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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 6.5 years of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in California, 3,252,156 infants had DNA from dried blood spots (DBSs) assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles. Infants with T-cell receptor excision circle values of less than a designated cutoff on a single DBS, 2 DBS samples with insufficient PCR amplification, or known genetic risk of immunodeficiency had peripheral blood complete blood counts and lymphocyte subsets assayed in a single flow cytometry laboratory. Cases in which immune defects were ruled out were available for analysis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine reference intervals for lymphocyte subsets in racially/ethnically diverse preterm and term newborns who proved to be unaffected by any T-lymphopenic immune disorder. METHODS: Effective gestational age (GA) was defined as GA at birth plus postnatal age at the time of sample collection. After determining exclusion criteria, we analyzed demographic and clinical information, complete and differential white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte subsets for 301 infants, with serial measurements for 33 infants. Lymphocyte subset measurements included total T cells, helper and cytotoxic T-cell subsets, naive and memory phenotype of each T-cell subset, B cells, and natural killer cells. RESULTS: Reference intervals were generated for absolute numbers and lymphocyte subsets from infants with effective GAs of 22 to 52 weeks. Sex and ethnicity were not significant determinants of lymphocyte subset counts in this population. Lymphocyte counts increased postnatally. CONCLUSION: This study provides a baseline for interpreting comprehensive lymphocyte data in preterm and term infants, aiding clinicians to determine which newborns require further evaluations for immunodeficiency.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(16): 1525-1534, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) often fails to reconstitute immunity associated with T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells when matched sibling donors are unavailable unless high-dose chemotherapy is given. In previous studies, autologous gene therapy with γ-retroviral vectors failed to reconstitute B-cell and NK-cell immunity and was complicated by vector-related leukemia. METHODS: We performed a dual-center, phase 1-2 safety and efficacy study of a lentiviral vector to transfer IL2RG complementary DNA to bone marrow stem cells after low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in eight infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1. RESULTS: Eight infants with SCID-X1 were followed for a median of 16.4 months. Bone marrow harvest, busulfan conditioning, and cell infusion had no unexpected side effects. In seven infants, the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and naive CD4+ T cells and NK cells normalized by 3 to 4 months after infusion and were accompanied by vector marking in T cells, B cells, NK cells, myeloid cells, and bone marrow progenitors. The eighth infant had an insufficient T-cell count initially, but T cells developed in this infant after a boost of gene-corrected cells without busulfan conditioning. Previous infections cleared in all infants, and all continued to grow normally. IgM levels normalized in seven of the eight infants, of whom four discontinued intravenous immune globulin supplementation; three of these four infants had a response to vaccines. Vector insertion-site analysis was performed in seven infants and showed polyclonal patterns without clonal dominance in all seven. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral vector gene therapy combined with low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1 had low-grade acute toxic effects and resulted in multilineage engraftment of transduced cells, reconstitution of functional T cells and B cells, and normalization of NK-cell counts during a median follow-up of 16 months. (Funded by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities and others; LVXSCID-ND ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01512888.).


Assuntos
Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Lentivirus , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/sangue , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Células Matadoras Naturais , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Linfócitos T , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia
5.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1355-1362, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876930

RESUMO

After allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the minimal myeloid chimerism required for full T and B cell reconstitution in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with low-exposure busulfan (cumulative area under the curve, 30 mg·hr/L) in 10 SCID patients undergoing either first or repeat HCT from unrelated or haploidentical donors. The median busulfan dose required to achieve this exposure was 5.9 mg/kg (range, 4.8 to 9.1). With a median follow-up of 4.5 years all patients survived, with 1 requiring an additional HCT. Donor myeloid chimerism was generally >90% at 1 month post-HCT, but in most patients it fell during the next 3 months, such that 1-year median myeloid chimerism was 14% (range, 2% to 100%). Six of 10 patients had full T and B cell reconstitution, despite myeloid chimerism as low as 3%. Three patients have not recovered B cell function at over 2 years post-HCT, 2 of them in the setting of treatment with rituximab for post-HCT autoimmunity. Low-exposure busulfan was well tolerated and achieved sufficient myeloid chimerism for full immune reconstitution in over 50% of patients. However, other factors beyond busulfan exposure may also play critical roles in determining long-term myeloid chimerism and full T and B cell reconstitution.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

