Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 172
Filtrar
1.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533916

RESUMO

Several studies have analyzed antiviral immune pathways in late-stage severe COVID-19. However, the initial steps of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral immunity are poorly understood. Here we have isolated primary SARS-CoV-2 viral strains and studied their interaction with human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs), a key player in antiviral immunity. We show that pDCs are not productively infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, they efficiently diversified into activated P1-, P2-, and P3-pDC effector subsets in response to viral stimulation. They expressed CD80, CD86, CCR7, and OX40 ligand at levels similar to influenza virus-induced activation. They rapidly produced high levels of interferon-α, interferon-λ1, IL-6, IP-10, and IL-8. All major aspects of SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation were inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation critically depended on IRAK4 and UNC93B1, as established using pDC from genetically deficient patients. Overall, our data indicate that human pDC are efficiently activated by SARS-CoV-2 particles and may thus contribute to type I IFN-dependent immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , /imunologia , Biomarcadores , /virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Imunofenotipagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo
2.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544838

RESUMO

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Interferon-alfa , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , /imunologia , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/deficiência , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/imunologia , /imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/genética , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency predisposes patients to invasive fungal disease. Candida and Trichophyton species are major causes of fungal disease in these patients. Other CARD9-deficient patients display invasive diseases caused by other fungi, such as Exophiala spp. The clinical penetrance of CARD9 deficiency regarding fungal disease is surprisingly not complete until adulthood, though the age remains unclear. Moreover, the immunological features of genetically confirmed yet asymptomatic individuals with CARD9 deficiency have not been reported. METHODS: Identification of CARD9 mutations by gene panel sequencing and characterization of the cellular phenotype by quantitative PCR, immunoblot, luciferase reporter, and cytometric bead array assays were performed. RESULTS: Gene panel sequencing identified compound heterozygous CARD9 variants, c.1118G>C (p.R373P) and c.586A>G (p.K196E), in a 4-year-old patient with multiple cerebral lesions and systemic lymphadenopathy due to Exophiala dermatitidis. The p.R373P is a known disease-causing variant, whereas the p.K196E is a private variant. Although the patient's siblings, a 10-year-old brother and an 8-year-old sister, were also compound heterozygous, they have been asymptomatic to date. Normal CARD9 mRNA and protein expression were found in the patient's CD14+ monocytes. However, these cells exhibited markedly impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to fungal stimulation. Monocytes from both asymptomatic siblings displayed the same cellular phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: CARD9 deficiency should be considered in previously healthy patients with invasive Exophiala dermatitidis disease. Asymptomatic relatives of all ages should be tested for CARD9 deficiency. Detecting cellular defects in asymptomatic individuals is useful for diagnosing CARD9 deficiency.

4.
Cell ; 184(4): 1017-1031.e14, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548172

RESUMO

Antibodies mediate natural and vaccine-induced immunity against viral and bacterial pathogens, whereas fungi represent a widespread kingdom of pathogenic species for which neither vaccine nor neutralizing antibody therapies are clinically available. Here, using a multi-kingdom antibody profiling (multiKAP) approach, we explore the human antibody repertoires against gut commensal fungi (mycobiota). We identify species preferentially targeted by systemic antibodies in humans, with Candida albicans being the major inducer of antifungal immunoglobulin G (IgG). Fungal colonization of the gut induces germinal center (GC)-dependent B cell expansion in extraintestinal lymphoid tissues and generates systemic antibodies that confer protection against disseminated C. albicans or C. auris infection. Antifungal IgG production depends on the innate immunity regulator CARD9 and CARD9+CX3CR1+ macrophages. In individuals with invasive candidiasis, loss-of-function mutations in CARD9 are associated with impaired antifungal IgG responses. These results reveal an important role of gut commensal fungi in shaping the human antibody repertoire through CARD9-dependent induction of host-protective antifungal IgG.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598806

