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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(7): 073002, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848645

RESUMO

Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) plays a key role in radiation damage of biomolecules under high-energy radiation conditions. The initial step in DEA is often rationalized in terms of resonant electron capture into one of the metastable valence states of a molecule followed by its fragmentation. Our combined theoretical and experimental investigations indicate that the manifold of states responsible for electron capture in the DEA process can be dominated by core-excited (shake-up) dipole-supported resonances. Specifically, we present the results of experimental and computational studies of the gas-phase DEA to three prototypical peptide molecules, formamide, N-methylformamide (NMF), and N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF). In contrast to the case of electron capture by positively charged peptides in which amide bond rupture is rare compared to N─C_{α} bond cleavage, fragmentation of the amide bond was observed in each of these three molecules. The ion yield curves for ions resulting from this amide bond cleavage, such as NH_{2}^{-} for formamide, NHCH_{3}^{-} for NMF, and N(CH_{3})_{2}^{-} for DMF, showed a double-peak structure in the region between 5 and 8 eV. The peaks are assigned to Feshbach resonances including core-excited dipole-supported resonances populated upon electron attachment based on high-level electronic structure calculations. Moreover, the lower energy peak is attributed to formation of the core-excited resonance that correlates with the triplet state of the neutral molecule. The latter process highlights the role of optically spin-forbidden transitions promoted by electron impact in the DEA process.

2.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 1097-1106, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633498

RESUMO

Polymers with superior mechanical properties are desirable in many applications. In this work, polyethylene (PE) films reinforced with exfoliated thermally reduced graphene oxide (TrGO) fabricated using a roll-to-roll hot-drawing process are shown to have outstanding mechanical properties. The specific ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of PE/TrGO films increased monotonically with the drawing ratio and TrGO filler fraction, reaching up to 3.2 ± 0.5 and 109.3 ± 12.7 GPa, respectively, with a drawing ratio of 60× and a very low TrGO weight fraction of 1%. These values represent by far the highest reported to date for a polymer/graphene composite. Experimental characterizations indicate that as the polymer films are drawn, TrGO fillers are exfoliated, which is further confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Exfoliation increases the specific area of the TrGO fillers in contact with the PE matrix molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the PE-TrGO interaction is stronger than the PE-PE intermolecular van der Waals interaction, which enhances load transfer from PE to TrGO and leverages the ultrahigh mechanical properties of TrGO.

3.
Biol Chem ; 400(1): 93-100, 2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975663

RESUMO

It is now well established that plasma-induced reactive species are key agents involved in many biochemical reactions. This work reports on the formation of plasma reactive species in an acidified ferrous sulfate (Fricke) solution interacting with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). A yield of ferric (Fe3+) ions measured using in situ absorption spectroscopy was attributed to the formation of plasma reactive species provided and/or originated in the solution. The results indicated that the number of reactive species formed was proportional to plasma frequency and voltage. However, the Fe3+ yield per pulse decreased with increased frequency. To obtain a better understanding of the processes and species involved in the chemical reactions due to plasma exposure, Fe3+ yields were calculated and compared to the experimental data. At higher frequencies, there was insufficient time to complete all the reactions before the next pulse reached the solution; at lower frequencies, the Fe3+ yield was higher because of the relatively longer time available for reactions to occur. In addition, the comparison between DNA damage levels and Fe3+ yields was investigated under different experimental conditions in order to verify the usefulness of both the Fricke solution and the DNA molecule as a probe to characterize APPJs.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Soluções/química , Análise Espectral/métodos
4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(13): 3604-3611, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902010

RESUMO

We report an investigation of lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals and associated ligand molecules by combining several different state-of-the-art experimental techniques, including synchrotron radiation-based XPS and VUV PES of free-standing nanocrystals isolated in vacuum. By using this novel approach for perovskite materials, we could directly obtain complete band alignment to vacuum of both CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals and the ligands widely used in their preparation. We discuss the possible influence of the ligand molecules to apparent perovskite properties, and we compare the electronic properties of nanocrystals to those of bulk material. The experimental results were supported by DFT calculations.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(27): 18271-18278, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955738

