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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411155

RESUMO

Newborn screening efforts focusing on the quantification of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), as a biomarker for abnormal thymic production of T cells, have allowed for the identification and definitive treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in asymptomatic neonates. With the adoption of TREC quantification in Guthrie cards across the USA and abroad, typical, and atypical SCID constitutes only ~ 10% of cases identified with abnormal TRECs associated with T cell lymphopenia. Several other non-SCID-related conditions may be identified by newborn screening in a term infant. Thus, it is important for physicians to recognize that other factors, such as prematurity, are often associated with low TRECs initially, but often improve with age. This paper focuses on a challenge that immunologists face: the diagnostic evaluation and management of cases in which abnormal TRECs are associated with variants of T cell lymphopenia in the absence of a genetically defined form of typical or atypical SCID. Various syndromes associated with T cell impairment, secondary forms of T cell lymphopenia, and idiopathic T cell lymphopenia are identified using this screening approach. Yet there is no consensus or guidelines to assist in the evaluation and management of these newborns, despite representing 90% of the patients identified, resulting in significant work for the clinical teams until a diagnosis is made. Using a case-based approach, we review pearls relevant to the evaluation of these newborns, as well as the management dilemmas for the families and team related to the resolution of genetic ambiguities.

2.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13504, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus of recipient (R) and donor (D) influences hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) outcome. However, it is not a reliable indicator of CMV infection in primary immunodeficiency disorder (PIDD) recipients who are unable to make adequate antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) or who receive intravenous Ig (IVIg) prior to testing. OBJECTIVE: Since no data exist on PIDD with unknown CMV serostatus, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between pre-HSCT recipient and donor serostatus and incidence of CMV infection in recipients with unknown serostatus. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all pediatric PIDD HSCTs (2007-2018) was performed at University of California San Francisco. Recipients were separated into categories based on pre-transplant serostatus: 1) seropositive (R(+)), 2) seronegative (R(-)), and 3) unknown serostatus (R(x)). Patients with pre-HSCT active CMV viremia were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients were included, 69% male. The overall incidence of CMV infection was 20%, but varied in R(+), R(-), and R(x) at 80%, 0%, and 14%, (P-value = .0001). Similarly, 5-year survival differed among groups, 60% R(+), 100% R(-), and 90% of R(x) (P-value = .0045). There was no difference in CMV reactivation by donor serostatus (P-value = .29), however, faster time to clearance of CMV was observed for R(x)/D(+) group (median 9.5 days (IQR 2.5-18), P-value = .024). CONCLUSION: We identify a novel group of recipients, R(x), with an intermediate level of survival and CMV incidence post-HSCT, when compared to seropositive and seronegative recipients. No evidence of CMV transmission from D(+) in R(-) and R(x) was observed. We believe R(x) should be considered as a separate category in future studies to better delineate recipient risk status.

4.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1392-1397, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778825

RESUMO

Public health newborn screening (NBS) programs provide population-scale ascertainment of rare, treatable conditions that require urgent intervention. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is currently used to screen newborns for a panel of rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs)1-4. The NBSeq project evaluated whole-exome sequencing (WES) as an innovative methodology for NBS. We obtained archived residual dried blood spots and data for nearly all IEM cases from the 4.5 million infants born in California between mid-2005 and 2013 and from some infants who screened positive by MS/MS, but were unaffected upon follow-up testing. WES had an overall sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 98.4%, compared to 99.0% and 99.8%, respectively for MS/MS, although effectiveness varied among individual IEMs. Thus, WES alone was insufficiently sensitive or specific to be a primary screen for most NBS IEMs. However, as a secondary test for infants with abnormal MS/MS screens, WES could reduce false-positive results, facilitate timely case resolution and in some instances even suggest more appropriate or specific diagnosis than that initially obtained. This study represents the largest, to date, sequencing effort of an entire population of IEM-affected cases, allowing unbiased assessment of current capabilities of WES as a tool for population screening.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 6(2)2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802992

RESUMO

Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of ß-oxidation caused by pathogenic variants in the ACADS gene. Analyte testing for SCADD in blood and urine, including newborn screening (NBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on dried blood spots (DBSs), is complicated by the presence of two relatively common ACADS variants (c.625G>A and c.511C>T). Individuals homozygous for these variants or compound heterozygous do not have clinical disease but do have reduced short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) activity, resulting in elevated blood and urine metabolites. As part of a larger study of the potential role of exome sequencing in NBS in California, we reviewed ACADS sequence and MS/MS data from DBSs from a cohort of 74 patients identified to have SCADD. Of this cohort, approximately 60% had one or more of the common variants and did not have the two rare variants, and thus would need no further testing. Retrospective analysis of ethylmalonic acid, glutaric acid, 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, and methylsuccinic acid demonstrated that second-tier testing applied before the release of the newborn screening result could reduce referrals by over 50% and improve the positive predictive value for SCADD to above 75%.