RESUMO

The most recent updated classification of inborn errors of immunity/primary immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee, was published in January 2020. Within days of completing this report, it was already out of date, evidenced by the frequent publication of genetic variants proposed to cause novel inborn errors of immunity. As the next formal report from the IUIS Expert Committee will not be published until 2022, we felt it important to provide the community with a brief update of recent contributions to the field of inborn errors of immunity. Herein, we highlight studies that have identified 26 additional monogenic gene defects that reach the threshold to represent novel causes of immune defects.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(3)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408250

RESUMO

Genetic variants underlying life-threatening diseases, being unlikely to be transmitted to the next generation, are gradually and selectively eliminated from the population through negative selection. We study the determinants of this evolutionary process in human genes underlying monogenic diseases by comparing various negative selection scores and an integrative approach, CoNeS, at 366 loci underlying inborn errors of immunity (IEI). We find that genes underlying autosomal dominant (AD) or X-linked IEI have stronger negative selection scores than those underlying autosomal recessive (AR) IEI, whose scores are not different from those of genes not known to be disease causing. Nevertheless, genes underlying AR IEI that are lethal before reproductive maturity with complete penetrance have stronger negative selection scores than other genes underlying AR IEI. We also show that genes underlying AD IEI by loss of function have stronger negative selection scores than genes underlying AD IEI by gain of function, while genes underlying AD IEI by haploinsufficiency are under stronger negative selection than other genes underlying AD IEI. These results are replicated in 1,140 genes underlying inborn errors of neurodevelopment. Finally, we propose a supervised classifier, SCoNeS, which predicts better than state-of-the-art approaches whether a gene is more likely to underlie an AD or AR disease. The clinical outcomes of monogenic inborn errors, together with their mode and mechanisms of inheritance, determine the levels of negative selection at their corresponding loci. Integrating scores of negative selection may facilitate the prioritization of candidate genes and variants in patients suspected to carry an inborn error.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline heterozygous mutations of GATA2 underlie a variety of hematological and clinical phenotypes. The genetic, immunological, and clinical features of GATA2-deficient patients with mycobacterial diseases in the familial context remain largely unknown. METHODS: We enrolled 15 GATA2 index cases referred for mycobacterial disease. We describe their genetic and clinical features including their relatives. RESULTS: We identified 12 heterozygous GATA2 mutations, two of which had not been reported. Eight of these mutations were loss-of-function, and four were hypomorphic. None was dominant-negative in vitro, and the GATA2 locus was found to be subject to purifying selection, strongly suggesting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency. Three relatives of index cases had mycobacterial disease and were also heterozygous, resulting in 18 patients in total. Mycobacterial infection was the first clinical manifestation in 11 patients, at a mean age of 22.5 years (range: 12 to 42 years). Most patients also suffered from other infections, monocytopenia, or myelodysplasia. Strikingly, the clinical penetrance was incomplete (32.9% by age 40 years), as 16 heterozygous relatives aged between 6 and 78 years, including 4 older than 60 years, were completely asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Clinical penetrance for mycobacterial disease was found to be similar to other GATA2 deficiency-related manifestations. These observations suggest that other mechanisms contribute to the phenotypic expression of GATA2 deficiency. A diagnosis of autosomal dominant GATA2 deficiency should be considered in patients with mycobacterial infections and/or other GATA2 deficiency-related phenotypes at any age in life. Moreover, all direct relatives should be genotyped at the GATA2 locus.

9.
Cell ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296702

RESUMO

Inborn errors of human interferon gamma (IFN-γ) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report a patient with mycobacterial disease due to inherited deficiency of the transcription factor T-bet. The patient has extremely low counts of circulating Mycobacterium-reactive natural killer (NK), invariant NKT (iNKT), mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), and Vδ2+ γδ T lymphocytes, and of Mycobacterium-non reactive classic TH1 lymphocytes, with the residual populations of these cells also producing abnormally small amounts of IFN-γ. Other lymphocyte subsets develop normally but produce low levels of IFN-γ, with the exception of CD8+ αß T and non-classic CD4+ αß TH1∗ lymphocytes, which produce IFN-γ normally in response to mycobacterial antigens. Human T-bet deficiency thus underlies mycobacterial disease by preventing the development of innate (NK) and innate-like adaptive lymphocytes (iNKT, MAIT, and Vδ2+ γδ T cells) and IFN-γ production by them, with mycobacterium-specific, IFN-γ-producing, purely adaptive CD8+ αß T, and CD4+ αß TH1∗ cells unable to compensate for this deficit.

