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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609072

RESUMO

AIMS: Treatment with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. There is limited experience with the in-hospital initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with acute HF (AHF) with or without diabetes. EMPULSE is designed to assess the clinical benefit and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin compared with placebo in patients hospitalized with AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: EMPULSE is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled multinational trial comparing the in-hospital initiation of empagliflozin (10 mg, once daily) with placebo. Approximately 500 patients admitted for AHF with dyspnea, signs of fluid overload, and elevated natriuretic peptides will be randomized 1:1 stratified to HF status (de-novo and decompensated chronic HF) to either empagliflozin or placebo at approximately 165 sites across North America, Europe and Asia. Patients will be enrolled regardless of ejection fraction and diabetes status and will be randomized during hospitalization and after stabilization (between 24 h and 5 days after admission), with treatment continued up to 90 days after initiation. The primary outcome is clinical benefit at 90 days, consisting of a composite of all-cause death, HF events, and ≥ 5 point change from baseline in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score (KCCQ-TSS), assessed using a "win-ratio" approach. Secondary outcomes include assessments of safety, change in KCCQ-TSS from baseline to 90-days and change in natriuretic peptides from baseline to 30 days. CONCLUSION: The EMPULSE trial will evaluate the clinical benefit and safety of empagliflozin in patients hospitalized for AHF.

2.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(2): e007759, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing population of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction has limited treatment options to improve their quality and quantity of life. Although positive inotropes have failed to show survival benefit, these agents may enhance patient-reported health status, that is, symptoms, functional status, and health-related quality of life. We sought to review the available clinical trial data on positive inotrope use in patients with end-stage HF and to summarize evidence supporting the use of these agents to improve health status of patients with end-stage HF. METHODS: A literature review of randomized controlled trials examining the use of positive inotropy in HF with reduced ejection fraction was conducted. We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science between January 1980 to December 2018 for randomized controlled trials that used as their main outcome measures the effects of inotrope therapy on (1) morbidity/mortality, (2) symptoms, (3) functional status, or (4) health-related quality of life. Inotropes of interest included adrenergic agents, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, calcium sensitizers, myosin activators, and SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) modulators. RESULTS: Twenty-two out of 26 inotrope randomized controlled trials measured the effect of inotropes on at least one patient-reported health status domain. Among the 22 studies with patient-related health status outcomes, 11 (50%) gauged symptom response, 15 (68%) reported functional capacity changes, and 12 (54%) reported health-related quality of life measures. Fourteen (64%) of these trials noted positive outcomes in at least one health status domain measured; 11 (79%) of these positive studies used agents that worked through phosphodiesterase inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a lack of standardization surrounding measurement of patient-centered outcomes in studies of inotropes for end-stage HF with reduced ejection fraction. The degree to which positive inotropes can improve patient-reported health status and the adverse risk they pose remains unknown.

5.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 1-12, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309582

RESUMO

The treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has changed considerably over time, particularly with the sequential development of therapies aimed at antagonism of maladaptive biologic pathways, including inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. The sequential nature of earlier HFrEF trials allowed the integration of new therapies tested against the background therapy of the time. More recently, multiple heart failure therapies are being evaluated simultaneously, and the number of therapeutic choices for treating HFrEF has grown considerably. In addition, implementation science has lagged behind discovery science in heart failure. Furthermore, given there are currently >200 ongoing clinical trials in heart failure, further complexities are anticipated. In an effort to provide a decision-making framework in the current era of expanding therapeutic options in HFrEF, the Heart Failure Collaboratory convened a multi-stakeholder group, including patients, clinicians, clinical investigators, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, industry, and payers who met at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration campus on March 6, 2020. This paper summarizes the discussions and expert consensus recommendations.

6.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(2): 112-114, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309577
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2368-2378, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183511

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly changed clinical care and research, including the conduct of clinical trials, and the clinical research ecosystem will need to adapt to this transformed environment. The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory and the Academic Research Consortium, composed of academic investigators from the United States and Europe, patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and industry members. A series of meetings were convened to address the challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, review options for maintaining or altering best practices, and establish key recommendations for the conduct and analysis of clinical trials for cardiovascular disease and heart failure. This paper summarizes the discussions and expert consensus recommendations.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Determinação de Ponto Final , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatística como Assunto
9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(12): 961-972, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199251

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory (HFC) and Academic Research Consortium (ARC), comprised of leading heart failure (HF) academic research investigators, patients, United States (US) Food and Drug Administration representatives, and industry members from the US and Europe. A series of meetings were convened to establish definitions and key concepts for the evaluation of HF therapies including optimal medical and device background therapy, clinical trial design elements and statistical concepts, and study endpoints. This manuscript summarizes the expert panel discussions as consensus recommendations focused on populations and endpoint definitions; it is not exhaustive or restrictive, but designed to stimulate HF clinical trial innovation.

10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(11): 879-891, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121700

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock is a hemodynamically complex syndrome characterized by a low cardiac output that often culminates in multiorgan system failure and death. Despite recent advances, clinical outcomes remain poor, with mortality rates exceeding 40%. In the absence of adequately powered randomized controlled trials to guide therapy, best practices for shock management remain nonuniform. Emerging data from North American registries, however, support the use of standardized protocols focused on rapid diagnosis, early intervention, ongoing hemodynamic assessment, and multidisciplinary longitudinal care. In this review, the authors examine the pathophysiology and phenotypes of cardiogenic shock, benefits and limitations of current therapies, and they propose a standardized and team-based treatment algorithm. Lastly, they discuss future research opportunities to address current gaps in clinical knowledge.

11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(12): 973-983, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to demonstrate the statistical and utilitarian properties of restricted mean survival time (RMST) and restricted mean time lost (RMTL) for assessing treatments for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. BACKGROUND: Although the hazard ratio (HR) is the most commonly used measure to quantify treatment effects in HF clinical trials, HRs may be difficult to interpret and require the proportional hazards assumption to be valid. RMST and RMTL are intuitive summaries of groupwise survival that measure treatment effects without model assumptions. METHODS: Patient time-to-event data were reconstructed from published landmark HF clinical trial Kaplan-Meier curves. We estimated RMST differences (ΔRMSTs) and RMTL ratios between treatment groups for primary and secondary outcomes, and compared test statistics and effect sizes with proportional hazards models. We fit Weibull estimations to extrapolate trial data to 5 years of treatment. RESULTS: Using RMSTs and RMTLs yielded similar statistical conclusions as HR analysis for a compendium of 16 HF clinical trials including 48,581 patients. RMTL ratios approximated HRs for each trial, but ΔRMSTs provided absolute effect sizes unavailable with HRs. For instance, spironolactone added 2.2 months of life over 34 months of treatment, and dapagliflozin added 0.3 months of life over 24 months of treatment. When normalized to 5-years follow-up with Weibull estimation, spironolactone and dapagliflozin added 6.0 months and 1.8 months of life for patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Statistically, RMST and RMTL perform similarly to proportional hazards modeling but may help patients by providing clinically relevant intuitive estimates of treatment effects without prohibitive assumptions.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017862

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory (HFC) and Academic Research Consortium (ARC), comprised of leading heart failure (HF) academic research investigators, patients, United States (US) Food and Drug Administration representatives, and industry members from the US and Europe. A series of meetings were convened to establish definitions and key concepts for the evaluation of HF therapies including optimal medical and device background therapy, clinical trial design elements and statistical concepts, and study endpoints. This manuscript summarizes the expert panel discussions as consensus recommendations focused on populations and endpoint definitions; it is not exhaustive or restrictive, but designed to stimulate HF clinical trial innovation.

15.
Circulation ; 142(8): 790-798, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833519

RESUMO

Patient access to a drug after US regulatory approval is controlled by complex interactions between governmental and third-party payers, pharmacy benefit managers, distributers, manufacturers, health systems, and pharmacies that together mediate the receipt of goods by patients after prescription by clinicians. Recent medication approvals highlight why and how the distribution of clinically beneficial novel therapies is controlled. Although imposed limitations on availability may be rational considering the fiduciary responsibilities of payers and escalating spending on health care and pharmaceuticals, transparency and communication are lacking, and some utilization management may disproportionately affect vulnerable populations. Analysis of the current health insurance landscape suggests mechanisms by which patient access to appropriate medications can be improved and patient and clinician frustration reduced while acknowledging the financial realities of the pharmaceutical marketplace. We propose creation of a shared, standardized, and transparent process for coverage decisions that minimizes administrative barriers and is defensible on the basis of clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence. These reforms would benefit patients and improve the efficiency of the pharmaceutical system.