7.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified. METHODS: Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000-1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia
9.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 39(1): 1-11, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466767

RESUMO

In the United States, significant improvement in diagnosis and outcomes for children affected with severe combined immunodeficiency has followed institution of newborn screening using an assay to measure T-cell receptor excision circles in newborn dried blood spot specimens. Key to this outcome is the avoidance of infectious complications in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency.

10.
Immunol Rev ; 287(1): 241-252, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565242

RESUMO

The development of a T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots (DBS) made possible universal newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) as a public health measure. Upon being flagged by an abnormal screening test in a SCID screening program, an infant can receive further diagnostic testing for SCID in the neonatal period, prior to onset of infectious complications, to permit immediate institution of protective measures and definitive, life-saving treatment to establish a functional immune system. SCID screening is now the accepted standard of care in state public health departments across the United States, and it is being adopted in many countries. It has proven effective, with infants having this otherwise inapparent but serious, rare disorder achieving survival and immune reconstitution. In addition to bringing to attention infants with the primary screening target diseases, typical SCID and leaky SCID (due to hypomorphic mutations in known SCID genes), the NBS assay for insufficient TRECs in DBS also reveals infants with non-SCID T lymphopenic conditions. Experience has accumulated regarding the range and limitations of diagnoses of newborns with low TRECs and low T cells. Previously unknown immune defects have been discovered, as well as conditions not formerly recognized to have low T cells in the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mutação/genética , Estados Unidos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194989

RESUMO

Inherited defects in adenosine deaminase (ADA) cause a subtype of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) known as severe combined immune deficiency caused by adenosine deaminase defects (ADA-SCID). Most affected infants can receive a diagnosis while still asymptomatic by using an SCID newborn screening test, allowing early initiation of therapy. We review the evidence currently available and propose a consensus management strategy. In addition to treatment of the immune deficiency seen in patients with ADA-SCID, patients should be followed for specific noninfectious respiratory, neurological, and biochemical complications associated with ADA deficiency. All patients should initially receive enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), followed by definitive treatment with either of 2 equal first-line options. If an HLA-matched sibling donor or HLA-matched family donor is available, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be pursued. The excellent safety and efficacy observed in more than 100 patients with ADA-SCID who received gammaretrovirus- or lentivirus-mediated autologous hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT) since 2000 now positions HSC-GT as an equal alternative. If HLA-matched sibling donor/HLA-matched family donor HSCT or HSC-GT are not available or have failed, ERT can be continued or reinstituted, and HSCT with alternative donors should be considered. The outcomes of novel HSCT, ERT, and HSC-GT strategies should be evaluated prospectively in "real-life" conditions to further inform these management guidelines.

13.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 48 Suppl 2: S7-S9, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133735

RESUMO

Now widely adopted, SCID newborn screening has proven effective for early identification and treatment of SCID. In addition, screening has improved our understanding of SCID and related disorders, which are more diverse than originally believed. Newborn screening for SCID illustrates how adding new disorders to newborn screening panels can be enormously beneficial if evidence-based guidelines are adhered to and if mechanisms are in place to track outcomes and learn along the way. These lessons should guide all additions to newborn screening, including those involving sequencing.