11.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083971

RESUMO

IRAK4 deficiency is an inborn error of immunity predisposing patients to invasive pyogenic infections. Currently, there is no established simple assay that enables precise characterization of IRAK4 mutant alleles in isolation. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune condition that is characterized by psychiatric symptoms, involuntary movement, seizures, autonomic dysfunction, and central hypoventilation. It typically occurs in adult females associated with tumors. Only a few infantile cases with anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been so far reported. We identified a 10-month-old boy with IRAK4 deficiency presenting with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) reactivation. The diagnosis of IRAK4 deficiency was confirmed by the identification of compound heterozygous mutations c.29_30delAT (p.Y10Cfs*9) and c.35G>C (p.R12P) in the IRAK4 gene, low levels of IRAK4 protein expression in peripheral blood, and defective fibroblastic cell responses to TLR and IL-1 (TIR) agonist. We established a novel NF-κB reporter assay using IRAK4-null HEK293T, which enabled the precise evaluation of IRAK4 mutations. Using this system, we confirmed that both novel mutations identified in the patient are deleterious. Our study provides a new simple and reliable method to analyze IRAK4 mutant alleles. It also suggests the possible link between inborn errors of immunity and early onset anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

13.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1065-1081, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852681

RESUMO

Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in STAT1 in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and hypothyroidism were discovered in 2011. CMC is the recurrent or persistent mucocutaneous infection by Candida fungi, and hypothyroidism results from autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with these diseases develop other infectious diseases, including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases, and other autoimmune manifestations, including enterocolitis, immune cytopenia, endocrinopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. STAT1-GOF mutations are highly penetrant with a median age at onset of 1 year and often underlie an autosomal dominant trait. As many as 105 mutations at 72 residues, including 65 recurrent mutations, have already been reported in more than 400 patients worldwide. The GOF mechanism involves impaired dephosphorylation of STAT1 in the nucleus. Patient cells show enhanced STAT1-dependent responses to type I and II interferons (IFNs) and IL-27. This impairs Th17 cell development, which accounts for CMC. The pathogenesis of autoimmunity likely involves enhanced type I IFN responses, as in other type I interferonopathies. The pathogenesis of other infections, especially those caused by intramacrophagic bacteria and fungi, which are otherwise seen in patients with diminished type II IFN immunity, has remained mysterious. The cumulative survival rates of patients with and without severe disease (invasive infection, cancer, and/or symptomatic aneurysm) at 60 years of age are 31% and 87%, respectively. Severe autoimmunity also worsens the prognosis. The treatment of patients with STAT1-GOF mutations who suffer from severe infectious and autoimmune manifestations relies on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or oral JAK inhibitors.

