feasibility, acceptability, and implementation barriers. METHODS: Methods: Interviews were conducted with cisgender, English-speaking WWH ages 40-59 to assess intervention preferences. The adapted DPP was piloted and evaluated. CVD knowledge, CVD risk perception, quality of life, and physical activity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: Results: Eighteen WWH completed interviews. Adaptations included reducing the number of sessions and adding HIV, CVD, stress, aging, menopause, and smoking content. Of 14 women contacted for the pilot, seven completed a baseline, five attended group sessions, and five completed a post-treatment assessment. Attendance barriers included transportation access and costs. Satisfaction was moderate; informal exit interviews indicated that women would recommend the program. CVD knowledge, perceived risk, and physical activity increased, and fatigue and mental health improved. Content on nutrition, aging, HIV, and stress was seen as most useful; suggested changes included group exercises and additional content on recipes, HIV management, and aging. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions: Midlife WWH reported benefits from our adapted intervention. Increases in CVD knowledge and perceived CVD risk suggest improved awareness of the impact of lifestyle behaviors. Retention was adequate; socioeconomic barriers were common. Intervention feasibility and acceptability may be improved via remote access and further content customization.

9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 124, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality during childbirth globally. Despite increases in facility-based childbirth, gaps in quality of care at facilities have limited reductions in maternal deaths. Infrequent physiologic monitoring of women around childbirth is a major gap in care that leads to delays in life-saving interventions for women experiencing complications. METHODS: We will conduct a type-2 hybrid effectiveness-implementation study over 12 months to evaluate using a wireless physiologic monitoring system to detect and alert clinicians of abnormal vital signs in women for 24 h after undergoing emergency cesarean delivery at a tertiary care facility in Uganda. We will provide physiologic data (heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature and blood pressure) to clinicians via a smartphone-based application with alert notifications if monitored women develop predefined abnormalities in monitored physiologic signs. We will alternate two-week intervention and control time periods where women and clinicians use the wireless monitoring system during intervention periods and current standard of care (i.e., manual vital sign measurement when clinically indicated) during control periods. Our primary outcome for effectiveness is a composite of severe maternal outcomes per World Health Organization criteria (e.g. death, cardiac arrest, jaundice, shock, prolonged unconsciousness, paralysis, hysterectomy). Secondary outcomes include maternal mortality rate, and case fatality rates for postpartum hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and sepsis. We will use the RE-AIM implementation framework to measure implementation metrics of the wireless physiologic system including Reach (proportion of eligible women monitored, length of time women monitored), Efficacy (proportion of women with monitoring according to Uganda Ministry of Health guidelines, number of appropriate alerts sent), Adoption (proportion of clinicians utilizing physiologic data per shift, clinical actions in response to alerts), Implementation (fidelity to monitoring protocol), Maintenance (sustainability of implementation over time). We will also perform in-depth qualitative interviews with up to 30 women and 30 clinicians participating in the study. DISCUSSION: This is the first hybrid-effectiveness study of wireless physiologic monitoring in an obstetric population. This study offers insights into use of wireless monitoring systems in low resource-settings, as well as normal and abnormal physiologic parameters among women delivering by cesarean. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04060667 . Registered on 08/01/2019.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582889

RESUMO

Men who have sex with women are understudied in HIV research despite the extent to which they experience HIV-related mortality and contribute to the epidemic among women. During our experience of developing and piloting an HIV prevention intervention for men living with HIV in South Africa, and planning to have a child with an HIV-negative woman, ethical questions were posed regarding implementation of a male-centered intervention that did not require female partner participation. Two overarching ethical issues were the potential for (1) compromising women's reproductive and sexual autonomy and (2) increasing HIV-acquisition risks for the woman because the intervention efficacy was unknown. We describe here how these concerns were addressed to facilitate development of a male-centered HIV-prevention intervention. We hope this process manuscript will support researchers, clinicians, and reviewers to engage men who have sex with women in HIV prevention and care.

