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1.
Blood ; 132(22): 2375-2388, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181176

RESUMO

Genomic studies have recently identified RPS15 as a new driver gene in aggressive and chemorefractory cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). RPS15 encodes a ribosomal protein whose conserved C-terminal domain extends into the decoding center of the ribosome. We demonstrate that mutations in highly conserved residues of this domain affect protein stability, by increasing its ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and cell-proliferation rates. On the other hand, we show that mutated RPS15 can be loaded into the ribosomes, directly impacting on global protein synthesis and/or translational fidelity in a mutation-specific manner. Quantitative mass spectrometry analyses suggest that RPS15 variants may induce additional alterations in the translational machinery, as well as a metabolic shift at the proteome level in HEK293T and MEC-1 cells. These results indicate that CLL-related RPS15 mutations might act following patterns known for other ribosomal diseases, likely switching from a hypo- to a hyperproliferative phenotype driven by mutated ribosomes. In this scenario, loss of translational fidelity causing altered cell proteostasis can be proposed as a new molecular mechanism involved in CLL pathobiology.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Taxa de Mutação , Mutação Puntual , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Ribossomos/patologia
2.
Dis Model Mech ; 11(5)2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666142

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of cancer therapeutic resistance is fundamental to improving cancer care. There is clear benefit from chemotherapy in different breast cancer settings; however, knowledge of the mutations and genes that mediate resistance is incomplete. In this study, by modeling chemoresistance in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), we show that adaptation to therapy is genetically complex and identify that loss of transcription factor 4 (TCF4; also known as ITF2) is associated with this process. A triple-negative BRCA1-mutated PDX was used to study the genetics of chemoresistance. The PDX was treated in parallel with four chemotherapies for five iterative cycles. Exome sequencing identified few genes with de novo or enriched mutations in common among the different therapies, whereas many common depleted mutations/genes were observed. Analysis of somatic mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) supported the prognostic relevance of the identified genes. A mutation in TCF4 was found de novo in all treatments, and analysis of drug sensitivity profiles across cancer cell lines supported the link to chemoresistance. Loss of TCF4 conferred chemoresistance in breast cancer cell models, possibly by altering cell cycle regulation. Targeted sequencing in chemoresistant tumors identified an intronic variant of TCF4 that may represent an expression quantitative trait locus associated with relapse outcome in TCGA. Immunohistochemical studies suggest a common loss of nuclear TCF4 expression post-chemotherapy. Together, these results from tumor xenograft modeling depict a link between altered TCF4 expression and breast cancer chemoresistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fator de Transcrição 4/deficiência , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Prognóstico , Fator de Transcrição 4/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Hum Reprod ; 31(12): 2881-2891, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27827323

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are kallikreins (KLKs), the whey-acidic-protein four-disulfide core domain (WFDCs) and their neighbors, semenogelins (SEMGs), known to play a role in the cascade of semen coagulation and liquefaction, associated with male infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Several KLK and SEMG variants are overrepresented among hyperviscosity, asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia, supporting an effect of abnormal semen liquefaction on the loss of semen quality and in lowering male reproductive fitness. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In the cascade of semen coagulation and liquefaction the spermatozoa coated by EPPIN (a protease inhibitor of the WFDC family) are entrapped in a cross-linked matrix established by SEMGs. After ejaculation, the SEMG matrix is hydrolyzed by KLK3/2 in a fine-tuned process regulated by other KLKs that allows the spermatozoa to increase motility. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION: This study includes a cohort of 238 infertility-related cases and 91 controls with normal spermiogram analysis. The remaining 126 controls are healthy males with unknown semen parameters. Sample collection was carried out from June 2011 to January 2015 and variant screening from May 2013 to August 2015. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We performed a screening by massive parallel sequencing in a pooled sample (N = 222) covering approximately 93 kb of KLK (19q13.3-13.4) and WFDC (20q13) clusters, followed by the genotyping of most promising variants in the full cohort. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Overall, 160 common and 296 low-frequency variants passed the quality control filtering. Statistical tests disclosed an association with hyperviscosity of a KLK7 regulatory variant (P = 0.0035), and unveiled a higher burden of deleterious mutations in KLKs than expected by chance (P = 0.0106). KLK variants found to be overrepresented in cases included two substitutions likely affecting the substrate binding pocket, two nonsynonymous variants overlapping in the three-dimensional structure and two mutations mapping in consecutive N-terminal residues. Other variants identified in SEMGs possibly contributing to hyperviscosity and asthenozoospermia consisted of three replacements predicted to modify targets of proteolysis (P = 0.0442 for SEMG1 p.Gly400Asp) and a copy number variation associated with a reduced risk of oligozoospermia (P = 0.0293). LARGE SCALE DATA: Not applicable. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: The sampling of a few hundred individuals has limited power to detected associations with low-frequency variants and only a small set of variants was prioritized for genotyping. Other susceptibility variants for male infertility may remain unidentified. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: We provide important evidence for an effect of KLKs and SEMGs variability on semen quality and for modifications in the process of semen liquefaction as a possible cause for male infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was funded through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and FEDER through COMPETE and QREN. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Calicreínas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Sêmen , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise do Sêmen , Proteínas Secretadas pela Vesícula Seminal/genética , Motilidade Espermática/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Viscosidade
5.
J Med Genet ; 53(11): 776-785, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progeroid syndromes are genetic disorders that recapitulate some phenotypes of physiological ageing. Classical progerias, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are generally caused by mutations in LMNA leading to accumulation of the toxic protein progerin and consequently, to nuclear envelope alterations. In this work, we describe a novel phenotypic feature of the progeria spectrum affecting three unrelated newborns and identify its genetic cause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients reported herein present an extremely homogeneous phenotype that somewhat recapitulates those of patients with HGPS and mandibuloacral dysplasia. However, pathological signs appear earlier, are more aggressive and present distinctive features including episodes of severe upper airway obstruction. Exome and Sanger sequencing allowed the identification of heterozygous de novo c.163G>A, p.E55K and c.164A>G, p.E55G mutations in LMNA as the alterations responsible for this disorder. Functional analyses demonstrated that fibroblasts from these patients suffer important dysfunctions in nuclear lamina, which generate profound nuclear envelope abnormalities but without progerin accumulation. These nuclear alterations found in patients' dermal fibroblasts were also induced by ectopic expression of the corresponding site-specific LMNA mutants in control human fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the causal role of p.E55K and p.E55G lamin A mutations in a disorder which manifests novel phenotypic features of the progeria spectrum characterised by neonatal presentation and aggressive clinical evolution, despite being caused by lamin A/C missense mutations with effective prelamin A processing.