RESUMO

Five-membered heterocyclic structures, which exist widely in biological systems and play an active role in various biochemical processes, have been studied extensively from a fundamental perspective. Here, the fragmentation patterns of isoxazole, a representative five-membered heterocycle, upon dissociative electron attachment (DEA) were examined carefully by comparing isoxazole's products with those of its methylated derivatives. It was found that the most dominant DEA pathway occurs through the loss of hydrogen at C(3), which leads to ring opening by O-N bond cleavage at an energy of ∼1.5 eV. The ring opening was investigated further for DEA to other related five-membered ring compounds, i.e., oxazole and thiazole. The DEA-induced hydrogen loss was much less pronounced or quenched completely in these two compounds and simultaneous ring-opening behavior was not detected. This observation is of special interest to applied fields, for example, the pharmaceutical industry, because several drugs that contain isoxazole substructures exhibit extensive ring opening during biotransformation.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/química , Elétrons , Hidrogênio/química , Isomerismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Termodinâmica
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(46): 5879-5882, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785421

RESUMO

The optical and structural properties of hybrid perovskites can be tuned by the post-synthetic introduction of new cations. To advance the development of this approach, knowledge of the reaction mechanism is essential, but has not yet been elucidated. Here, the effect of n-octylamine on three-dimensional (3D) methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) was investigated by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis indicated equimolar substitutions between octylammonium (OcA+) and methylammonium (MA+) cations that cause the formation of two-dimensional (2D) octylammonium lead bromide ((OcA)2PbBr4). The introduction of methylamine reversed these changes, and the cation exchange between MA+ and OcA+ caused the reverse conversion to MAPbBr3.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(1): 194-203, 2018 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240441

RESUMO

Many energy storage and conversion devices rely on processes that take place at complex interfaces, where structural and chemical properties are often difficult to probe under operating conditions. A primary example is solar water splitting using high-performance photoelectrochemical cells, where surface chemistry, including native oxide formation, affects hydrogen generation. In this Perspective, we discuss some of the challenges associated with interrogating interface chemistry, and how they may be overcome by integrating high-level first-principles calculations of explicit interfaces with ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and direct spectroscopic simulations. We illustrate the benefit of this combined approach toward insights into native oxide chemistry at prototypical InP/water and GaP/water interfaces. This example suggests a more general roadmap for obtaining a realistic and reliable description of the chemistry of complex interfaces by combining state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(5): 053402, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949760

RESUMO

Despite decades of gas-phase studies on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to various molecules, as yet there has been no direct detection and characterization of the neutral radical species produced by this process. In this study, we performed stepwise electron spectroscopy to directly measure and characterize the neutrals produced upon zero-electron-energy DEA to the model molecule, carbon tetrachloride (CCl_{4}). We observed the direct yield of the trichloromethyl radical (CCl_{3}^{·}) formed by DEA to CCl_{4} and measured the appearance energies of all the other neutral species. By combining these experimental findings with high-level quantum chemical calculations, we performed a complete analysis of both the DEA to CCl_{4} and the subsequent electron-impact ionization of CCl_{3}^{·}. This work paves the way toward a complete experimental characterization of DEA processes, which will lead to a better understanding of the low-energy electron-induced formation of radical species.

