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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancers, most centers rely on mismatch repair testing of the endometrial cancer to identify Lynch syndrome, and neglect the ovarian tumor site completely. We examined the mismatch repair immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability results from the endometrium and ovary to assess discordance between the tumor sites and between tests. METHODS: 30 women with newly diagnosed synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer were prospectively recruited from three cancer centers in Ontario, Canada. Both tumor sites were assessed for mismatch repair deficiency by immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability test; discordance in results between tumor sites and discordance between test results at each site was examined. Cases with discordant results had tumors sequenced with a targeted panel in order to reconcile the findings. All women underwent mismatch repair gene germline testing. RESULTS: Of 30 patients, 11 (37%) were mismatch repair deficient or microsatellite instable at either tumor site, with 5 (17%) testing positive for Lynch syndrome. Mismatch repair immunohistochemistry expression was discordant between endometrial and ovarian tumor sites in 2 of 27 patients (7%) while microsatellite instability results were discordant in 2 of 25 patients (8%). Relying on immunohistochemistry or microsatellite instability alone on the endometrial tumor would have missed one and three cases of Lynch syndrome, respectively. One patient with Lynch syndrome with a PMS2 pathogenic variant was not detected by either immunohistochemistry or microsatellite instability testing. The rate of discordance between immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability test was 3.8% in the ovary and 12% in the endometrium. CONCLUSIONS: There was discordance in immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability results between tumor sites and between tests within each site. Endometrial tumor testing with mismatch repair immunohistochemistry performed well, but missed one case of Lynch syndrome. Given the high incidence of Lynch syndrome (17%), consideration may be given to germline testing in all patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancers.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(12): e28758, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047872

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy, specifically circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection, has started to revolutionize the clinical management of patients with cancer by surpassing many limitations of traditional tissue biopsies, particularly for serial testing. ctDNA sequencing has been successfully utilized for cancer detection, prognostication, and assessment of disease response and evolution. While the applications of ctDNA analysis are growing, the majority of studies to date have primarily evaluated its use as a tool for tracking a known cancer, and in most cases at advanced stage. Herein, we discuss the potential application of ctDNA for surveillance and early cancer detection in patients with a cancer predisposition syndrome.

3.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025139

RESUMO

Schwannomatosis (SWNTS) is a genetic cancer predisposition syndrome that manifests as multiple and often painful neuronal tumors called schwannomas (SWNs). While germline mutations in SMARCB1 or LZTR1, plus somatic mutations in NF2 and loss of heterozygosity in chromosome 22q have been identified in a subset of patients, little is known about the epigenomic and genomic alterations that drive SWNTS-related SWNs (SWNTS-SWNs) in a majority of the cases. We performed multiplatform genomic analysis and established the molecular signature of SWNTS-SWNs. We show that SWNTS-SWNs harbor distinct genomic features relative to the histologically identical non-syndromic sporadic SWNs (NS-SWNS). We demonstrate the existence of four distinct DNA methylation subgroups of SWNTS-SWNs that are associated with specific transcriptional programs and tumor location. We show several novel recurrent non-22q deletions and structural rearrangements. We detected the SH3PXD2A-HTRA1 gene fusion in SWNTS-SWNs, with predominance in LZTR1-mutant tumors. In addition, we identified specific genetic, epigenetic, and actionable transcriptional programs associated with painful SWNTS-SWNs including PIGF, VEGF, MEK, and MTOR pathways, which may be harnessed for management of this syndrome.

5.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106333

RESUMO

Cancer cells can metabolize glutamine to replenish TCA cycle intermediates, leading to a dependence on glutaminolysis for cell survival. However, a mechanistic understanding of the role that glutamine metabolism has on the survival of glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor stem cells (BTSC) has not yet been elucidated. Here we report that, across a panel of 19 glioblastoma BTSC lines, inhibition of glutaminase (GLS) showed a variable response from complete blockade of cell growth to absolute resistance. Surprisingly, BTSC sensitivity to GLS inhibition was a result of reduced intracellular glutamate triggering the amino acid deprivation response (AADR) and not due to the contribution of glutaminolysis to the TCA cycle. Moreover, BTSC sensitivity to GLS inhibition negatively correlated with expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2. Blocking glutamate transport in BTSCs with high EAAT1/EAAT2 expression rendered cells susceptible to GLS inhibition, triggering the AADR and limiting cell growth. These findings uncover a unique metabolic vulnerability in BTSCs and support the therapeutic targeting of upstream activators and downstream effectors of the AADR pathway in GBM. Moreover, they demonstrate that gene expression patterns reflecting the cellular hierarchy of the tissue of origin can alter the metabolic requirements of the cancer stem cell population.