11.
AIDS Behav ; 25(1): 237-248, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638220

RESUMO

Adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV in South Africa face significant barriers to successful transition from pediatric to adult care. We performed in-depth qualitative interviews with 41 adolescents living with HIV and 18 of their caregivers to investigate modifiable factors to improve engagement in care prior to transition to adult care. Based on dyadic, inductive content analysis, findings suggest that HIV status disclosure, social support, and mental health are targets for improvement in engagement in care. Early disclosure and a sense of belonging facilitated engagement in care, while barriers included delayed or inadequate disclosure, denial, and lack of disclosure to others. Adherence support improved by having a biological mother as a direct supervisor. Barriers to care included changing caregivers, abandonment, undiagnosed mental health problems and learning difficulties. Despite these factors, the majority of adolescents showed resilience and remained engaged in care despite difficult circumstances.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Saúde Mental , Apoio Social , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Revelação da Verdade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidadores , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(8): e25586, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a cohort study to understand patterns of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence during pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnancy follow-up among women initiating ART in public clinics offering Option B+ in rural Uganda and urban South Africa. METHODS: We collected survey data, continuously monitored ART adherence (Wisepill), HIV-RNA and pregnancy tests at zero, six and twelve months from women initiating ART in Uganda and South Africa, 2015 to 2017. The primary predictor of interest was follow-up time categorized as pregnant (pregnancy diagnosis to pregnancy end), postpartum (pregnancy end to study exit) or non-pregnancy-related (neither pregnant nor postpartum). Fractional regression models included demographics and socio-behavioural factors informed by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations. We evaluated HIV-RNA at 12 months by ever- versus never-pregnant status. RESULTS: In Uganda, 247 women contributed 676, 900 and 1274 months of pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnancy-related follow-up. Median ART adherence was consistently ≥90%: pregnancy, 94% (interquartile range [IQR] 78,98); postpartum, 90% (IQR 70,97) and non-pregnancy, 90% (IQR 80,98). Poorer adherence was associated with younger age (0.98% [95% CI 0.33%, 1.62%] average increase per year of age) and higher CD4 cell count (1.01% [0.08%, 1.94%] average decrease per 50 cells/mm3 ). HIV-RNA was suppressed among 91% (N = 135) ever-pregnant and 86% (N = 85) never-pregnant women. In South Africa, 190 women contributed 259, 624 and 1247 months of pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnancy-related follow-up. Median adherence was low during pregnancy, 74% (IQR 31,96); postpartum, 40% (IQR 4,65) and non-pregnancy, 77% (IQR 47,92). Poorer adherence was associated with postpartum status (22.3% [95%CI 8.6%, 35.4%] average decrease compared to non-pregnancy-related follow-up) and less emotional support (1.4% [0.22%, 2.58%] average increase per unit increase). HIV-RNA was suppressed among 57% (N = 47) ever-pregnant and 86% (N = 93) never-pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Women in rural Uganda maintained high adherence with 91% of ever-pregnant and 86% of never-pregnant women suppressing HIV-RNA at 12 months. Women in urban South Africa struggled with adherence, particularly during postpartum follow-up with median adherence of 40% and 57% of women with HIV-RNA suppression at one year, suggesting a crisis for postpartum women with HIV in South Africa. Findings suggest that effective interventions should promote emotional support.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , População Rural , África do Sul , Uganda , População Urbana
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(5): 508-513, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is efficacious in reducing HIV acquisition. For some gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), daily ongoing PrEP may be unsuitable for use as a long-term prevention strategy because of episodic risk, cost issues, or concerns about the biological consequences of medication. SETTING: This study evaluated the feasibility of short-term, fixed-interval episodic PrEP (Epi-PrEP) for use among vacationing MSM. We describe the feasibility of implementing a clinic-based Epi-PrEP pilot program for 48 MSM who reported occasional condomless sex and anticipated a defined high-risk time. METHODS: This was a nonrandomized naturalistic study of an observational clinical intervention. The primary outcome assessed was adherence, as measured by self-report and plasma tenofovir levels. RESULTS: Of 54 MSM who enrolled in the study, 48 completed the 3-month visit. The majority (93.7%) had tenofovir concentrations consistent with daily use on returning from vacation. Almost 3/4 reported condomless sex during vacation, and about 1/3 reported recreational drug use. During the 3-month follow-up, 1 participant had become HIV-infected because of a lapse in continued access to the PrEP after study. Although adverse events were common, none were serious. More than 70% of participants indicated an interest in daily ongoing PrEP use. CONCLUSIONS: Epi-PrEP was well tolerated by at risk MSM in this study, with high levels of medication adherence. Many participants felt the experience of initiating PrEP while on vacation could be a means for transition to long-term PrEP use.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1 , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Fatores de Risco , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual
14.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105320926526, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515245