14.
Blood ; 131(26): 2967-2977, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728406

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) typically results in donor T-cell engraftment and function in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but humoral immunity, particularly when using donors other than matched siblings, is variable. B-cell function after HSCT for SCID depends on the genetic cause, the use of pre-HSCT conditioning, and whether donor B-cell chimerism is achieved. Patients with defects in IL2RG or JAK3 undergoing HSCT without conditioning often have poor B-cell function post-HSCT, perhaps as a result of impairment of IL-21 signaling in host-derived B cells. To investigate the effect of pre-HSCT conditioning on B-cell function, and the relationship of in vitro B-cell function to clinical humoral immune status, we analyzed 48 patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID who were older than 2 years after HSCT with donors other than matched siblings. T follicular helper cells (TFH) developed in these patients with kinetics similar to healthy young children; thus, poor B-cell function could not be attributed to a failure of TFH development. In vitro differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts and immunoglobulin secretion in response to IL-21 strongly correlated with the use of conditioning, donor B-cell engraftment, freedom from immunoglobulin replacement, and response to tetanus vaccine. Patients receiving immunoglobulin replacement who had normal serum immunoglobulin M showed poor response to IL-21 in vitro, similar to those with low serum IgM. In vitro response of B cells to IL-21 may predict clinically relevant humoral immune function in patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID after HSCT.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(3): 996-1001, 2018 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a rare condition. OBJECTIVE: Data from the USIDNET Registry provide a resource to examine the characteristics of patients with rare immune deficiency diseases. METHODS: A query was submitted to the USIDNET requesting deidentified data for patients with physician-diagnosed AD-HIES through July 2016. RESULTS: Data on 85 patients diagnosed with AD-HIES (50 males; 35 females) born between 1950 and 2013, collected by 14 physicians from 25 states and Quebec, were entered into the USIDNET Registry by July 2016. Cumulative follow-up was 2157 years. Of these patients, 45.9% had a family history of HIES. The complications reported included skin abscesses (74.4%), eczema (57.7%), retained primary teeth (41.4%), fractures (39%), scoliosis (34.1%), and cancer (7%). Reported allergic diseases included food (37.8%), environmental (18%), and drugs (42.7%). The mean serum IgE level was 8383.7 kU/mL and was inversely correlated to the patient's age. A total of 49.4% had eosinophilia; 56% were known to be on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 26.6% on antifungal coverage, and 30.6% on immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Pneumonias were more commonly attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (55.3%) or Aspergillus fumigatus (22.4%); 19.5% had a history of lung abscess; these were most often associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P Fisher's exact test = .029) or A. fumigatus (P Fisher's exact test = .016). Lung abscesses were significantly associated with drug reactions (P χ2 = .01; odds ratio: 4.03 [1.2-12.97]), depression (P Fisher's exact test = .036), and lower Karnofsky index scores (P Mann-Whitney = .007). DISCUSSION: Data from the USIDNET Registry summarize the currently reported clinical characteristics of a large cohort of subjects with AD-HIES.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(1): 167-171, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29067733

RESUMO

Newborn screening (NBS) for rare conditions is performed in all 50 states in the USA. We have partnered with the California Department of Public Health Genetic Disease Laboratory to determine whether sufficient DNA can be extracted from archived dried blood spots (DBS) for next-generation sequencing in the hopes that next-generation sequencing can play a role in NBS. We optimized the DNA extraction and sequencing library preparation protocols for residual infant DBS archived over 20 years ago and successfully obtained acceptable whole exome and whole genome sequencing data. This sequencing study using DBS DNA without whole genome amplification prior to sequencing library preparation provides evidence that properly stored residual newborn DBS are a satisfactory source of DNA for genetic studies.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(4): 1427-1438, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most frequent primary immunodeficiencies in human subjects. The genetic causes of PADs are largely unknown. Sec61 translocon alpha 1 subunit (SEC61A1) is the major subunit of the Sec61 complex, which is the main polypeptide-conducting channel in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. SEC61A1 is a target gene of spliced X-box binding protein 1 and strongly induced during plasma cell (PC) differentiation. OBJECTIVE: We identified a novel genetic defect and studied its pathologic mechanism in 11 patients from 2 unrelated families with PADs. METHODS: Whole-exome and targeted sequencing were conducted to identify novel genetic mutations. Functional studies were carried out ex vivo in primary cells of patients and in vitro in different cell lines to assess the effect of SEC61A1 mutations on B-cell differentiation and survival. RESULTS: We investigated 2 families with patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, severe recurrent respiratory tract infections, and normal peripheral B- and T-cell subpopulations. On in vitro stimulation, B cells showed an intrinsic deficiency to develop into PCs. Genetic analysis and targeted sequencing identified novel heterozygous missense (c.254T>A, p.V85D) and nonsense (c.1325G>T, p.E381*) mutations in SEC61A1, segregating with the disease phenotype. SEC61A1-V85D was deficient in cotranslational protein translocation, and it disturbed the cellular calcium homeostasis in HeLa cells. Moreover, SEC61A1-V85D triggered the terminal unfolded protein response in multiple myeloma cell lines. CONCLUSION: We describe a monogenic defect leading to a specific PC deficiency in human subjects, expanding our knowledge about the pathogenesis of antibody deficiencies.