6.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065633

RESUMO

: Transplant oncology defines any application of transplant medicine and surgery aimed at improving cancer patients' survival and/or quality of life. In practice, liver transplantation for selected hepato-biliary cancers is the only solid organ transplant with demonstrated efficacy in curing cancer. Four are the proposed future contributions of transplant oncology in hepato-biliary cancer (4-e). 1. evolutionary approach to cancer care that includes liver transplantation; 2. elucidation of self and non-self recognition systems, by linking tumor and transplant immunology; 3. exploration of innovative endpoints both in clinical and experimental settings taking advantage from the access to the entire liver explant; 4. extension of surgical limitation in the multidisciplinary approach to hepato-biliary oncology. The aim of this review is to define the principles of transplant oncology that may be applied to hepato-biliary cancer treatment and research, attempting to balance current evidences with future opportunities.

7.
Cell Syst ; 11(4): 393-401.e2, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937114

RESUMO

Genomic instability affects the reproducibility of experiments that rely on cancer cell lines. However, measuring the genomic integrity of these cells throughout a study is a costly endeavor that is commonly forgone. Here, we validate the identity of cancer cell lines in three pharmacogenomic studies and screen for genetic drift within and between datasets. Using SNP data from these datasets encompassing 1,497 unique cell lines and 63 unique pharmacological compounds, we show that genetic drift is widely prevalent in almost all cell lines with a median of 4.5%-6.1% of the total genome size drifted between any two isogenic cell lines. This study highlights the need for molecular profiling of cell lines to minimize the effects of passaging or misidentification in biomedical studies. We developed the CCLid web application, available at www.cclid.ca, to allow users to screen the genomic profiles of their cell lines against these datasets. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the Supplemental Information.

8.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 811-821, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Applications of deep learning to histopathology have proven capable of expert-level performance, but approaches have largely focused on supervised classification tasks requiring context-specific training and deployment. More generalizable workflows that can be easily shared across subspecialties could help accelerate and broaden adoption. Here, we hypothesized that histology-optimized feature representations, generated by a convolutional neural network (CNN) during supervised learning, are transferable and can resolve meaningful differences in large-scale, discovery-type unsupervised analyses. METHODS: We used a CNN, previously trained to recognize brain tumor histomorphologies, to extract 512 feature representations from > 550 digital whole-slide images (WSIs) of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) from The Cancer Genome Atlas and other previously unencountered tumors. We use these extracted feature vectors to conduct unsupervised image-set clustering and analyze the clinical and biologic relevance of the intra- and interpatient subgroups generated. RESULTS: Within individual WSIs, feature-based clustering could reliably segment tumor regions and other relevant histopathologic subpatterns (eg, adenosquamous and poorly differentiated regions). Across the larger RCC cohorts, clustering extracted features generated subgroups enriched for clinically relevant subtypes (eg, papillary RCC) and outcomes (eg, survival). Importantly, individual feature activation mapping highlighted salient subtype-specific patterns and features of malignancies (eg, nuclear grade, sarcomatous change) contributing to subgroupings. Moreover, some proposed clusters were enriched for recurring, human-based RCC-subtype misclassifications. CONCLUSION: Our data support that CNNs, pretrained on large histologic datasets, can extend learned representations to novel scenarios and resolve clinically relevant intra- and interpatient tissue-pattern differences without explicit instruction or additional optimization. Repositioning of existing histology-educated networks could provide scalable approaches for image classification, quality assurance, and discovery of unappreciated patterns and subgroups of disease.