RESUMO

Women living with HIV are disproportionally affected by depression and mental healthcare access. A pilot feasibility trial using videoconferencing compared cognitive behavioral therapy for antiretroviral therapy adherence and depression (N = 11) to supportive psychotherapy (N = 11). Participants completed 10-12 weekly therapy sessions and 6-month follow-up. Retention at 6 months was 95 percent. Depression symptoms significantly decreased in both arms; antiretroviral therapy adherence remained high as measured via self-report and Wisepill. Satisfaction with intervention components was high; videoconferencing was highly acceptable and comparable to face-to-face counseling. This study demonstrates the feasibility of telemedicine-administered psychotherapy addressing mental health needs among women living with HIV.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV, occur at disproportionally high rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective in reducing HIV acquisition. Reduction of condom use has been noted among adult populations of MSM using PrEP. However, less is known about PrEP and condom use among YMSM. PURPOSE: Our objective was to understand condom attitudes/beliefs and behaviors among YMSM in the context of PrEP use and nonuse. METHODOLOGICAL ORIENTATION: We conducted qualitative interviews between May and November, 2017 in Boston, MA. All YMSM were HIV-negative by self-report. We purposively sampled youth who used PrEP and those who did not use PrEP. Data were analyzed using content analysis. SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 31 YMSM aged 17-24 years (mean = 21.5 years). CONCLUSIONS: Young men who have sex with men provided rich descriptions of their condom-use philosophies and behaviors. Three themes emerged: 1) Different condom philosophies between youth who used PrEP and youth who do not, 2) Inconsistent or absent condom use by PrEP users, and 3) Similar condom behaviors regardless of PrEP use with certain partner types, if low self-efficacy was reported, and when sex occurred during periods of substance use and/or intoxication. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study provides understanding of YMSM condom decision-making process in the context of PrEP use or nonuse. Findings are useful to inform development and testing of individually tailored interventions for YMSM based on their personal condom-use philosophies and behaviors to improve risk reduction decision making, use of condoms, and PrEP.

16.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(9): 626-636, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a robust predictor of nonadherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, which is essential to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Women in resource-limited settings face additional barriers to PMTCT adherence. Although structural barriers may be minimized by social support, depression and stigma may impede access to this support. PURPOSE: To better understand modifiable factors that contribute to PMTCT adherence and inform intervention development. METHODS: We tested an ARV adherence model using data from 200 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT (median age 28), who completed a third-trimester interview. Adherence scores were created using principal components analysis based on four questions assessing 30-day adherence. We used path analysis to assess (i) depression and stigma as predictors of social support and then (ii) the combined associations of depression, stigma, social support, and structural barriers with adherence. RESULTS: Elevated depressive symptoms were directly associated with significantly lower adherence (est = -8.60, 95% confidence interval [-15.02, -2.18], p < .01). Individuals with increased stigma and depression were significantly less likely to utilize social support (p < .01, for both), and higher social support was associated with increased adherence (est = 7.42, 95% confidence interval [2.29, 12.58], p < .01). Structural barriers, defined by income (p = .55) and time spent traveling to clinic (p = .31), did not predict adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Depression and social support may play an important role in adherence to PMTCT care. Pregnant women living with HIV with elevated depressive symptoms and high levels of stigma may suffer from low social support. In PMTCT programs, maximizing adherence may require effective identification and treatment of depression and stigma, as well as enhancing social support.