15.
Med Mycol ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526033

RESUMO

Candidiasis is characterized by susceptibility to recurrent or persistent infections caused by Candida spp., typically Candida albicans, of cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. In this report, function and frequency of Th17 cells as well as genetics of patients susceptible to mucocutaneous candidiasis were studied. For patients, T-cell proliferation tests in response to Candida antigen, Th17 cell proportions, and STAT1 phosphorylation were evaluated through flow cytometry. Expression of IL17A, IL17F and IL22 genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. At the same time, whole exome sequencing was performed for all patients. We identified two heterozygous substitutions, one: c.821G > A (p. R274Q) was found in a multiplex family with three individuals affected, the second one: c.812A > C (p. Q271P) was found in a sporadic case. Both mutations are located in the coiled-coil domain (CCD) of STAT1. The frequency of Th17 cells, IL17A, IL17F, and IL22 gene expression in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and T-cell proliferation to Candida antigens were significantly reduced in the patients as compared to healthy controls. An increased STAT1 phosphorylation was observed in patients' PBMCs upon interferon (IFN)-γ stimulation as compared to healthy controls. We report two different but neighboring heterozygous mutations, located in exon 10 of the STAT1 gene, in four Iranian patients with CMC, one of whom also had hypothyroidism. These mutations were associated with impaired T cell proliferation to Candida antigen, low Th17 cell proportions, and increased STAT1 phosphorylation upon IFN-γ. We suggest that interfering with STAT1 phosphorylation might be a promising way for potential therapeutic measurements for such patients.

17.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(6): 807-819, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572726

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by the occurrence of three copies of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). HSA21 contains a cluster of four interferon receptor (IFN-R) genes: IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR2, and IL10RB. DS patients often develop mucocutaneous infections and autoimmune diseases, mimicking patients with heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, which enhance cellular responses to three types of interferon (IFN). A gene dosage effect at these four loci may contribute to the infectious and autoimmune manifestations observed in individuals with DS. We report high levels of IFN-αR1, IFN-αR2, and IFN-γR2 expression on the surface of monocytes and EBV-transformed-B (EBV-B) cells from studying 45 DS patients. Total and phosphorylated STAT1 (STAT1 and pSTAT1) levels were constitutively high in unstimulated and IFN-α- and IFN-γ-stimulated monocytes from DS patients but lower than those in patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Following stimulation with IFN-α or -γ, but not with IL-6 or IL-21, pSTAT1 and IFN-γ activation factor (GAF) DNA-binding activities were significantly higher in the EBV-B cells of DS patients than in controls. These responses resemble the dysregulated responses observed in patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. Concentrations of plasma type I IFNs were high in 12% of the DS patients tested (1.8% in the healthy controls). Levels of type I IFNs, IFN-Rs, and STAT1 were similar in DS patients with and without recurrent skin infections. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis based on principal component analysis and interferon modules on circulating monocytes. We found that DS monocytes had levels of both IFN-α- and IFN-γ-inducible ISGs intermediate to those of monocytes from healthy controls and from patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Unlike patients with GOF STAT1 mutations, patients with DS had normal circulating Th17 counts and a high proportion of terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells with low levels of STAT1 expression. We conclude a mild interferonopathy in Down syndrome leads to an incomplete penetrance at both cellular and clinical level, which is not correlate with recurrent skin bacterial or fungal infections. The constitutive upregulation of type I and type II IFN-R, at least in monocytes of DS patients, may contribute to the autoimmune diseases observed in these individuals.

18.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(4): 646, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367426

RESUMO

The original version of our manuscript, entitled, " The IL1RN mutation creating the most-upstream premature stop codon is hypomorphic because of a reinitiation of translation" unfortunately contained mistakes in Fig. 1a and d legends. The text should read as follows.

20.
Hum Genet ; 139(6-7): 1011-1022, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124012

RESUMO

Candida species, including C. albicans in particular, can cause superficial or invasive disease, often in patients with known acquired immunodeficiencies or iatrogenic conditions. The molecular and cellular basis of these infections in patients with such risk factors remained largely elusive, until the study of inborn errors of immunity clarified the basis of the corresponding inherited and "idiopathic" infections. Superficial candidiasis, also known as chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), can be caused by inborn errors of IL-17 immunity. Invasive candidiasis can be caused by inborn errors of CARD9 immunity. In this chapter, we review both groups of inborn errors of immunity, and discuss the contribution of these studies to the deciphering of the critical mechanisms of anti-Candida immunity in patients with other conditions.


Assuntos
Candida/imunologia , Candidíase Invasiva/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Candida/genética , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase Invasiva/imunologia , Candidíase Invasiva/microbiologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/microbiologia , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA