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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077217

RESUMO

The deep sea plays a critical role in global climate regulation through uptake and storage of heat and carbon dioxide. However, this regulating service causes warming, acidification and deoxygenation of deep waters, leading to decreased food availability at the seafloor. These changes and their projections are likely to affect productivity, biodiversity and distributions of deep-sea fauna, thereby compromising key ecosystem services. Understanding how climate change can lead to shifts in deep-sea species distributions is critically important in developing management measures. We used environmental niche modelling along with the best available species occurrence data and environmental parameters to model habitat suitability for key cold-water coral and commercially important deep-sea fish species under present-day (1951-2000) environmental conditions and to project changes under severe, high emissions future (2081-2100) climate projections (RCP8.5 scenario) for the North Atlantic Ocean. Our models projected a decrease of 28%-100% in suitable habitat for cold-water corals and a shift in suitable habitat for deep-sea fishes of 2.0°-9.9° towards higher latitudes. The largest reductions in suitable habitat were projected for the scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa and the octocoral Paragorgia arborea, with declines of at least 79% and 99% respectively. We projected the expansion of suitable habitat by 2100 only for the fishes Helicolenus dactylopterus and Sebastes mentella (20%-30%), mostly through northern latitudinal range expansion. Our results projected limited climate refugia locations in the North Atlantic by 2100 for scleractinian corals (30%-42% of present-day suitable habitat), even smaller refugia locations for the octocorals Acanella arbuscula and Acanthogorgia armata (6%-14%), and almost no refugia for P. arborea. Our results emphasize the need to understand how anticipated climate change will affect the distribution of deep-sea species including commercially important fishes and foundation species, and highlight the importance of identifying and preserving climate refugia for a range of area-based planning and management tools.

2.
Ecology ; 101(1): e02907, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587266

RESUMO

Life-history traits of individuals in marine populations exhibit large sources of variability. In marine fish, variation of individual size at a given age has three main components: (1) spatial, correlated with the location in which individuals are caught, (2) temporal, correlated with the time when individuals are caught, and (3) generational, correlated with the year of birth of the examined individuals. These variations, if present, have practical implications for individual fitness as well as for sampling, survey design, and population assessment. Disentangling these variations and understanding their sources is hard, given the potentially correlated nature of their effects on individual traits. This study examines the size-at-age relationship of the Bering Sea Pacific cod, an economically and ecologically important groundfish. We used extensive records spanning 1994 to 2016 (inclusive) of 25,213 observations of both environmental variables and catch, lengths, and ages. We found that the average size of individuals of the same age could differ up to 7 cm. Notably, we found that the cohort composition of the sampled population explained >75% of the year effect and that individuals caught in the northwest and shallower portion of the sampling area were on average 5 cm smaller than individuals caught in the southern and deeper portion. We further found that northwest movement of young cod (age 1-5) as a result of warming places individuals in areas where we predict them to have smaller size at age. Smaller and less conditioned individuals are less fecund and may not be able to perform long migrations to return to their distant spawning grounds. Both the spatial distribution and water temperature experienced by Pacific cod in the Bering Sea are changing, and this study provides a mechanism for how these changes affect Pacific cod life-history traits and individual fitness.

3.
Ecology ; 100(8): e02760, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127608

RESUMO

Common approaches for summarizing multivariate environmental or community data assume that relationships among variables are stationary over time, and this assumption is often not tested. Here we test the hypothesis that relationships among environmental and community time series are nonstationary in the Gulf of Alaska ecosystem (North Pacific Ocean) over multidecadal time scales. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is applied to environmental and community data from before and after 1988/1989, corresponding to the timing of an abrupt decline in temporal variance of the Aleutian Low atmospheric pattern, a leading driver of Gulf of Alaska climate. Results show that covariance among local atmosphere and ocean environmental variables weakened simultaneous to the decline in Aleutian Low variance. At the same time, community-wide responses of 14 fish and crustacean populations to physical forcing weakened, as indicated by nonstationary environment-biology regression coefficients. In line with theoretical predictions, this loss of a shared response to environmental variability was accompanied by weakening community covariance. Individual populations also showed nonstationary relationships with shared trends of community variability. We conclude that assumptions of fixed environmental and community relationships are likely to produce mistaken inference in this ecosystem. Similar concerns may apply in other ecosystems subject to changing climate patterns.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Alaska , Animais , Clima , Oceano Pacífico
4.
PeerJ ; 7: e6471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828489

RESUMO

Selecting an appropriate and efficient sampling strategy in biological surveys is a major concern in ecological research, particularly when the population abundance and individual traits of the sampled population are highly structured over space. Multi-stage sampling designs typically present sampling sites as primary units. However, to collect trait data, such as age or maturity, only a sub-sample of individuals collected in the sampling site is retained. Therefore, not only the sampling design, but also the sub-sampling strategy can have a major impact on important population estimates, commonly used as reference points for management and conservation. We developed a simulation framework to evaluate sub-sampling strategies from multi-stage biological surveys. Specifically, we compare quantitatively precision and bias of the population estimates obtained using two common but contrasting sub-sampling strategies: the random and the stratified designs. The sub-sampling strategy evaluation was applied to age data collection of a virtual fish population that has the same statistical and biological characteristics of the Eastern Bering Sea population of Pacific cod. The simulation scheme allowed us to incorporate contributions of several sources of error and to analyze the sensitivity of the different strategies in the population estimates. We found that, on average across all scenarios tested, the main differences between sub-sampling designs arise from the inability of the stratified design to reproduce spatial patterns of the individual traits. However, differences between the sub-sampling strategies in other population estimates may be small, particularly when large sub-sample sizes are used. On isolated scenarios (representative of specific environmental or demographic conditions), the random sub-sampling provided better precision in all population estimates analyzed. The sensitivity analysis revealed the important contribution of spatial autocorrelation in the error of population trait estimates, regardless of the sub-sampling design. This framework will be a useful tool for monitoring and assessment of natural populations with spatially structured traits in multi-stage sampling designs.

5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1890)2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404879

RESUMO

Studies of climate effects on ecology often account for non-stationarity in individual physical and biological variables, but rarely allow for non-stationary relationships among variables. Here, we show that non-stationary relationships among physical and biological variables are central to understanding climate effects on salmon (Onchorynchus spp.) in the Gulf of Alaska during 1965-2012. The relative importance of two leading patterns in North Pacific climate, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), changed around 1988/1989 as reflected by changing correlations with leading axes of sea surface temperature variability. Simultaneously, relationships between the PDO and Gulf of Alaska environmental variables weakened, and long-standing temperature-salmon and PDO-salmon covariance declined to zero. We propose a mechanistic explanation for changing climate-salmon relationships in terms of non-stationary atmosphere-ocean interactions coinciding with changing PDO-NPGO relative importance. We also show that regression models assuming stationary climate-salmon relationships are inappropriate over the multidecadal time scale we consider. Relaxing assumptions of stationary relationships markedly improved modelling of climate effects on salmon catches and productivity. Attempts to understand the implications of changing climate patterns in other ecosystems might also be aided by the application of models that allow associations among environmental and biological variables to change over time.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Pesqueiros , Salmão/fisiologia , Alaska , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Oceano Pacífico , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Front Oncol ; 8: 127, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755954

RESUMO

Background and objective: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs) have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT) clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs) pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy). Methods: Nine patients with newly diagnosed DIPG met enrollment criteria. Autologous dendritic cell vaccines (ADCV) were prepared from monocytes obtained by leukapheresis. Five ADCV doses were administered intradermally during induction phase. In the absence of tumor progression, patients received three boosts of tumor lysate every 3 months during the maintenance phase. Results: Vaccine fabrication was feasible in all patients included in the study. Non-specific KLH (9/9 patients) and specific (8/9 patients) antitumor response was identified by immunologic studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunological responses were also confirmed in the T lymphocytes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients. Vaccine administration resulted safe in all patients treated with this schema. Conclusion: These preliminary results demonstrate that ADCV preparation is feasible, safe, and generate a DIPG-specific immune response detected in PBMC and CSF. This strategy shows a promising backbone for future schemas of combination IT.