9.
Cancer ; 126(22): 4886-4894, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For women with ovarian cancer (OC), the optimal screening strategy to identify Lynch syndrome (LS) has not been determined. In the current study, the authors compared the performance characteristics of various strategies combining mismatch repair (MMR) immunohistochemistry (IHC), microsatellite instability testing (MSI), and family history for the detection of LS. METHODS: Women with nonserous and/or nonmucinous ovarian cancer were recruited prospectively from 3 cancer centers in Ontario, Canada. All underwent germline testing for LS and completed a family history assessment. Tumors were assessed using MMR IHC and MSI. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of screening strategies were compared with the gold standard of a germline result. RESULTS: Of 215 women, germline data were available for 189 (88%); 13 women (7%) had pathogenic germline variants with 7 women with mutS homolog 6 (MSH6); 3 women with mutL homolog 1 (MLH1); 2 women with PMS1 homolog 2, mismatch repair system component (PMS2); and 1 woman with mutS homolog 2 (MSH2). A total of 28 women had MMR-deficient tumors (13%); of these, 11 had pathogenic variants (39%). Sequential IHC (with MLH1 promoter methylation analysis on MLH1-deficient tumors) followed by MSI for nonmethylated and/or MMR-intact patients was the most sensitive (92.3%; 95% confidence interval, 64%-99.8%) and specific (97.7%; 95% confidence interval, 94.2%-99.4%) approach, missing 1 case of LS. IHC with MLH1 promoter methylation analysis missed 2 patients of LS. Family history was found to have the lowest sensitivity at 55%. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential IHC (with MLH1 promoter methylation analysis) followed by MSI was found to be most sensitive. However, IHC with MLH1 promoter methylation analysis also performed well and is likely more cost-effective and efficient in the clinical setting. The pretest probability of LS is high in patients with MMR deficiency and warrants universal screening for LS.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4323, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859895

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB) is defined by four molecular subgroups (Wnt, Shh, Group 3, Group 4) with Wnt MB having the most favorable prognosis. Since prior reports have illustrated the antitumorigenic role of Wnt activation in Shh MB, we aimed to assess the effects of activated canonical Wnt signaling in Group 3 and 4 MBs. By using primary patient-derived MB brain tumor-initiating cell (BTIC) lines, we characterize differences in the tumor-initiating capacity of Wnt, Group 3, and Group 4 MB. With single cell RNA-seq technology, we demonstrate the presence of rare Wnt-active cells in non-Wnt MBs, which functionally retain the impaired tumorigenic potential of Wnt MB. In treating MB xenografts with a Wnt agonist, we provide a rational therapeutic option in which the protective effects of Wnt-driven MBs may be augmented in Group 3 and 4 MB and thereby support emerging data for a context-dependent tumor suppressive role for Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Proteínas Wnt/farmacologia , Proteínas Wnt/uso terapêutico , Animais , Carcinogênese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/genética , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/uso terapêutico
11.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials of lutetium prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have demonstrated good safety and efficacy, but combination strategies may improve outcomes. Idronoxil is a synthetic flavonoid derivative with radiosensitising properties. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and activity of 177Lu PSMA 617 (LuPSMA-617) in combination with idronoxil suppositories (NOX66) in patients with end-stage mCRPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two men with progressive mCRPC previously treated with taxane-based chemotherapy (91% treated with both docetaxel and cabazitaxel) and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide were enrolled in this phase I dose escalation study with phase II dose expansion. INTERVENTION: Screening with 68Ga PSMA and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) was performed. Men received up to six cycles of LuPSMA-617 (7.5 GBq) on day 1, with escalating doses of NOX66 on days 1-10 of a 6-wk cycle. Cohort 1 (n = 8) received 400 mg and cohort 2 (n = 24) 800 mg of NOX66. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Adverse events (AEs), pain inventory scores, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Fifty-six men were screened and 32 (57%) were enrolled with a screen failure rate of 21% for PET imaging criteria. Dosing was as follows: 97% (31/32) received two or more doses and 47% (15/32) completed six doses. Common AEs included xerostomia, fatigue, and anaemia. Anal irritation attributable to NOX66 occurred in 28%. PSA responses were as follows: 91% (29/32) had any PSA response (median -74%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 76-97) and 62.5% (20/32) had a PSA fall of >50% (95% CI 45-77). The median PSA progression-free survival was 6.1 mo (95% CI 2.8-9.2) and median overall survival was 17.1 mo (95% CI 6.5-27.1). CONCLUSIONS: NOX66 with LuPSMA-617 is a safe and feasible therapeutic strategy in men treated with third-line therapy and beyond for mCRPC. PATIENT SUMMARY: Addition of NOX66 to 177Lu prostate-specific membrane antigen 617 is safe, and further studies are needed to assess its potential to augment the anticancer effects of LuPSMA-617.