6.
Genet Med ; 18(4): 325-32, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26133394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 have been recently associated with polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the phenotypic characteristics of this syndrome to establish specific criteria for POLE and POLD1 mutation screening and to help define the clinical management of mutation carriers. METHODS: The exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 were studied in 529 kindred, 441 with familial nonpolyposis CRC and 88 with polyposis, by using pooled DNA amplification and massively parallel sequencing. RESULTS: Seven novel or rare genetic variants were identified. In addition to the POLE p.L424V recurrent mutation in a patient with polyposis, CRC and oligodendroglioma, six novel or rare POLD1 variants (four of them, p.D316H, p.D316G, p.R409W, and p.L474P, with strong evidence for pathogenicity) were identified in nonpolyposis CRC families. Phenotypic data from these and previously reported POLE/POLD1 carriers point to an associated phenotype characterized by attenuated or oligo-adenomatous colorectal polyposis, CRC, and probably brain tumors. In addition, POLD1 mutations predispose to endometrial and breast tumors. CONCLUSION: Our results widen the phenotypic spectrum of the POLE/POLD1-associated syndrome and identify novel pathogenic variants. We propose guidelines for genetic testing and surveillance recommendations.Genet Med 18 4, 325-332.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Mutação , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Alelos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , DNA Polimerase II/química , DNA Polimerase III/química , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética
7.
Nature ; 526(7574): 519-24, 2015 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200345

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a frequent disease in which the genetic alterations determining the clinicobiological behaviour are not fully understood. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of the genomic landscape of 452 CLL cases and 54 patients with monoclonal B-lymphocytosis, a precursor disorder. We extend the number of CLL driver alterations, including changes in ZNF292, ZMYM3, ARID1A and PTPN11. We also identify novel recurrent mutations in non-coding regions, including the 3' region of NOTCH1, which cause aberrant splicing events, increase NOTCH1 activity and result in a more aggressive disease. In addition, mutations in an enhancer located on chromosome 9p13 result in reduced expression of the B-cell-specific transcription factor PAX5. The accumulative number of driver alterations (0 to ≥4) discriminated between patients with differences in clinical behaviour. This study provides an integrated portrait of the CLL genomic landscape, identifies new recurrent driver mutations of the disease, and suggests clinical interventions that may improve the management of this neoplasia.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutação/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 5: 5326, 2014 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25351925

RESUMO

Mutations in different genes encoding sarcomeric proteins are responsible for 50-60% of familial cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the genetic alterations causing the disease in one-third of patients are currently unknown. Here we describe a case with familial HCM of unknown cause. Whole-exome sequencing reveals a variant in the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein filamin C (p.A1539T) that segregates with the disease in this family. Sequencing of 92 HCM cases identifies seven additional variants segregating with the disease in eight families. Patients with FLNC mutations show marked sarcomeric abnormalities in cardiac muscle, and functional analysis reveals that expression of these FLNC variants resulted in the formation of large filamin C aggregates. Clinical studies indicate that FLNC-mutated patients have higher incidence of sudden cardiac death. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that mutations in the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein filamin C cause a new form of familial HMC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica Familiar/genética , Filaminas/genética , Mutação/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Filaminas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Linhagem , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Med Genet ; 15: 51, 2014 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24886349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing approaches in two patients with clinical features of SHORT syndrome. We report the finding of a novel mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8), as well as a recurrent mutation c.1945C > T (p.Arg649Trp) in this gene. CONCLUSIONS: We found a novel frameshift mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8) which consists of a deletion right before the site of substrate recognition. As a consequence, the protein lacks the position that interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue of the substrate, resulting in the development of SHORT syndrome.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipercalcemia/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Mutação , Nefrocalcinose/diagnóstico , Nefrocalcinose/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma , Facies , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Conformação Proteica
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(45): 18250-5, 2013 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24145436

