Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 598
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5182, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057025

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diagnosed by reduced lung function, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We performed whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of lung function and COPD in a multi-ethnic sample of 11,497 participants from population- and family-based studies, and 8499 individuals from COPD-enriched studies in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. We identify at genome-wide significance 10 known GWAS loci and 22 distinct, previously unreported loci, including two common variant signals from stratified analysis of African Americans. Four novel common variants within the regions of PIAS1, RGN (two variants) and FTO show evidence of replication in the UK Biobank (European ancestry n ~ 320,000), while colocalization analyses leveraging multi-omic data from GTEx and TOPMed identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying four of the 22 novel loci. Our study demonstrates the value of performing WGS analyses and multi-omic follow-up in cohorts of diverse ancestry.

2.
Nature ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057201

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2-4 and coronary heart disease5-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP)6. Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.

3.
JCI Insight ; 5(19)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). The prospective associations of impairment in cardiac mechanical function, as assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography, with incident AF are less clear. METHODS: In the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based cohort of older adults, participants free of AF with echocardiograms of adequate quality for speckle tracking were included. We evaluated the associations of indices of cardiac mechanics (LA reservoir strain, LV longitudinal strain, and LV early diastolic strain rate) with incident AF. RESULTS: Of 4341 participants with strain imaging, participants with lower LA reservoir strain were older, had more cardiometabolic risk factors, and had lower renal function at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 10 years, 497 (11.4%) participants developed AF. Compared with the highest quartile of LA reservoir strain, the lowest quartile of LA reservoir strain was associated with higher risk of AF after covariate adjustment, including LA volume and LV longitudinal strain (heart rate [HR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45; P < 0.001). The association of LA reservoir strain and AF was stronger in subgroups with higher blood pressure, NT-proBNP, and LA volumes. There were no associations of LV longitudinal strain and LV early diastolic strain rate with incident AF after adjustment for LA reservoir strain. CONCLUSION: Lower LA reservoir strain was associated with incident AF, independent of LV mechanics, and with stronger associations in high-risk subgroups. These findings suggest that LA mechanical dysfunction precedes the development of AF. Therapies targeting LA mechanical dysfunction may prevent progression to AF. FUNDING: This research was supported by contracts HHSN268201200036C, HHSN268200800007C, HHSN268201800001C, N01HC55222, N01HC85079, N01HC85080, N01HC85081, N01HC85082, N01HC85083, and N01HC85086 and grants KL2TR001424, R01HL107577, U01HL080295, and U01HL130114 from the NIH's National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), with additional contribution from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Additional support was provided by R01AG023629 from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). A full list of principal CHS investigators and institutions can be found at CHS-NHLBI.org.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946864

RESUMO

High sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT), soluble ST2 (sST2), N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and galectin-3 are biomarkers of cardiac injury, stress, myocardial stretch, and fibrosis. Elevated levels are associated with poor outcomes. However, their association with cardiac mechanics in older persons is unknown. Associations between these biomarkers and cardiac mechanics derived from speckle tracking echocardiography, including left ventricular longitudinal strain (LVLS), early diastolic strain, and left atrial reservoir strain (LARS) were evaluated using standardized beta coefficients () in a cross sectional analysis with cardiac biomarkers in older patients without cardiovascular disease, low ejection fraction, or wall motion abnormalities. Biomarker associations with strain were attenuated by demographics and risk factors. In adjusted models, LVLS was associated with continuous measures of hscTnT (ß∧-0.06, p = 0.020), sST2 (ß∧ -0.05, p = 0.024) and NT-proBNP (ß∧ -0.06, p = 0.007). "High" levels (i.e., greater than prognostic cutpoint) of hscTnT (>13 ng/ml), sST2 (>35 ng/ml), and NT-proBNP (>190 pg/ml) were also associated with worse LVLS. In risk factor adjusted models, LARS was associated with hscTnT (ß∧ -0.08, p = 0.003) and NT-proBNP (ß∧-0.18, p <0.0001). High hscTnT (>13 ng/ml) and high NT-proBNP (>190 pg/ml) were also both associated with worse LARS. Gal-3 was not associated with any strain measure. In conclusion, in persons ≥ 65 years of age, without cardiovascular disease, low ejection fraction, or wall motion abnormalities, hscTnT, sST2, and NT-proBNP are associated with worse LVLS. HscTnT and NT-proBNP are associated with worse LARS. In conclusion, these subclinical increases in blood biomarkers, and their associations with subtle diastolic and systolic dysfunction, may represent pre-clinical heart failure.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4796, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963231