9.
J Chem Phys ; 147(9): 094303, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886654

RESUMO

Dissociative electron attachment to nicotine, pyridine, and N-methyl-pyrrolidine was studied in the gas phase in order to assess their stability with respect to low-energy electron interactions. Anion yield curves for different products at electron energies ranging from zero to 15 eV were measured, and the molecular fragmentation pathways were proposed. Nicotine does not form a stable parent anion or a dehydrogenated anion, contrary to other biological systems. However, we have observed complex dissociation pathways involving fragmentation at the pyrrolidine side accompanied by isomerization mechanisms. Combining structure optimization and enthalpy calculations, performed with the Gaussian09 package, with the comparison with a deuterium-labeled N-methyl-d3-pyrrolidine allowed for the determination of the fragmentation pathways. In contrast to nicotine and N-methylpyrrolidine, the dominant pathway in dissociative electron attachment to pyridine is the loss of hydrogen, leading to the formation of an [M-H]- anion. The presented results provide important new information about the stability of nicotine and its constituent parts and contribute to a better understanding of the fragmentation mechanisms and their effects on the biological environment.


Assuntos
Nicotina/química , Piridinas/química , Pirrolidinas/química , Deutério/química , Elétrons , Gases/química , Modelos Moleculares , Termodinâmica
10.
ACS Nano ; 11(6): 5510-5518, 2017 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511003

RESUMO

The ability to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy to enable liquid-to-vapor phase transition has great technological implications for a wide variety of applications, such as water treatment and chemical fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that functionalizing graphene using hydrophilic groups can greatly enhance the solar thermal steam generation efficiency. Our results show that specially functionalized graphene can improve the overall solar-to-vapor efficiency from 38% to 48% at one sun conditions compared to chemically reduced graphene oxide. Our experiments show that such an improvement is a surface effect mainly attributed to the more hydrophilic feature of functionalized graphene, which influences the water meniscus profile at the vapor-liquid interface due to capillary effect. This will lead to thinner water films close to the three-phase contact line, where the water surface temperature is higher since the resistance of thinner water film is smaller, leading to more efficient evaporation. This strategy of functionalizing graphene to make it more hydrophilic can be potentially integrated with the existing macroscopic heat isolation strategies to further improve the overall solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(23): 3342-3345, 2017 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197573

RESUMO

Dissociative adsorption of CH3NO2 onto a Si(100)-2 × 1 surface is studied using ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The unprecedented scission of the C-N bond in CH3NO2 and the formation of a Si-CH3 surface species are observed at elevated CH3NO2 pressure (0.5 mbar) and temperature (>573 K).

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(24): 5068-5073, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973893

RESUMO

Despite its competitive photovoltaic efficiency, the structural transformations of the prototypical hybrid perovskite, methylammonium lead iodide, are facilitated by interactions with polar molecules. Changes in optical and electronic properties upon exposure to ammonia potentially can enable the use of hybrid perovskites in gas-sensing applications. We investigated the effects of ammonia on CH3NH3PbI3 by exposing perovskite films to a wide range of vapor pressures. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that ammonium cations replaced the methylammonium cations in the perovskite crystal, thereby resulting in the formation of NH4PbI3. The transformation of CH3NH3PbI3 to NH4PbI3 caused distinct changes in the morphology of the film and its crystalline structure; however, the introduction of CH3NH2 gas reversed these changes. An in-depth understanding of the reversible chemical and structural alterations resulting from exposure to polar molecules can advance the development of hybrid perovskite sensors and provide insight into mechanisms by which perovskites convert due to interactions with polar molecules.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(34): 10083-7, 2016 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355420

RESUMO

Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3 ), a prototype material for potentially high-efficient and low-cost organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, has been investigated intensively in recent years. A study of low-energy electron-induced transformations in MAPbI3 is presented, performed by combining controlled electron-impact irradiation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Changes were observed in both the elemental composition and the morphology of irradiated MAPbI3 thin films as a function of the electron fluence for incident energies from 4.5 to 60 eV. The results show that low-energy electrons can affect structural and chemical properties of MAPbI3 . It is proposed that the transformations are triggered by the interactions with the organic part of the material (methylammonium), resulting in the MAPbI3 decomposition and aggregation of the hydrocarbon layer.