18.
Blood ; 130(25): 2718-2727, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021228

RESUMO

The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is enrolling children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) to a prospective natural history study. We analyzed patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from 2010 to 2014, including 68 patients with typical SCID and 32 with leaky SCID, Omenn syndrome, or reticular dysgenesis. Most (59%) patients were diagnosed by newborn screening or family history. The 2-year overall survival was 90%, but was 95% for those who were infection-free at HCT vs 81% for those with active infection (P = .009). Other factors, including the diagnosis of typical vs leaky SCID/Omenn syndrome, diagnosis via family history or newborn screening, use of preparative chemotherapy, or the type of donor used, did not impact survival. Although 1-year post-HCT median CD4 counts and freedom from IV immunoglobulin were improved after the use of preparative chemotherapy, other immunologic reconstitution parameters were not affected, and the potential for late sequelae in extremely young infants requires additional evaluation. After a T-cell-replete graft, landmark analysis at day +100 post-HCT revealed that CD3 < 300 cells/µL, CD8 < 50 cells/µL, CD45RA < 10%, or a restricted Vß T-cell receptor repertoire (<13 of 24 families) were associated with the need for a second HCT or death. In the modern era, active infection continues to pose the greatest threat to survival for SCID patients. Although newborn screening has been effective in diagnosing SCID patients early in life, there is an urgent need to identify validated approaches through prospective trials to ensure that patients proceed to HCT infection free. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01186913.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Reconstituição Imune , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Reconstituição Imune/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecção/etiologia , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Doadores de Tecidos
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(3): 733-742, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270365

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by severely impaired T-cell development and is fatal without treatment. Newborn screening (NBS) for SCID permits identification of affected infants before development of opportunistic infections and other complications. Substantial variation exists between treatment centers with regard to pretransplantation care, and transplantation protocols for NBS identified infants with SCID, as well as infants with other T-lymphopenic disorders detected by using NBS. We developed approaches to management based on the study of infants identified by means of NBS for SCID who received care at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). From August 2010 through October 2016, 32 patients with NBS-identified SCID and leaky SCID from California and other states were treated, and 42 patients with NBS-identified non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia were followed. Our center's approach supports successful outcomes; systematic review of our practice provides a framework for diagnosis and management, recognizing that more data will continue to shape best practices.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pais/psicologia
20.
J Exp Med ; 214(3): 623-637, 2017 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28148688

RESUMO

We studied three patients with severe skeletal dysplasia, T cell immunodeficiency, and developmental delay. Whole-exome sequencing revealed homozygous missense mutations affecting exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3), a glycosyltransferase involved in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. Patient-derived fibroblasts showed abnormal HS composition and altered fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling, which was rescued by overexpression of wild-type EXTL3 cDNA. Interleukin-2-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation in patients' lymphocytes was markedly reduced. Interbreeding of the extl3-mutant zebrafish (box) with Tg(rag2:green fluorescent protein) transgenic zebrafish revealed defective thymopoiesis, which was rescued by injection of wild-type human EXTL3 RNA. Targeted differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed a reduced expansion of lymphohematopoietic progenitor cells and defects of thymic epithelial progenitor cell differentiation. These data identify EXTL3 mutations as a novel cause of severe immune deficiency with skeletal dysplasia and developmental delay and underline a crucial role of HS in thymopoiesis and skeletal and brain development.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Mutação , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Heparitina Sulfato/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Lactente , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
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