RESUMO

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estruturas Cromossômicas , Cognição , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(9): 1011-1018, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936272

RESUMO

Importance: The risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) at currently defined normal systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels in persons without ASCVD risk factors based on current definitions is not well defined. Objective: To examine the association of SBP levels with coronary artery calcium and ASCVD in persons without hypertension or other traditional ASCVD risk factors based on current definitions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 1457 participants free of ASCVD from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were without dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level ≥160 mg/dL or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level <40 mg/dL), diabetes (fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL), treatment for hyperlipidemia or diabetes, or current tobacco use, and had an SBP level between 90 and 129 mm Hg. Participants receiving hypertension medication were excluded. Coronary artery calcium was classified as absent or present and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were calculated for incident ASCVD. The study was conducted from March 27, 2018, to February 12, 2020. Exposures: Systolic blood pressure. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presence or absence of coronary artery calcium and incident ASCVD events. Results: Of the 1457 participants, 894 were women (61.4%); mean (SD) age was 58.1 (9.8) years and mean (SD) follow-up was 14.5 (3.9) years. There was an increase in traditional ASCVD risk factors, coronary artery calcium, and incident ASCVD events with increasing SBP levels. The aHR for ASCVD was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) for every 10-mm Hg increase in SBP levels. Compared with persons with SBP levels 90 to 99 mm Hg, the aHR for ASCVD risk was 3.00 (95% CI, 1.01-8.88) for SBP levels 100 to 109 mm Hg, 3.10 (95% CI, 1.03-9.28) for SBP levels 110 to 119 mm Hg, and 4.58 (95% CI, 1.47-14.27) for SBP levels 120 to 129 mm Hg. Conclusions and Relevance: Beginning at an SBP level as low as 90 mm Hg, there appears to be a stepwise increase in the presence of coronary artery calcium and the risk of incident ASCVD with increasing SBP levels. These results highlight the importance of primordial prevention for SBP level increase and other traditional ASCVD risk factors, which generally seem to have similar trajectories of graded increase in risk within values traditionally considered to be normal.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1455-1465, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and biomarkers associate differentially with heart failure (HF) risk in men and women is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific associations of CV risk factors and biomarkers with incident HF. METHODS: The analysis was performed using data from 4 community-based cohorts with 12.5 years of follow-up. Participants (recruited between 1989 and 2002) were free of HF at baseline. Biomarker measurements included natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, sST2, galectin-3, cystatin-C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Among 22,756 participants (mean age 60 ± 13 years, 53% women), HF occurred in 2,095 participants (47% women). Age, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left bundle branch block were strongly associated with HF in both sexes (p < 0.001), and the combined clinical model had good discrimination in men (C-statistic = 0.80) and in women (C-statistic = 0.83). The majority of biomarkers were strongly and similarly associated with HF in both sexes. The clinical model improved modestly after adding natriuretic peptides in men (ΔC-statistic = 0.006; likelihood ratio chi-square = 146; p < 0.001), and after adding cardiac troponins in women (ΔC-statistic = 0.003; likelihood ratio chi-square = 73; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CV risk factors are strongly and similarly associated with incident HF in both sexes, highlighting the similar importance of risk factor control in reducing HF risk in the community. There are subtle sex-related differences in the predictive value of individual biomarkers, but the overall improvement in HF risk estimation when included in a clinical HF risk prediction model is limited in both sexes.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869845