8.
Blood ; 135(23): 2094-2105, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268350

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the WAS gene, leading to thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the primary curative approach, with the goal of correcting the underlying immunodeficiency and thrombocytopenia. HCT outcomes have improved over time, particularly for patients with HLA-matched sibling and unrelated donors. We report the outcomes of 129 patients with WAS who underwent HCT at 29 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers from 2005 through 2015. Median age at HCT was 1.2 years. Most patients (65%) received myeloablative busulfan-based conditioning. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 91%. Superior 5-year OS was observed in patients <5 vs ≥5 years of age at the time of HCT (94% vs 66%; overall P = .0008). OS was excellent regardless of donor type, even in cord blood recipients (90%). Conditioning intensity did not affect OS, but was associated with donor T-cell and myeloid engraftment after HCT. Specifically, patients who received fludarabine/melphalan-based reduced-intensity regimens were more likely to have donor myeloid chimerism <50% early after HCT. In addition, higher platelet counts were observed among recipients who achieved full (>95%) vs low-level (5%-49%) donor myeloid engraftment. In summary, HCT outcomes for WAS have improved since 2005, compared with prior reports. HCT at a younger age continues to be associated with superior outcomes supporting the recommendation for early HCT. High-level donor myeloid engraftment is important for platelet reconstitution after either myeloablative or busulfan-containing reduced intensity conditioning. (This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02064933.).

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 46-69, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Asma , Humanos , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Estados Unidos
11.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(1): 44-49, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819258

RESUMO

Versatile and precise genome modifications are needed to create a wider range of adoptive cellular therapies1-5. Here we report two improvements that increase the efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing in clinically relevant primary cell types. Truncated Cas9 target sequences (tCTSs) added at the ends of the homology-directed repair (HDR) template interact with Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to shuttle the template to the nucleus, enhancing HDR efficiency approximately two- to fourfold. Furthermore, stabilizing Cas9 RNPs into nanoparticles with polyglutamic acid further improves editing efficiency by approximately twofold, reduces toxicity, and enables lyophilized storage without loss of activity. Combining the two improvements increases gene targeting efficiency even at reduced HDR template doses, yielding approximately two to six times as many viable edited cells across multiple genomic loci in diverse cell types, such as bulk (CD3+) T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), γδ T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and primary and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived6 hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs).