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive tumor, but a subset of patients may follow an indolent clinical course. To understand the mechanisms underlying this biological heterogeneity, we performed whole-genome and/or whole-exome sequencing on 29 MCL cases and their respective matched normal DNA, as well as 6 MCL cell lines. Recurrently mutated genes were investigated by targeted sequencing in an independent cohort of 172 MCL patients. We identified 25 significantly mutated genes, including known drivers such as ataxia-telangectasia mutated (ATM), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and the tumor suppressor TP53; mutated genes encoding the anti-apoptotic protein BIRC3 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2); and the chromatin modifiers WHSC1, MLL2, and MEF2B. We also found NOTCH2 mutations as an alternative phenomenon to NOTCH1 mutations in aggressive tumors with a dismal prognosis. Analysis of two simultaneous or subsequent MCL samples by whole-genome/whole-exome (n = 8) or targeted (n = 19) sequencing revealed subclonal heterogeneity at diagnosis in samples from different topographic sites and modulation of the initial mutational profile at the progression of the disease. Some mutations were predominantly clonal or subclonal, indicating an early or late event in tumor evolution, respectively. Our study identifies molecular mechanisms contributing to MCL pathogenesis and offers potential targets for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Sequência de Bases , Ciclina D1/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/fisiopatologia , Análise em Microsséries , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Receptor Notch2/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 7(12): e51422, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23284693

RESUMO

Exome sequencing constitutes an important technology for the study of human hereditary diseases and cancer. However, the ability of this approach to identify copy number alterations in primary tumor samples has not been fully addressed. Here we show that somatic copy number alterations can be reliably estimated using exome sequencing data through a strategy that we have termed exome2cnv. Using data from 86 paired normal and primary tumor samples, we identified losses and gains of complete chromosomes or large genomic regions, as well as smaller regions affecting a minimum of one gene. Comparison with high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays revealed a high sensitivity and a low number of false positives in the copy number estimation between both approaches. We explore the main factors affecting sensitivity and false positives with real data, and provide a side by side comparison with CGH arrays. Together, these results underscore the utility of exome sequencing to study cancer samples by allowing not only the identification of substitutions and indels, but also the accurate estimation of copy number alterations.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Nat Genet ; 44(1): 47-52, 2011 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22158541

RESUMO

Here we perform whole-exome sequencing of samples from 105 individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most frequent leukemia in adults in Western countries. We found 1,246 somatic mutations potentially affecting gene function and identified 78 genes with predicted functional alterations in more than one tumor sample. Among these genes, SF3B1, encoding a subunit of the spliceosomal U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), is somatically mutated in 9.7% of affected individuals. Further analysis in 279 individuals with CLL showed that SF3B1 mutations were associated with faster disease progression and poor overall survival. This work provides the first comprehensive catalog of somatic mutations in CLL with relevant clinical correlates and defines a large set of new genes that may drive the development of this common form of leukemia. The results reinforce the idea that targeting several well-known genetic pathways, including mRNA splicing, could be useful in the treatment of CLL and other malignancies.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U2/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Progressão da Doença , Exoma , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Fatores de Processamento de RNA , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Nature ; 475(7354): 101-5, 2011 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21642962

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutação/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Carioferinas/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/química , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 88(5): 650-6, 2011 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21549337

RESUMO

Accelerated aging syndromes represent a valuable source of information about the molecular mechanisms involved in normal aging. Here, we describe a progeroid syndrome that partially phenocopies Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) but also exhibits distinctive features, including the absence of cardiovascular deficiencies characteristic of HGPS, the lack of mutations in LMNA and ZMPSTE24, and a relatively long lifespan of affected individuals. Exome sequencing and molecular analysis in two unrelated families allowed us to identify a homozygous mutation in BANF1 (c.34G>A [p.Ala12Thr]), encoding barrier-to-autointegration factor 1 (BAF), as the molecular abnormality responsible for this Mendelian disorder. Functional analysis showed that fibroblasts from both patients have a dramatic reduction in BAF protein levels, indicating that the p.Ala12Thr mutation impairs protein stability. Furthermore, progeroid fibroblasts display profound abnormalities in the nuclear lamina, including blebs and abnormal distribution of emerin, an interaction partner of BAF. These nuclear abnormalities are rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type BANF1, providing evidence for the causal role of this mutation. These data demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing for identifying the cause of rare Mendelian disorders and underscore the importance of nuclear envelope alterations in human aging.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Núcleo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ligação Genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Progéria/genética , Progéria/metabolismo , Progéria/patologia , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência
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