9.
Neurocir.-Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir ; 26(5): 234-240, sept.-oct. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-142309

RESUMO

La prevalencia de los quistes aracnoideos en niños es del 1-3%. Son más frecuentes en el sexo masculino. Pueden localizarse tanto en el espacio intracraneal como a nivel espinal. Los intracraneales se clasifican en supratentoriales, infratentoriales y supra-infratentoriales. Los supratentoriales se subclasifican en de fosa media, hemisféricos de la convexidad, interhemisféricos, de la región selar e intraventriculares. Los infratentoriales se subdividen a su vez en supracerebelosos, infracerebelosos, hemisféricos, clivales y de ángulo pontocerebeloso. Por último, los espinales se clasifican según su localización extra o intradural y su afectación de raíces nerviosas (AU)


The prevalence of arachnoid cysts in children is 1-3%. They are more frequent in boys. They can be located intracranially or in the spine. Intracranial cysts are classified as supratentorial, infratentorial, and supra-infratentorial (tentorial notch). Supratentorial are divided into middle cranial fossa, convexity, inter-hemisferic, sellar region, and intraventricular. Infratentorial are classified into supracerebellar, infracerebellar, hemispheric, clivus, and cerebellopontine angle. Finally spinal arachnoid cysts are classified taking into account whether they are extra- or intradural, and nerve root involvement (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Cistos Aracnóideos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Cistos Aracnóideos/classificação , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/classificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
10.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0133439, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26201075

RESUMO

Populations of the same species can experience different responses to the environment throughout their distributional range as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in habitat conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the processes governing species distribution at local scales. However, research on species distribution often averages environmental covariates across large geographic areas, missing variability in population-environment interactions within geographically distinct regions. We used spatially explicit models to identify interactions between species and environmental, including chlorophyll a (Chla) and sea surface temperature (SST), and trophic (prey density) conditions, along with processes governing the distribution of two cephalopods with contrasting life-histories (octopus and squid) across the western Mediterranean Sea. This approach is relevant for cephalopods, since their population dynamics are especially sensitive to variations in habitat conditions and rarely stable in abundance and location. The regional distributions of the two cephalopod species matched two different trophic pathways present in the western Mediterranean Sea, associated with the Gulf of Lion upwelling and the Ebro river discharges respectively. The effects of the studied environmental and trophic conditions were spatially variant in both species, with usually stronger effects along their distributional boundaries. We identify areas where prey availability limited the abundance of cephalopod populations as well as contrasting effects of temperature in the warmest regions. Despite distributional patterns matching productive areas, a general negative effect of Chla on cephalopod densities suggests that competition pressure is common in the study area. Additionally, results highlight the importance of trophic interactions, beyond other common environmental factors, in shaping the distribution of cephalopod populations. Our study presents a valuable approach for understanding the spatially variant ecology of cephalopod populations, which is important for fisheries and ecosystem management.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo
11.
Neurocirugia (Astur) ; 26(5): 234-40, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843209

RESUMO

The prevalence of arachnoid cysts in children is 1-3%. They are more frequent in boys. They can be located intracranially or in the spine. Intracranial cysts are classified as supratentorial, infratentorial, and supra-infratentorial (tentorial notch). Supratentorial are divided into middle cranial fossa, convexity, inter-hemisferic, sellar region, and intraventricular. Infratentorial are classified into supracerebellar, infracerebellar, hemispheric, clivus, and cerebellopontine angle. Finally spinal arachnoid cysts are classified taking into account whether they are extra- or intradural, and nerve root involvement.


Assuntos
Cistos Aracnóideos/classificação , Cistos Aracnóideos/epidemiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Ângulo Cerebelopontino/patologia , Criança , Fossa Craniana Posterior/patologia , Humanos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/classificação , Doenças da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia
12.
Tumour Biol ; 35(6): 5777-86, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24577895