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Adulto , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA Guia/metabolismo
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Quimeras de Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(6): 1674-1683, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 6.5 years of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in California, 3,252,156 infants had DNA from dried blood spots (DBSs) assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles. Infants with T-cell receptor excision circle values of less than a designated cutoff on a single DBS, 2 DBS samples with insufficient PCR amplification, or known genetic risk of immunodeficiency had peripheral blood complete blood counts and lymphocyte subsets assayed in a single flow cytometry laboratory. Cases in which immune defects were ruled out were available for analysis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine reference intervals for lymphocyte subsets in racially/ethnically diverse preterm and term newborns who proved to be unaffected by any T-lymphopenic immune disorder. METHODS: Effective gestational age (GA) was defined as GA at birth plus postnatal age at the time of sample collection. After determining exclusion criteria, we analyzed demographic and clinical information, complete and differential white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte subsets for 301 infants, with serial measurements for 33 infants. Lymphocyte subset measurements included total T cells, helper and cytotoxic T-cell subsets, naive and memory phenotype of each T-cell subset, B cells, and natural killer cells. RESULTS: Reference intervals were generated for absolute numbers and lymphocyte subsets from infants with effective GAs of 22 to 52 weeks. Sex and ethnicity were not significant determinants of lymphocyte subset counts in this population. Lymphocyte counts increased postnatally. CONCLUSION: This study provides a baseline for interpreting comprehensive lymphocyte data in preterm and term infants, aiding clinicians to determine which newborns require further evaluations for immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/sangue , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 380(16): 1525-1534, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) often fails to reconstitute immunity associated with T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells when matched sibling donors are unavailable unless high-dose chemotherapy is given. In previous studies, autologous gene therapy with γ-retroviral vectors failed to reconstitute B-cell and NK-cell immunity and was complicated by vector-related leukemia. METHODS: We performed a dual-center, phase 1-2 safety and efficacy study of a lentiviral vector to transfer IL2RG complementary DNA to bone marrow stem cells after low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in eight infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1. RESULTS: Eight infants with SCID-X1 were followed for a median of 16.4 months. Bone marrow harvest, busulfan conditioning, and cell infusion had no unexpected side effects. In seven infants, the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and naive CD4+ T cells and NK cells normalized by 3 to 4 months after infusion and were accompanied by vector marking in T cells, B cells, NK cells, myeloid cells, and bone marrow progenitors. The eighth infant had an insufficient T-cell count initially, but T cells developed in this infant after a boost of gene-corrected cells without busulfan conditioning. Previous infections cleared in all infants, and all continued to grow normally. IgM levels normalized in seven of the eight infants, of whom four discontinued intravenous immune globulin supplementation; three of these four infants had a response to vaccines. Vector insertion-site analysis was performed in seven infants and showed polyclonal patterns without clonal dominance in all seven. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral vector gene therapy combined with low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1 had low-grade acute toxic effects and resulted in multilineage engraftment of transduced cells, reconstitution of functional T cells and B cells, and normalization of NK-cell counts during a median follow-up of 16 months. (Funded by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities and others; LVXSCID-ND ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01512888.).


Assuntos
Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Lentivirus , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/sangue , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Células Matadoras Naturais , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Linfócitos T , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1355-1362, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876930

RESUMO

After allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the minimal myeloid chimerism required for full T and B cell reconstitution in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with low-exposure busulfan (cumulative area under the curve, 30 mg·hr/L) in 10 SCID patients undergoing either first or repeat HCT from unrelated or haploidentical donors. The median busulfan dose required to achieve this exposure was 5.9 mg/kg (range, 4.8 to 9.1). With a median follow-up of 4.5 years all patients survived, with 1 requiring an additional HCT. Donor myeloid chimerism was generally >90% at 1 month post-HCT, but in most patients it fell during the next 3 months, such that 1-year median myeloid chimerism was 14% (range, 2% to 100%). Six of 10 patients had full T and B cell reconstitution, despite myeloid chimerism as low as 3%. Three patients have not recovered B cell function at over 2 years post-HCT, 2 of them in the setting of treatment with rituximab for post-HCT autoimmunity. Low-exposure busulfan was well tolerated and achieved sufficient myeloid chimerism for full immune reconstitution in over 50% of patients. However, other factors beyond busulfan exposure may also play critical roles in determining long-term myeloid chimerism and full T and B cell reconstitution.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa , Linfócitos T , Quimeras de Transplante , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Quimeras de Transplante/sangue , Quimeras de Transplante/imunologia
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoimunidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
18.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified. METHODS: Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000-1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(3): 852-863, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194989

RESUMO

Inherited defects in adenosine deaminase (ADA) cause a subtype of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) known as severe combined immune deficiency caused by adenosine deaminase defects (ADA-SCID). Most affected infants can receive a diagnosis while still asymptomatic by using an SCID newborn screening test, allowing early initiation of therapy. We review the evidence currently available and propose a consensus management strategy. In addition to treatment of the immune deficiency seen in patients with ADA-SCID, patients should be followed for specific noninfectious respiratory, neurological, and biochemical complications associated with ADA deficiency. All patients should initially receive enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), followed by definitive treatment with either of 2 equal first-line options. If an HLA-matched sibling donor or HLA-matched family donor is available, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be pursued. The excellent safety and efficacy observed in more than 100 patients with ADA-SCID who received gammaretrovirus- or lentivirus-mediated autologous hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT) since 2000 now positions HSC-GT as an equal alternative. If HLA-matched sibling donor/HLA-matched family donor HSCT or HSC-GT are not available or have failed, ERT can be continued or reinstituted, and HSCT with alternative donors should be considered. The outcomes of novel HSCT, ERT, and HSC-GT strategies should be evaluated prospectively in "real-life" conditions to further inform these management guidelines.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adenosina Desaminase/uso terapêutico , Animais , Consenso , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos
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