12.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether administration of the oral DNA hypomethylating agent CC-486 enhances the poor response rate of immunologically 'cold' solid tumors to immune checkpoint inhibitor durvalumab. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PD-L1/PD-1 inhibitor naïve patients with advanced microsatellite stable colorectal cancer; platinum resistant ovarian cancer; and estrogen receptor positive, HER2 negative breast cancer were enrolled in this single-institution, investigator-initiated trial. Two 28 day regimens, regimen A (CC-486 300 mg QD Days 1-14 (cycles 1-3 only) in combination with durvalumab 1500 mg intravenous day 15) and regimen B (CC-486 100 mg QD days 1-21 (cycle 1 and beyond), vitamin C 500 mg once a day continuously and durvalumab 1500 mg intravenous day 15) were investigated. Patients underwent paired tumor biopsies and serial peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collection for immune-profiling, transcriptomic and epigenomic analyzes. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were enrolled, 19 patients treated on regimen A and 9 on regimen B. The combination of CC-486 and durvalumab was tolerable. Regimen B, with a lower dose of CC-486 extended over a longer treatment course, showed less grade 3/4 adverse effects. Global LINE-1 methylation assessment of serial PBMCs and genome-wide DNA methylation profile in paired tumor biopsies demonstrated minimal changes in global methylation in both regimens. The lack of robust tumor DNA demethylation was accompanied by an absence of the expected 'viral mimicry' inflammatory response, and consequently, no clinical responses were observed. The disease control rate was 7.1%. The median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (95% CI 1.5 to 2.3) and median overall survival was 5 months (95% CI 4.5 to 10). CONCLUSIONS: The evaluated treatment schedules of CC-486 in combination with durvalumab did not demonstrate robust pharmacodynamic or clinical activity in selected immunologically cold solid tumors. Lessons learned from this biomarker-rich study should inform continued drug development efforts using these agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02811497.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(19): 5140-5152, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab improved survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aims of this study were to determine if pembrolizumab would be safe, result in pathologic tumor response (pTR), and lower the relapse rate in patients with resectable human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated HNSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Neoadjuvant pembrolizumab (200 mg) was administered and followed 2 to 3 weeks later by surgical tumor ablation. Postoperative (chemo)radiation was planned. Patients with high-risk pathology (positive margins and/or extranodal extension) received adjuvant pembrolizumab. pTR was quantified as the proportion of the resection bed with tumor necrosis, keratinous debris, and giant cells/histiocytes: pTR-0 (<10%), pTR-1 (10%-49%), and pTR-2 (≥50%). Coprimary endpoints were pTR-2 among all patients and 1-year relapse rate in patients with high-risk pathology (historical: 35%). Correlations of baseline PD-L1 and T-cell infiltration with pTR were assessed. Tumor clonal dynamics were evaluated (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02296684). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients enrolled. After neoadjuvant pembrolizumab, serious (grades 3-4) adverse events and unexpected surgical delays/complications did not occur. pTR-2 occurred in eight patients (22%), and pTR-1 in eight other patients (22%). One-year relapse rate among 18 patients with high-risk pathology was 16.7% (95% confidence interval, 3.6%-41.4%). pTR ≥10% correlated with baseline tumor PD-L1, immune infiltrate, and IFNγ activity. Matched samples showed upregulation of inhibitory checkpoints in patients with pTR-0 and confirmed clonal loss in some patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with locally advanced, HPV-unrelated HNSCC, pembrolizumab was safe, and any pathologic response was observed in 44% of patients with 0% pathologic complete responses. The 1-year relapse rate in patients with high-risk pathology was lower than historical.