14.
Nanoscale ; 8(21): 10993-1001, 2016 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27174416

RESUMO

We report the covalent bonding enabled modulation of the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene and metals Cu, Al, and Pt by controlling the oxidation of graphene. By combining comprehensive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and time-domain thermoreflectance measurements, we quantify the effect of graphene oxidation on interfacial thermal conductance. It was found that thermal conductance increases with the degree of graphene oxidation until a peak value is obtained at an oxygen/carbon atom percentage of ∼7.7%. The maximum enhancement in thermal conductance was measured to be 55%, 38%, and 49% for interfaces between oxidized graphene and Cu, Al, and Pt, respectively. In situ XPS measurements show that oxygen covalently binds to Cu and graphene simultaneously, forming a highly efficient bridge to enhance the thermal transport. Our molecular dynamics simulations verify that strong interfacial covalent bonds are the key to the thermal conductance enhancement. This work provides valuable insights into the mechanism of functionalization-induced thermal conductance enhancement and design guidelines for graphene-based devices.

15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24848, 2016 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108711

RESUMO

We employed ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the electronic and chemical properties of the H2O/GaN(0001) interface under elevated pressures and/or temperatures. A pristine GaN(0001) surface exhibited upward band bending, which was partially flattened when exposed to H2O at room temperature. However, the GaN surface work function was slightly reduced due to the adsorption of molecular H2O and its dissociation products. At elevated temperatures, a negative charge generated on the surface by a vigorous H2O/GaN interfacial chemistry induced an increase in both the surface work function and upward band bending. We tracked the dissociative adsorption of H2O onto the GaN(0001) surface by recording the core-level photoemission spectra and obtained the electronic and chemical properties at the H2O/GaN interface under operando conditions. Our results suggest a strong correlation between the electronic and chemical properties of the material surface, and we expect that their evolutions lead to significantly different properties at the electrolyte/electrode interface in a photoelectrochemical solar cell.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 142(21): 215101, 2015 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26049525

RESUMO

We present high-resolution measurements of the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to isolated gas-phase hypoxanthine (C5H4N4O, Hyp), a tRNA purine base. The anion mass spectra and individual ion efficiency curves from Hyp were measured as a function of electron energy below 9 eV. The mass spectra at 1 and 6 eV exhibit the highest anion yields, indicating possible common precursor ions that decay into the detectable anionic fragments. The (Hyp - H) anion (C5H3N4O(-)) exhibits a sharp resonant peak at 1 eV, which we tentatively assign to a dipole-bound state of the keto-N1H,N9H tautomer in which dehydrogenation occurs at either the N1 or N9 position based upon our quantum chemical computations (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and U(MP2-aug-cc-pVDZ+)) and prior studies with adenine. This closed-shell dehydrogenated anion is the dominant fragment formed upon electron attachment, as with other nucleobases. Seven other anions were also observed including (Hyp - NH)(-), C4H3N4 (-)/C4HN3O(-), C4H2N3 (-), C3NO(-)/HC(HCN)CN(-), OCN(-), CN(-), and O(-). Most of these anions exhibit broad but weak resonances between 4 and 8 eV similar to many analogous anions from adenine. The DEA to Hyp involves significant fragmentation, which is relevant to understanding radiation damage of biomolecules.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Gases/química , Hipoxantina/química , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(23): 15181-92, 2015 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990541

RESUMO

We study surface functionalisation by uracil and 2-thiouracil, and immobilisation of several DNA moieties on functionalised gold surfaces. The combination of X-ray photoelectron and near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy allowed us to obtain a complete understanding of complex interfacial processes, starting from adsorption of biomolecules onto the metallic surface and progressing towards a specific surface functionality for interactions with other biologically related adsorbates. Au(110) surfaces were functionalised by deposition of uracil and 2-thiouracil molecules under vacuum conditions, and then tested for their selectivity by immobilisation of different DNA moieties deposited from aqueous solutions. We observed that adenine, adenosine, and RNA polymer (polyadenylic acid) from saturated solutions were immobilized successfully on the 2-thiouracil, but those from dilute (1%) solutions were not. However, cytosine failed to adsorb even from saturated solution. The chemical states of the biologically related adsorbates were investigated and the geometrical orientation of uracil and 2-thiouracil on the Au(110) surface was determined using both spectroscopic techniques.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Tiouracila/química , Uracila/química , Adsorção , Ácidos Nucleicos Imobilizados/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(2): 2971-3016, 2015 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25642755