RESUMO

DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) represents a frequent and early epigenetic event with potential applications for cancer detection and disease evolution. Our aim was to examine the stratification and prognostic biomarker role of the methylation of a novel panel of TSGs in bladder cancer. The methylation status of 18 TSGs was evaluated in bladder cancer cells (n=14) and paraffin-embedded primary bladder tumors (n=61), using a methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Recurrence, progression, and disease-specific survival were analyzed using univariate and multivariate Cox models. PRDM2, HLTF, ID4, DLC1, BNIP3, H2AFX, CACNA1G, TGIF, and CACNA1A were discovered methylated in bladder cancer. The methylation of RUNX3 (p=0.026), TWIST1 (p=0.009), SFRP4 (p=0.002), and CCND2 (p=0.027) correlated to tumor stage. Univariate analyses indicated prognostic associations for recurrence (DLC1, SFRP5, H2AFX, CACNA1G), progression (DLC1, SFRP5, CACNA1G), disease-specific (PRDM2, DLC1, SFRP5, CACNA1G, and TIMP3), and overall survival (SFRP5 and TIMP3). In multivariate analyses, several TSGs remained as independent prognosticators for recurrence (SFRP5, H2AFX), progression (CACNA1G), and disease-specific survival (SFRP5). Thus, a novel set of TSGs was identified, frequently methylated in bladder cancer cells and tumors. TSG methylation allowed histopathologic and outcome stratification using paraffin-embedded tumors. This is clinically relevant by offering a strategy for the management of patients affected with uroepithelial neoplasias in pathology routine laboratories.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inclusão em Parafina , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
14.
J Urol ; 190(2): 723-30, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23485510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Changes in DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes early in carcinogenesis represent potential indicators of cancer detection and disease evolution. We examined the diagnostic, stratification and prognostic biomarker roles in urine of the methylation of a novel panel of tumor suppressor genes in bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the methylation of 18 tumor suppressor genes in 2 prospective, independent sets of urine samples (training set of 120 preparations and validation set of 128) from patients with bladder cancer (170) and controls (78) using methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Diagnostic performance was evaluated with ROC curves. Recurrence, progression and disease specific survival were analyzed using univariate and multivariate Cox models. RESULTS: PRDM2, HLTF, ID4, DLC1, BNIP3, H2AFX, CACNA1G, TGIF and CACNA1A were methylated in bladder cancer. CCND2, SCGB3A1, BNIP3, ID4 and RUNX3 were the most frequently methylated tumor suppressor genes in each urine set. Methylation of several tumor suppressor genes correlated with clinicopathological variables, such as stage, tumor grade, focality or age. ROC analysis revealed significant diagnostic accuracy for RUNX3 and CACNA1A in the training set, and for RUNX3 and ID4 in the validation set. On univariate and multivariate analysis CACNA1A methylation correlated with recurrence in the training set, while in the validation set PRDM2 and BNIP3 were significantly associated with recurrence and disease specific survival, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor suppressor gene methylation allowed for histopathological and clinical stratification. Urine methylation has noninvasive usefulness not only for diagnostic assessment but also as independent bladder cancer prognosticators.


Assuntos
Genes Supressores de Tumor , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
15.
J Transl Med ; 8: 86, 2010 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20849603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in DNA methylation of crucial cancer genes including tumor suppressors can occur early in carcinogenesis, being potentially important early indicators of cancer. The objective of this study was to examine a multiplexed approach to assess the methylation of tumor suppressor genes as tumor stratification and clinical outcome prognostic biomarkers for lung cancer. METHODS: A multicandidate probe panel interrogated DNA for aberrant methylation status in 18 tumor suppressor genes in lung cancer using a methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Lung cancer cell lines (n = 7), and primary lung tumors (n = 54) were examined using MS-MLPA. RESULTS: Genes frequently methylated in lung cancer cell lines including SCGB3A1, ID4, CCND2 were found among the most commonly methylated in the lung tumors analyzed. HLTF, BNIP3, H2AFX, CACNA1G, TGIF, ID4 and CACNA1A were identified as novel tumor suppressor candidates methylated in lung tumors. The most frequently methylated genes in lung tumors were SCGB3A1 and DLC1 (both 50.0%). Methylation rates for ID4, DCL1, BNIP3, H2AFX, CACNA1G and TIMP3 were significantly different between squamous and adenocarcinomas. Methylation of RUNX3, SCGB3A1, SFRP4, and DLC1 was significantly associated with the extent of the disease when comparing localized versus metastatic tumors. Moreover, methylation of HTLF, SFRP5 and TIMP3 were significantly associated with overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: MS-MLPA can be used for classification of certain types of lung tumors and clinical outcome prediction. This latter is clinically relevant by offering an adjunct strategy for the clinical management of lung cancer patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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