17.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e035465, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa (SA) has the highest prevalence of pregnant women living with HIV in the world. Pregnancy and the postpartum period offer opportunities to engage women in HIV care, to prevent perinatal transmission and to optimise maternal and infant well-being. However, research suggests that remaining engaged in HIV care during this time can be challenging. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We are conducting a 5-year prospective cohort study among pregnant women living with HIV in KZN to estimate the rates and factors associated with attrition from HIV care during this critical period. To determine who is most likely to fall out of care, we are examining a range of relevant variables informed by a socioecological model of HIV care, including individual, relational, community and healthcare system variables. We are enrolling 18-45-year-old women, at 28 weeks or more of pregnancy, who are living with HIV and currently taking antiretroviral therapies. Participants complete quantitative assessments at baseline (pregnancy) and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postpartum. A subset of women and their partners are invited to complete qualitative interviews to further explore their experiences in HIV care. The main study outcomes are suppressed HIV RNA and retention in care at each study assessment. Our understanding of the factors that drive postpartum attrition from HIV care will ultimately inform the development of interventions to facilitate continued engagement in postpartum HIV care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) at The University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, SA) and the Partners Human Research Committee at Partners HealthCare (Boston, Massachusetts, USA). Site support and approval were obtained from the District Hospital and the KZN Provincial Department of Health. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed manuscripts, reports and both local and international presentations (Ethics Registration #170 212).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
AIDS Behav ; 24(3): 881-890, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165395

RESUMO

Gender norms affect HIV risk within serodifferent partnerships. We assessed how the sexual relationship power described by men living with HIV (MLWH) associates with periconception HIV-transmission risk behavior. Quantitative surveys were conducted with 82 MLWH reporting a recent pregnancy with an HIV-negative or unknown-serostatus partner in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Surveys assessed decision-making dominance (DMD) using the Pulerwitz et al. sexual relationship power scale; partnership characteristics; and HIV-risk behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated associations between DMD score and HIV-risk behaviors. Higher male decision-making dominance was associated with non-disclosure of HIV-serostatus to pregnancy partner (aRR 2.00, 95% CI 1.52, 2.64), not knowing partner's HIV-serostatus (aRR 1.64, 95% CI 1.27, 2.13), condomless sex since pregnancy (aRR 1.92, 95% CI 1.08, 3.43), and concurrent relationships (aRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20, 1.88). Efforts to minimize periconception HIV-risk behavior must address gender norms and power inequities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Barreiras de Comunicação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 31(2): 157-166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842064

RESUMO

Body image disturbance is increasingly relevant as women living with HIV (WLWH) live longer. We explored body image disturbance and changes in fat distribution (lipodystrophy) in 63 WLWH (mean age = 51 years) and evaluated associations among lipodystrophy, body image, and psychosocial variables. Eighty-one percent of participants reported one or more body parts (of six assessed) demonstrating lipodystrophy, and more than one third reported three or more affected body parts. Increased belt/waist (58%) and increased chest/breast (39%) sizes were most common. More diffuse lipodystrophy was significantly associated with poorer body image (F[2,54] = 11.86, p < .001, partial η = .313) and anxiety (F[2,52] = 3.82, p = .029, partial η = .133) after controlling for age and duration of infection. Lipodystrophy was prevalent in our sample; more diffuse lipodystrophy was associated with anxiety and poor body image. Providers should assess lipodystrophy in older WLWH and provide referrals for mental health services.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome de Lipodistrofia Associada ao HIV/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Síndrome de Lipodistrofia Associada ao HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Lipodistrofia Associada ao HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Apoio Social
20.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(2): 127-134, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832911

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest infant feeding option in resource-limited settings, though women living with HIV have the lowest rates of EBF. Barriers to EBF in the absences of a formal intervention in women living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, where the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women is among the highest in the world, are understudied. Thus, this study sought to describe barriers to EBF and examine differences in social support, disclosure status, mood, and HIV-related stigma among women with different feeding methods. METHODS: Women living with HIV enrolled in preventing mother-to-child transmission treatment (n = 156) were interviewed postpartum (M = 13.1 weeks) at a district hospital and self-reported infant feeding method, reasons not breastfeeding (if applicable), and HIV disclosure status. Mood, HIV-related stigma, functional social support, and HIV-related social support were also assessed. RESULTS: No participants reported mixed feeding, 30% reported EBF, and 70% reported exclusive formula feeding. Commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding included fear of HIV transmission to the infant and being away from the infant for extended periods of time. Social support (p = 0.02) and HIV-related social support (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in women who had attempted breastfeeding compared to women who never attempted breastfeeding. DISCUSSION: Rates of EBF in this sample are lower than in other recent studies, suggesting this sample experiences multiple barriers to EBF. Healthcare providers should seek to correct misconceptions regarding HIV transmission and breastfeeding practices. Social and logistical support for EBF may be important considerations for future interventions.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , África do Sul
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