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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 149: 532-540, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004606

RESUMO

This research displayed the structures and thermomechanical feature of starch-based nanocomposites as induced by interaction between propionylated amylose/amylopectin and nanofiller (organically modified montmorillonite). Propionylated amylose incorporated with nanofiller caused some phase separation within the nanocomposites. By contrast, highly-branched propionylated amylopectin favored nanofiller dispersion and disrupted its crystalline structure, and further facilitated certain exfoliated or intercalated structures. Based on these structures, propionylated amylose-rich nanocomposites showed enhanced ß-relaxation in the induced "plasticizer-rich" regions, whereas the propionylated amylopectin nanocomposites displayed higher glass-transition temperature due to restricted macromolecular mobility. These results suggested that the structures and further packaging properties of starch-based nanocomposites could be better understood by controlling the interaction of starch with other ingredients.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 741-749, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982525

RESUMO

Honeycomb-like granules, with 2-4 µm pores on the surface, were prepared by heating potato starch suspensions in water at the pasting temperature. These granules with a yield of 84% were most amorphous (relative crystallinity 1.9%). Their total pore area was 0.668 m2/g, porosity was 73.4%, and mean particle size (D50) was 154.3 µm. The molecular weights (MW) of honeycomb-like granules were: amylopectin, 8.7 × 107 g/mol; amylose, 3.1 × 105 g/mol, close to those of native starch. The chain length distribution profiles of honeycomb-like granules were similar to those of native starch, while the proportions of B2 and B3 chains were higher. The water and oil adsorption of honeycomb-like granules were about 1.5 and 2.4 times those of native starch, respectively; and the cold water solubility of honeycomb-like granules was 88.5%, while native starch showed no solubility in cold water. Thus honeycomb-like starch granules have the potential to be applied as adsorbents, thickeners and adhesives for their dispersibility, adsorption capacity and cold water solubility.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759009

RESUMO

This work inspects the supramolecular/molecular structures and digestion rate of potato starches (BEM, C7H, CP2 and CP4) as affected by starch biosynthetic enzymes. Among the starches, CP2 had a lower digestion rate with a higher paste heating stability. Regarding this, predominantly enzyme-sets (i) and (ii) were revealed to produce amylopectin chains. For CP2, the reduced activity ratio of starch-branching enzymes to soluble starch synthases allowed more long amylopectin chains (polymerization degree ≥ 34). Such molecular features tended to increase the crystallites and thicken the lamellae. With similar surface morphology and amylose content, the bulk density of chain packing in CP2 supramolecular structures could be increased. Then, there were an increase in the resistance of starch structures to hydrothermal effects, and a reduction in the enzyme hydrolysis rate. Also, the increased long amylopectin chains played roles in increasing the paste stability during heating with shearing and in reducing the digestion rate.

4.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 909-922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484903

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of wheat gluten on gut microbiota from hamsters and also analyse whether alterations in microbiota could result in wheat gluten's lipid-lowering properties. Four weeks male hamsters were divided into 3 groups (n=10). Two hypercholesterolemic groups were fed for 35 days with hypercholesterolemic diet, containing 20% (w/w) wheat gluten or casein. Wheat gluten significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, and also decreased the liver total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), triglycerides (TG) concentrations. Wheat gluten group had a higher fecal lipids, total cholesterol (TC) and bile acids (BA) than that of casein group (p < 0.05). Moreover, wheat gluten significantly increased total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentrations in feces. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that intake of wheat gluten decreased the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Erysipelotrichaceae, but to increased the relative abundances of Bateroidetes, Bacteroidales_S24-7_group and Ruminococcaceae. The lipid lowering properties of wheat gluten was associated with the lower ratio of Firmicutes/Bateroidetes, the lower of the bacterial taxa Erysipelotrichaceae and the higher of the bacterial taxa Bacteroidales_S24-7_group and Ruminococcaceae. These results suggest that wheat gluten modulate cholesterol metabolism by altering intestinal microflora.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutens/farmacologia , Hiperlipidemias/microbiologia , Triticum/química , Animais , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Mesocricetus , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 181: 528-535, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254003

RESUMO

This work discloses the multi-level structure and thermal behaviors of hydrophobic, propionylated starch-based films as affected by the amylose contents of starch materials used. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that amylose promoted the formation of more compact structure within the film matrices. Also, small and wide angle X-ray scattering analysis revealed that higher amylose content was preferable for the formation of new orders on nanoscale and crystallites. With these structural changes, the viscoelasticity of amorphous short chains was enhanced and the glass transition temperature was reduced by the increased amylose content; but the depolymerization of macromolecules and the decomposition of molecular bonds were postponed, since the increase in starch crystallites restricted the motion of adjacent amorphous regions. Hence, this work provides valuable information for rational design of hydrophobic starch-based films with desired thermal features by simply regulating the amylose content of starch raw materials.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 97: 123-130, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28082220

RESUMO

This work concerned the effects of amylose/amylopectin ratio on the structure and thermal stability of propionylated starches with high degree of substitution (DS). Four starches with different amylose content were used to obtain propionylated starches. Acylation partly disrupted granule morphology of native starches, and the imperfection and porous structures of starch granule were intensified along with the increased amylose content. It was noted that the crystalline structure of starch was destroyed and thus intense acylation occurred in both amorphous and crystalline regions. The acylated starch with high-amylose content displayed more ordered region compared to low-amylose starch. Acylation enhanced the thermal stability of starch, and this effect became more evident as the amylose content increased. Thus, the amylose/amylopectin ratio has been confirmed capable of affecting the structure and thermal behaviors of hydrophobic propionylated starch, which is of value for the design of starchy materials with tailored thermal stability.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Propionatos/química , Amido/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Zea mays/química
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(10): 5738-45, 2011 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21513356

RESUMO

An oral colon-targeting controlled release system based on resistant starch acetate (RSA) as a film-coating material was developed. The RSA was successfully synthesized, and its digestion resistibility could be improved by increasing the degree of substitution (DS), which was favorable for the colon-targeting purpose. As a delivery carrier material, the characteristics of RSA were investigated by polarized light microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed a decrease of the crystallinity of RSA and a change of its crystalline structure from B + V hydrid type to V type. To evaluate the colon-targeting release performance, the RSA film-coated pellets loaded with different bioactive components were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and then by fluid bed coating. The effects of the DS, plasticizer content, and coating thickness of the RSA film and those of the content and molecular weight of the loaded bioactive component on the colon-targeting release performance of the resulting delivery system were investigated. By adjusting the DS, the coating thickness, and the plasticizer content of the RSA film, either the pellets loaded with a small molecular bioactive component such as 5-aminosalicylic acid or those with a macromolecular bioactive peptide or protein such as bovine serum albumin, hepatocyte growth-promoting factor, or insulin showed a desirable colon-targeting release performance. The release percentage was less than 12% in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract and went up to 70% over a period of 40 h in simulated colonic fluid. This suggests that the delivery system based on RSA film has an excellent colon-targeting release performance and the universality for a wide range of bioactive components.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Amido/análogos & derivados , Amilose/análise , Cristalização , Digestão , Esterificação , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Plastificantes , Amido/síntese química , Amido/química , Triacetina , Difração de Raios X , Zea mays/química
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