RESUMO

CONTEXT: A comprehensive characterization of racial/ethnic variations in vitamin D metabolism markers may improve our understanding of differences in bone and mineral homeostasis and the risk of vitamin D-related diseases. OBJECTIVE: Describe racial/ethnic differences in vitamin D metabolism markers and their associations with genetic ancestry. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: In a cross-sectional study within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we compared a comprehensive panel of vitamin D metabolism markers across self-reported racial/ethnic groups of Black (N = 1759), White (N = 2507), Chinese (N = 788), and Hispanic (N = 1411). We evaluated associations of proportion African and European ancestry with this panel of markers in Black and Hispanic participants using ancestry informative markers. Latent class analysis evaluated associations between patterns of vitamin D measurements with race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Compared with Black participants, White participants had significantly higher serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and fibroblast growth factor-23; lower concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; circulating vitamin D metabolite ratios suggesting lower CYP27B1 and higher CYP24A1 activity; higher urinary concentrations of calcium and phosphorus with higher urinary fractional excretion of phosphorus; and differences in vitamin D binding globulin haplotypes. Higher percent European ancestry was associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and lower parathyroid hormone concentrations among Black and Hispanic participants. Latent classes defined by vitamin D measurements reflected these patterns and differed significantly by race/ethnicity and ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: Markers of vitamin D metabolism vary significantly by race/ethnicity, may serve to maintain bone and mineral homeostasis across ranges of 25-hydroxyvitamin D production, and be attributable, at least partly, to genetic ancestry.

9.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 969-983, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839606

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequencing studies have enabled the analysis of rare variants (RVs) associated with complex phenotypes. Commonly used RV association tests have limited scope to leverage variant functions. We propose STAAR (variant-set test for association using annotation information), a scalable and powerful RV association test method that effectively incorporates both variant categories and multiple complementary annotations using a dynamic weighting scheme. For the latter, we introduce 'annotation principal components', multidimensional summaries of in silico variant annotations. STAAR accounts for population structure and relatedness and is scalable for analyzing very large cohort and biobank whole-genome sequencing studies of continuous and dichotomous traits. We applied STAAR to identify RVs associated with four lipid traits in 12,316 discovery and 17,822 replication samples from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program. We discovered and replicated new RV associations, including disruptive missense RVs of NPC1L1 and an intergenic region near APOC1P1 associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822252

RESUMO

Background - The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic (ECG) measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD. Methods - Fifteen studies comprising 64,440 individuals (56,943 European, 5,681 African, 1,186 Hispanic, 630 Asian), and ~230,000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and SKAT tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF GWAS. Results - We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (TTN, CAND2, SCN10A, PITX2, CAV1, SYNPO2L, SOX5, TBX5, MYH6, RPL3L). The top variants at known sarcomere genes (TTN, MYH6) were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (e.g., PITX2 and SCN10A) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk. Conclusions - Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.

11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
12.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.

13.
Neurology ; 95(5): e519-e531, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the incidence of dementia between 1988 and 2015. METHODS: This analysis was performed in aggregated data from individuals >65 years of age in 7 population-based cohort studies in the United States and Europe from the Alzheimer Cohort Consortium. First, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates for all-cause dementia, and then defined nonoverlapping 5-year epochs within each study to determine trends in incidence. Estimates of change per 10-year interval were pooled and results are presented combined and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of 49,202 individuals, 4,253 (8.6%) developed dementia. The incidence rate of dementia increased with age, similarly for women and men, ranging from about 4 per 1,000 person-years in individuals aged 65-69 years to 65 per 1,000 person-years for those aged 85-89 years. The incidence rate of dementia declined by 13% per calendar decade (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-19%), consistently across studies, and somewhat more pronouncedly in men than in women (24% [95% CI 14%-32%] vs 8% [0%-15%]). CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of dementia in Europe and North America has declined by 13% per decade over the past 25 years, consistently across studies. Incidence is similar for men and women, although declines were somewhat more profound in men. These observations call for sustained efforts to finding the causes for this decline, as well as determining their validity in geographically and ethnically diverse populations.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002772, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake influences plasma lipid levels, and such effects may be moderated by genetic variants. We aimed to characterize the role of aggregated rare and low-frequency protein-coding variants in gene by alcohol consumption interactions associated with fasting plasma lipid levels. METHODS: In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, fasting plasma triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in 34 153 individuals with European ancestry from 5 discovery studies and 32 277 individuals from 6 replication studies. Rare and low-frequency functional protein-coding variants (minor allele frequency, ≤5%) measured by an exome array were aggregated by genes and evaluated by a gene-environment interaction test and a joint test of genetic main and gene-environment interaction effects. Two dichotomous self-reported alcohol consumption variables, current drinker, defined as any recurrent drinking behavior, and regular drinker, defined as the subset of current drinkers who consume at least 2 drinks per week, were considered. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated 21 gene-lipid associations at 13 known lipid loci through the joint test. Eight loci (PCSK9, LPA, LPL, LIPG, ANGPTL4, APOB, APOC3, and CD300LG) remained significant after conditioning on the common index single-nucleotide polymorphism identified by previous genome-wide association studies, suggesting an independent role for rare and low-frequency variants at these loci. One significant gene-alcohol interaction on triglycerides in a novel locus was significantly discovered (P=6.65×10-6 for the interaction test) and replicated at nominal significance level (P=0.013) in SMC5. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study applied new gene-based statistical approaches and suggested that rare and low-frequency genetic variants interacted with alcohol consumption on lipid levels.