14.
Leukemia ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665698

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that is often driven by chromosomal translocations. In particular, patients with t(4;14)-positive disease have worse prognosis compared to other MM subtypes. Herein, we demonstrated that t(4;14)-positive cells are highly dependent on the mevalonate (MVA) pathway for survival. Moreover, we showed that this metabolic vulnerability is immediately actionable, as inhibiting the MVA pathway with a statin preferentially induced apoptosis in t(4;14)-positive cells. In response to statin treatment, t(4;14)-positive cells activated the integrated stress response (ISR), which was augmented by co-treatment with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor. We identified that t(4;14)-positive cells depend on the MVA pathway for the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), as exogenous GGPP fully rescued statin-induced ISR activation and apoptosis. Inhibiting protein geranylgeranylation similarly induced the ISR in t(4;14)-positive cells, suggesting that this subtype of MM depends on GGPP, at least in part, for protein geranylgeranylation. Notably, fluvastatin treatment synergized with bortezomib to induce apoptosis in t(4;14)-positive cells and potentiated the anti-tumor activity of bortezomib in vivo. Our data implicate the t(4;14) translocation as a biomarker of statin sensitivity and warrant further clinical evaluation of a statin in combination with bortezomib for the treatment of t(4;14)-positive disease.

15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(W1): W372-W379, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479601

RESUMO

CReSCENT: CanceR Single Cell ExpressioN Toolkit (https://crescent.cloud), is an intuitive and scalable web portal incorporating a containerized pipeline execution engine for standardized analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. While scRNA-seq data for tumour specimens are readily generated, subsequent analysis requires high-performance computing infrastructure and user expertise to build analysis pipelines and tailor interpretation for cancer biology. CReSCENT uses public data sets and preconfigured pipelines that are accessible to computational biology non-experts and are user-editable to allow optimization, comparison, and reanalysis for specific experiments. Users can also upload their own scRNA-seq data for analysis and results can be kept private or shared with other users.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Software , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(16): 4206-4215, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444417

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are standard-of-care therapy for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). We investigated combining cediranib (antiangiogenic) with olaparib (PARPi) at emergence of PARPi resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The proof-of-concept EVOLVE study (NCT02681237) assessed cediranib-olaparib combination therapy after progression on a PARPi. Women with HGSOC and radiographic evidence of disease progression were enrolled into one of three cohorts: platinum sensitive after PARPi; platinum resistant after PARPi; or progression on standard chemotherapy after progression on PARPi (exploratory cohort). Patients received olaparib tablets 300 mg twice daily with cediranib 20 mg once daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The coprimary endpoints were objective response rate (RECIST v1.1) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 16 weeks. Archival tissue (PARPi-naïve) and baseline biopsy (post-PARPi) samples were mandatory. Genomic mechanisms of resistance were assessed by whole-exome and RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Among 34 heavily pretreated patients, objective responses were observed in 0 of 11 (0%) platinum-sensitive patients, 2 of 10 (20%) platinum-resistant patients, and 1 of 13 (8%) in the exploratory cohort. Sixteen-week PFS rates were 55%, 50%, and 39%, respectively. The most common grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea (12%) and anemia (9%). Acquired genomic alterations at PARPi progression were reversion mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or RAD51B (19%); CCNE1 amplification (16%); ABCB1 upregulation (15%); and SLFN11 downregulation (7%). Patients with reversion mutations in homologous recombination genes and/or ABCB1 upregulation had poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This is currently the largest post-PARPi study identifying genomic mechanisms of resistance to PARPis. In this setting, the activity of cediranib-olaparib varied according to the PARPi resistance mechanism.

17.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(10): 1474-1483, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both genetic and methylation analysis have been shown to provide insight into the diagnosis and prognosis of many brain tumors. However, the implication of methylation profiling and its interaction with genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are unclear. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive analysis of PLGG with long-term clinical follow-up. In total 152 PLGGs were analyzed from a range of pathological subtypes, including 40 gangliogliomas. Complete molecular analysis was compared with genome-wide methylation data and outcome in all patients. For further analysis of specific PLGG groups, including BRAF p.V600E mutant gliomas, we compiled an additional cohort of clinically and genetically defined tumors from 3 large centers. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed 5 novel subgroups of PLGG. These were dominated by nonneoplastic factors such as tumor location and lymphocytic infiltration. Midline PLGG clustered together while deep hemispheric lesions differed from lesions in the periphery. Mutations were distributed throughout these location-driven clusters of PLGG. A novel methylation cluster suggesting high lymphocyte infiltration was confirmed pathologically and exhibited worse progression-free survival compared with PLGG harboring similar molecular alterations (P = 0.008; multivariate analysis: P = 0.035). Although the current methylation classifier revealed low confidence in 44% of cases and failed to add information in most PLGG, it was helpful in reclassifying rare cases. The addition of histopathological and molecular information to specific methylation subgroups such as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-like tumors could stratify these tumors into low and high risk (P = 0.0014). CONCLUSION: The PLGG methylome is affected by multiple nonneoplastic factors. Combined molecular and pathological analysis is key to provide additional information when methylation classification is used for PLGG in the clinical setting.