RESUMO

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (APP) is being used widely in a variety of biomedical applications. Extensive research in the field of plasma medicine has shown the induction of DNA damage by APP in a dose-dependent manner in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Recent evidence suggests that APP-induced DNA damage shows potential benefits in many applications, such as sterilization and cancer therapy. However, in several other applications, such as wound healing and dentistry, DNA damage can be detrimental. This review reports on the extensive investigations devoted to APP interactions with DNA, with an emphasis on the critical role of reactive species in plasma-induced damage to DNA. The review consists of three main sections dedicated to fundamental knowledge of the interactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) with DNA and its components, as well as the effects of APP on isolated and cellular DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Nucleosídeos/química , Gases em Plasma/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(5): 3909-18, 2015 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25559043

RESUMO

Water adsorption and dissociation on a GaP(111) crystal surface are investigated using near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP XPS) in a wide range of pressures (∼10(-10)-5 mbar) and temperatures (∼300-773 K). Dynamic changes in chemical evolution at the H2O/GaP(111) interface are reflected in Ga 2p3/2, O 1s, and P 2p spectra. In the pressure-dependent study performed at room temperature, an enhancement of surface Ga hydroxylation and oxidation with an increase in H2O pressure is observed. In the temperature-dependent study performed at elevated pressures, two distinct regions can be defined in which drastic changes occur in the surface chemistry. Below 673 K, the surface Ga hydroxylation and oxidation progress continuously. However, above 673 K, a large-scale conversion of surface O-Ga-OH species into non-stoichiometric Ga hydroxide along with oxidation of surface P atoms occurs through an intermediate state. The NAP XPS technique enabled us to experimentally track the chemistry at the H2O/GaP interface under near-realistic conditions, thereby providing evidence to compare with recent theoretical efforts to improve the understanding of water-splitting mechanisms and photo-corrosion on semiconductor surfaces.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(45): 25039-53, 2014 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25327785

RESUMO

Electron ionization of the DNA nucleobase, adenine, and the tRNA nucleobase, hypoxanthine, was investigated near the threshold region (∼5-20 eV) using a high-resolution hemispherical electron monochromator and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ion efficiency curves of the threshold regions and the corresponding appearance energies (AEs) are presented for the parent cations and the five most abundant fragment cations of each molecule. The experimental ionization energies (IEs) of adenine and hypoxanthine were determined to be 8.70 ± 0.3 eV and 8.88 ± 0.5 eV, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p)) yielded a vertical IE of 8.08 eV and an adiabatic IE of 8.07 eV for adenine and a vertical IE of 8.51 eV and an adiabatic IE of 8.36 eV for hypoxanthine, and the lowest energy optimized structures of the fragment cations and their respective neutral species were calculated. The enthalpies of the possible reactions from the adenine and hypoxanthine cations were also obtained computationally, which assisted in determining the most likely electron ionization pathways leading to the major fragment cations. Our results suggest that the imidazole ring is more stable than the pyrimidine ring in several of the fragmentation reactions from both adenine and hypoxanthine. This electron ionization study contributes to the understanding of the biological effects of electrons on nucleobases and to the database of the electronic properties of biomolecules, which is necessary for modeling the damage of DNA in living cells that is induced by ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Adenina/química , Elétrons , Hipoxantina/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , DNA/química , Conformação Molecular
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