15.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(9): 1175-1182, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Opioids, gabapentinoids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may have adverse cardiovascular effects. We evaluated whether these medications were associated with incident clinically detected atrial fibrillation (AF) or monitor-detected supraventricular ectopy (SVE), including premature atrial contractions (PACs) and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). METHODS: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort study that enrolled 6814 Americans without clinically detected cardiovascular disease in 2000 to 2002. At the 2016 to 2018 examination, 1557 individuals received ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring. Longitudinal analyses investigated time-varying medication exposures at the first five exams (through 2011) in relation to incident clinically detected AF through 2015 using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Cross-sectional analyses investigated medication exposures at 2016 to 2018 examination and the risk of monitor-detected SVE using linear regression models. RESULTS: The longitudinal cohort included 6652 participants. During 12.4 years of mean follow-up, 982 participants (14.7%) experienced incident clinically detected AF. Use of opioids, gabapentinoids, and NSAIDs were not associated with incident AF. The cross-sectional analysis included 1435 participants with ECG monitoring. Gabapentinoid use was associated with an 84% greater average frequency of PACs/hour (95% CI, 25%-171%) and a 44% greater average number of runs of SVT/day (95% CI, 3%-100%). No associations were found with use of opioids or NSAIDs in cross-sectional analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, gabapentinoid use was associated with SVE. Given the rapid increase in gabapentinoid use, additional studies are needed to clarify whether these medications cause cardiovascular complications.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not predict survival to very old age. Studies have shown associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) with cardiovascular disease and mortality in older populations. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of the level and change in eGFR and NT-pro-BNP with longevity to age 90 years. METHODS: The population included participants (n=3,645) in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged between 67-75 at baseline. The main exposures were eGFR, calculated with the Berlin Initiative Study equation (BIS2), and NT-pro-BNP, and the main outcome was survival to age 90. Mixed models were used to estimate level and change of the main exposures. RESULTS: There was an association between baseline level and change of both eGFR and NT-pro-BNP and survival to 90, and this association persisted after adjustment for covariates. Each 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 higher eGFR level was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.34) of survival to 90, and a 0.5 ml/min/ 1.73 m2 slower decline in eGFR was associated with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.74). A 2-fold higher level of NT-pro-BNP level had an adjusted OR of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.73), and a 1.05-fold increase per year in NT-pro-BNP had an OR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.65) for survival to age 90. CONCLUSION: eGFR and NT-pro-BNP appear to be important risk factors for longevity to age 90.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 126: 45-55, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359719