18.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 38, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PANETs) are rare, slow growing cancers that often present with local and distant metastasis upon detection. PANETS contain distinct karyotypes, epigenetic dysregulation, and recurrent mutations in MEN1, ATRX, and DAXX (MAD+); however, the molecular basis of disease progression remains uncharacterized. METHODS: We evaluated associations between aneuploidy and the MAD+ mutational state of 532 PANETs from 11 published genomic studies and 19 new cases using a combination of exome, targeted panel, shallow WGS, or RNA-seq. We mapped the molecular timing of MAD+ PANET progression using cellular fractions corrected for inferred tumor content. RESULTS: In 287 PANETs with mutational data, MAD+ tumors always exhibited a highly recurrent signature of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and copy-number alterations affecting 11 chromosomes, typically followed by genome doubling upon metastasis. These LOH chromosomes substantially overlap with those that undergo non-random mis-segregation due to ectopic CENP-A localization to flanking centromeric regions in DAXX-depleted cell lines. Using expression data from 122 PANETs, we found decreased gene expression in the regions immediately adjacent to the centromere in MAD+ PANETs. Using 43 PANETs from AACR GENIE, we inferred this signature to be preceded by mutations in MEN1, ATRX, and DAXX. We conducted a meta-analysis on 226 PANETs from 8 CGH studies to show an association of this signature with metastatic incidence. Our study shows that MAD+ tumors are a genetically diverse and aggressive subtype of PANETs that display extensive chromosomal loss after MAD+ mutation, which is followed by genome doubling. CONCLUSIONS: We propose an evolutionary model for a subset of aggressive PANETs that is initiated by mutation of MEN1, ATRX, and DAXX, resulting in defects in centromere cohesion from ectopic CENP-A deposition that leads to selective loss of chromosomes and the LOH phenotype seen in late-stage metastatic PANETs. These insights aid in disease risk stratification and nominate potential therapeutic vulnerabilities to treat this disease.

19.
Elife ; 92020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314731

RESUMO

HLA-restricted T cell responses can induce antitumor effects in cancer patients. Previous human T cell research has largely focused on the few HLA alleles prevalent in a subset of ethnic groups. Here, using a panel of newly developed peptide-exchangeable peptide/HLA multimers and artificial antigen-presenting cells for 25 different class I alleles and greater than 800 peptides, we systematically and comprehensively mapped shared antigenic epitopes recognized by tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) from eight melanoma patients for all their class I alleles. We were able to determine the specificity, on average, of 12.2% of the TILs recognizing a mean of 3.1 shared antigen-derived epitopes across HLA-A, B, and C. Furthermore, we isolated a number of cognate T cell receptor genes with tumor reactivity. Our novel strategy allows for a more complete examination of the immune response and development of novel cancer immunotherapy not limited by HLA allele prevalence or tumor mutation burden.

20.
Science ; 367(6483): 1264-1269, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165588

RESUMO

In most human cancers, only a few genes are mutated at high frequencies; most are mutated at low frequencies. The functional consequences of these recurrent but infrequent "long tail" mutations are often unknown. We focused on 484 long tail genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and used in vivo CRISPR to screen for genes that, upon mutation, trigger tumor development in mice. Of the 15 tumor-suppressor genes identified, ADAM10 and AJUBA suppressed HNSCC in a haploinsufficient manner by promoting NOTCH receptor signaling. ADAM10 and AJUBA mutations or monoallelic loss occur in 28% of human HNSCC cases and are mutually exclusive with NOTCH receptor mutations. Our results show that oncogenic mutations in 67% of human HNSCC cases converge onto the NOTCH signaling pathway, making NOTCH inactivation a hallmark of HNSCC.


Assuntos
Genes Supressores de Tumor , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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