16.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(7): e006564, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683983

RESUMO

Utilization management strategies, including prior authorization, are commonly used to facilitate safe and guideline-adherent provision of new, individualized, and potentially costly cardiovascular therapies. However, as currently deployed, these approaches encumber multiple stakeholders. Patients are discouraged by barriers to appropriate access; clinicians are frustrated by the time, money, and resources required for prior authorizations, the frequent rejections, and the perception of being excluded from the decision-making process; and payers are weary of the intensive effort to design and administer increasingly complex prior authorization systems to balance value and appropriate use of these treatments. These issues highlight an opportunity to collectively reimagine utilization management as a transparent and collaborative system. This would benefit the entire healthcare ecosystem, especially in light of the shift to value-based payment. This article describes the efforts and vision of the multistakeholder Prior Authorization Learning Collaborative of the Value in Healthcare Initiative, a partnership between the American Heart Association and the Robert J. Margolis, MD, Center for Health Policy at Duke University. We outline how healthcare organizations can take greater utilization management responsibility under value-based contracting, especially under different state policies and local contexts. Even with reduced payer-mandated prior authorization in these arrangements, payers and healthcare organizations will have a continued shared need for utilization management. We present options for streamlining these programs, such as gold carding and electronic and automated prior authorization processes. Throughout the article, we weave in examples from cardiovascular care when possible. Although reimagining prior authorization requires collective action by all stakeholders, it may significantly reduce administrative burden for clinicians and payers while improving outcomes for patients.

17.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(7): e006612, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683984

RESUMO

In spring 2018, the American Heart Association convened the Value in Healthcare Summit to begin an important conversation about the challenges patients with cardiovascular disease face in accessing and deriving quality and value from the healthcare system. Following the summit and recognizing the collective momentum it created, the American Heart Association, in collaboration with the Robert J. Margolis Center for Health Policy at Duke University, launched the Value in Healthcare Initiative-Transforming Cardiovascular Care. Four areas of focus were identified, and learning collaboratives were established and proceeded to conduct concrete, actionable problem solving in 4 high-impact areas in cardiovascular care: Value-Based Models, Partnering with Regulators, Predict and Prevent, and Prior Authorization. The deliverables from these groups are being disseminated in 4 stand-alone articles, and their publication will initiate further work to test and evaluate each of these promising areas of reform. This article provides an overview of the initiative's findings and highlights key cross-cutting themes for consideration as the initiative moves forward.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(25): 3151-3161, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under-reporting of clinical trial results inhibits dissemination of knowledge, limits understanding of therapeutic interventions, and may ultimately harm patients. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the rates and predictors of heart failure clinical trial publication and how they have changed over time. METHODS: This study assessed cross-sectional analysis of all heart failure clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with at least 2 years follow-up after trial completion. The content area was chosen for the robust clinical trial activity in the field. The primary outcome was manuscript publication with multivariable proportional hazards adjustment to identify associations with publication. RESULTS: Of the 1,429 included studies, 806 (56%) were published as manuscripts, 623 were unpublished, and 97 (7%) reported results without manuscript publication. Of the total, 1,243 were completed after 2007, when the mean 1-year publication rate for interventional trials rose from 12.7% to 19.6% (p = 0.049), which was possibly associated with changes in government regulation. However, there was no further sustained improvement over time, and there was no multivariable association between later completion dates and reporting or publication of results. Funding from the National Institutes of Health and use of clinical (death, hospitalization, myocardial infarction, changes in functional classification) rather than nonclinical primary endpoints were associated with earlier publication. Whether the results were consistent with the primary study hypothesis was not associated with likelihood of publication. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of heart failure clinical trial publication or reporting of results remain unacceptably low. Additional efforts by all stakeholders, including investigators, sponsors, regulators, societies, editors, and journals are needed to improve data dissemination.

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