RESUMO

The 2017 American blood pressure (BP) guidelines recommended a personalized risk-based approach to treatment in stage 1 hypertension. We sought to establish the utility of coronary artery or thoracic aortic calcium (CAC or TAC) as additional risk modifiers in this setting. We included 1859 Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants with stage 1 hypertension. We compared adjusted HR for the composite outcome of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or heart failure across predefined categories of either CAC or TAC (0, 1 to 100, or >100) in: (1) the full sample; (2) 4 high-risk subgroups recommended for pharmacotherapy to a BP goal <130/80 mm Hg, and (3) low-risk subgroup not eligible for pharmacotherapy. We also estimated the 10-year number-needed-to-treat (NNT10) to a systolic BP <130 mm Hg as extrapolated from meta-analyses. Mean age was 62.8 ± 9.4 years, 46% were female and there were 300 events over a median follow-up of 13.8 years. The absolute event rate was 4.1 to 10.8 per 1,000 person-years among high-risk participants with CAC = 0, but 28.4 among low-risk participants with CAC >100. CAC >100 was independently associated with a higher relative risk of events compared with CAC = 0 (e.g., adjusted HR [9.5 (1.8 to 18.7)] in the low-risk subgroup). NNT10 for CAC = 0 were 3 to 5 times higher than those for CAC >100 in all analyses. TAC was not a reliable risk modifier in our study. In conclusion, CAC, but not TAC, can further guide risk-based allocation of treatment in stage 1 hypertension and should be considered as a risk modifier in future guidelines.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Coronária , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(11): 2207-2214, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population age 90 years and older is the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. Only recently is it possible to study the factors that portend survival to this age. METHODS: Among participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study, we studied the association of repeated measures of cardiovascular risk factors measured over 15-23 years of follow-up and not only survival to 90 years of age, but also healthy aging outcomes among the population who reached age 90. We included participants aged 67-75 years at baseline (n = 3,613/5,888) to control for birth cohort effects, and followed participants until death or age 90 (median follow-up = 14.7 years). RESULTS: Higher systolic blood pressure was associated with a lower likelihood of survival to age 90, although this association was attenuated at older ages (p-value for interaction <.001) and crossed the null for measurements taken in participants' 80's. Higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater longevity. Among the survivors to age 90, those with worse cardiovascular profile (high blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, glucose, and BMI; low HDL cholesterol) had lower likelihood of remaining free of cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and disability. CONCLUSION: In summary, we observed paradoxical associations between some cardiovascular risk factors and survival to old age; whereas, among those who survive to very old age, these risk factors were associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes.

19.
J Card Fail ; 26(5): 410-419, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD14 is a membrane glycoprotein primarily expressed by myeloid cells that plays a key role in inflammation. Soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels carry a poor prognosis in chronic heart failure (HF), but whether elevations in sCD14 precede HF is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sCD14 is associated with HF incidence and its subtypes independent of major inflammatory biomarkers among older adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study without preexisting HF and available baseline sCD14. We evaluated the associations of sCD14, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and white blood cell count (WBC) with incident HF and subtypes using Cox regression. Among 5217 participants, 1878 had incident HF over 13.6 years (609 classifiable as HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF] and 419 as HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]). After adjusting for clinical and laboratory covariates, sCD14 was significantly associated with incident HF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.56 per doubling, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-1.89), an association that was numerically stronger than for hsCRP (HR per doubling: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.15), IL-6 (HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10-1.25), and WBC (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42), and that remained significant after adjustment for the other markers of inflammation. This association for sCD14 was observed with HFpEF (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.07-2.10) but not HFrEF (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.67-1.49). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD14 was associated with incident HF independently and numerically more strongly than other major inflammatory markers. This association was only observed with HFpEF in the subset with classifiable HF subtypes. Pending replication, these findings have potentially important therapeutic implications.

20.
Atherosclerosis ; 300: 47-53, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cell-mediated immunity is implicated in atherosclerosis. We evaluated whether innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in peripheral blood are risk factors for coronary heart disease. METHODS: A nested case-cohort study (n = 2155) was performed within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Cases of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and incident angina (n = 880 total cases) were compared with a cohort random sample (n = 1275). Immune cell phenotypes (n = 34, including CD14+ monocytes, natural killer cells, γδ T cells, CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocyte subsets) were measured from cryopreserved cells by flow cytometry. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors were used to evaluate associations of cell phenotypes with incident MI and a composite phenotype of incident MI or incident angina (MI-angina) over a median 9.3 years of follow-up. Th1, Th2, Th17, T regulatory (CD4+CD25+CD127-), naive (CD4+CD45RA+), memory (CD4+CD45RO+), and CD4+CD28- cells were specified as primary hypotheses. In secondary analyses, 27 additional cell phenotypes were investigated. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, there were no statistically significant associations of CD4+ naive, memory, CD28-, or T helper cell subsets with MI or MI-angina in MESA, CHS, or combined-cohort meta analyses. Null associations were also observed for monocyte subsets, natural killer cells, γδ T cells, CD19+ B cell and differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ cell subsets. CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of peripheral blood monocyte and lymphocyte subsets are not strongly related to the future occurrence of MI or angina in adults free of autoimmune disease.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA