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1.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521748

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), also named the Cantonese cancer, is a unique cancer with strong etiological association with infection of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). With particularly high prevalence in Southeast Asia, the involvement of EBV and genetic aberrations contributive to NPC tumorigenesis have remained unclear for decades. Recently, genomic analysis of NPC has defined it as a genetically homogeneous cancer, driven largely by NF-κB signaling caused by either somatic aberrations of NF-κB negative regulators or by overexpression of the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), an EBV viral oncoprotein. This represents a landmark finding of the NPC genome. Exome and RNA sequencing data from new EBV-positive NPC models also highlight the importance of PI3K pathway aberrations in NPC. We also realize for the first time that NPC mutational burden, mutational signatures, MAPK/PI3K aberrations, and MHC Class I gene aberrations, are prognostic for patient outcome. Together, these multiple genomic discoveries begin to shape the focus of NPC therapy development. Given the challenge of NF-κB targeting in human cancers, more innovative drug discovery approaches should be explored to target the unique atypical NF-κB activation feature of NPC. Our next decade of NPC research should focus on further identification of the -omic landscapes of recurrent and metastatic NPC, development of gene-based precision medicines, as well as large-scale drug screening with the newly developed and well-characterized EBV-positive NPC models. Focused preclinical and clinical investigations on these major directions may identify new and effective targeting strategies to further improve survival of NPC patients.

2.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508207

RESUMO

Background: Identification of cell type subpopulations from complex cell mixtures using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data includes automated computational steps like data normalization, dimensionality reduction and cell clustering. However, assigning cell type labels to cell clusters is still conducted manually by most researchers, resulting in limited documentation, low reproducibility and uncontrolled vocabularies. Two bottlenecks to automating this task are the scarcity of reference cell type gene expression signatures and the fact that some dedicated methods are available only as web servers with limited cell type gene expression signatures. Methods: In this study, we benchmarked four methods (CIBERSORT, GSEA, GSVA, and ORA) for the task of assigning cell type labels to cell clusters from scRNA-seq data. We used scRNA-seq datasets from liver, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and retinal neurons for which reference cell type gene expression signatures were available. Results: Our results show that, in general, all four methods show a high performance in the task as evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (average area under the curve (AUC) = 0.94, sd = 0.036), whereas precision-recall curve analyses show a wide variation depending on the method and dataset (average AUC = 0.53, sd = 0.24). Conclusions: CIBERSORT and GSVA were the top two performers. Additionally, GSVA was the fastest of the four methods and was more robust in cell type gene expression signature subsampling simulations. We provide an extensible framework to evaluate other methods and datasets at https://github.com/jdime/scRNAseq_cell_cluster_labeling.

3.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 19(8): 420-438, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300807

RESUMO

The spectrum of tumours arising in childhood is fundamentally different from that seen in adults, and they are known to be divergent from adult malignancies in terms of cellular origins, epidemiology, genetic complexity, driver mutations and underlying mutational processes. Despite the immense knowledge generated through sequencing efforts and functional characterization of identified (epi-)genetic alterations over the past decade, the clinical implications of this knowledge have so far been limited. Novel preclinical platforms such as the European Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer-Paediatric Preclinical Proof-of-Concept Platform and the US-based Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium are being developed to try to change this by aiming to recapitulate the extensive heterogeneity of paediatric tumours and thereby, hopefully, improve the ability to predict clinical benefit. Numerous studies have also been established worldwide to provide patients with access to real-time molecular profiling and the possibility of more precise mechanism-of-action-based treatments. In addition to tumour-intrinsic findings and mechanisms, ongoing studies are investigating features such as the immune microenvironment of paediatric tumours in comparison with adult cancers - currently of very timely clinical relevance. However, there is an ongoing need for rigorous preclinical biomarker and target validation to feed into the next generation of molecularly stratified clinical trials. This Review aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the molecular landscape of paediatric solid tumours, including their underlying genomic alterations and interactions with the microenvironment, complemented with our current understanding of potential therapeutic vulnerabilities and how these can be preclinically tested using more accurate predictive methods. Finally, we provide an outlook on the challenges and opportunities associated with translating this overwhelming scientific progress into real clinical benefit.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 121(4): 318-324, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CFI-400945 is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) that regulates centriole duplication. Primary objectives of this first-in-human phase 1 trial were to establish the safety and tolerability of CFI-400945 in patients with advanced solid tumours. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). METHODS: Continuous daily oral dosing of CFI-400945 was evaluated using a 3+3 design guided by incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in the first 28-day cycle. Safety was assessed by CTCAE v4.0. ORR and CBR were evaluated using RECIST v1.1. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were treated in dose escalation from 3 to 96 mg/day, and 9 were treated in 64 mg dose expansion. After DLT occurred at 96 and 72 mg, 64 mg was established as the RP2D. Neutropenia was a common high-grade (19%) treatment-related adverse event at ≥ 64 mg. Half-life of CFI-400945 was 9 h, with Cmax achieved 2-4 h following dosing. One PR (45 cycles, ongoing) and two SD ≥ 6 months were observed (ORR = 2%; CBR = 6%). CONCLUSIONS: CFI-400945 is well tolerated at 64 mg with dose-dependent neutropenia. Favourable pharmacokinetic profiles were achieved with daily dosing. Response rates were low without biomarker pre-selection. Disease-specific and combination studies are ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registration Number - NCT01954316 (Oct 1st, 2013).

5.
Genome Res ; 29(8): 1211-1222, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249064

RESUMO

We investigated the role of 3D genome architecture in instructing functional properties of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) by generating sub-5-kb resolution 3D genome maps by in situ Hi-C. Contact maps at sub-5-kb resolution allow identification of individual DNA loops, domain organization, and large-scale genome compartmentalization. We observed differences in looping architectures among GSCs from different patients, suggesting that 3D genome architecture is a further layer of inter-patient heterogeneity for glioblastoma. Integration of DNA contact maps with chromatin and transcriptional profiles identified specific mechanisms of gene regulation, including the convergence of multiple super enhancers to individual stemness genes within individual cells. We show that the number of loops contacting a gene correlates with elevated transcription. These results indicate that stemness genes are hubs of interaction between multiple regulatory regions, likely to ensure their sustained expression. Regions of open chromatin common among the GSCs tested were poised for expression of immune-related genes, including CD276 We demonstrate that this gene is co-expressed with stemness genes in GSCs and that CD276 can be targeted with an antibody-drug conjugate to eliminate self-renewing cells. Our results demonstrate that integrated structural genomics data sets can be employed to rationally identify therapeutic vulnerabilities in self-renewing cells.

6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(15): e87, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127310

RESUMO

Detection of cancer-associated somatic mutations has broad applications for oncology and precision medicine. However, this becomes challenging when cancer-derived DNA is in low abundance, such as in impure tissue specimens or in circulating cell-free DNA. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is particularly prone to technical artefacts that can limit the accuracy for calling low-allele-frequency mutations. State-of-the-art methods to improve detection of low-frequency mutations often employ unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) for error suppression; however, these methods are highly inefficient as they depend on redundant sequencing to assemble consensus sequences. Here, we present a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of UMI-based error suppression by retaining single reads (singletons) that can participate in consensus assembly. This 'Singleton Correction' methodology outperformed other UMI-based strategies in efficiency, leading to greater sensitivity with high specificity in a cell line dilution series. Significant benefits were seen with Singleton Correction at sequencing depths ≤16 000×. We validated the utility and generalizability of this approach in a cohort of >300 individuals whose peripheral blood DNA was subjected to hybrid capture sequencing at ∼5000× depth. Singleton Correction can be incorporated into existing UMI-based error suppression workflows to boost mutation detection accuracy, thus improving the cost-effectiveness and clinical impact of NGS.

8.
Cancer Res ; 79(9): 2111-2123, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877103

RESUMO

Pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM) is a lethal cancer with no effective therapies. To understand the mechanisms of tumor evolution in this cancer, we performed whole-genome sequencing with linked reads on longitudinally resected pGBM samples. Our analyses showed that all diagnostic and recurrent samples were collections of genetically diverse subclones. Clonal composition rapidly evolved at recurrence, with less than 8% of nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants being shared in diagnostic-recurrent pairs. To track the origins of the mutational events observed in pGBM, we generated whole-genome datasets for two patients and their parents. These trios showed that genetic variants could be (i) somatic, (ii) inherited from a healthy parent, or (iii) de novo in the germlines of pGBM patients. Analysis of variant allele frequencies supported a model of tumor growth involving slow-cycling cancer stem cells that give rise to fast-proliferating progenitor-like cells and to nondividing cells. Interestingly, radiation and antimitotic chemotherapeutics did not increase overall tumor burden upon recurrence. These findings support an important role for slow-cycling stem cell populations in contributing to recurrences, because slow-cycling cell populations are expected to be less prone to genotoxic stress induced by these treatments and therefore would accumulate few mutations. Our results highlight the need for new targeted treatments that account for the complex functional hierarchies and genomic heterogeneity of pGBM. SIGNIFICANCE: This work challenges several assumptions regarding the genetic organization of pediatric GBM and highlights mutagenic programs that start during early prenatal development.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/9/2111/F1.large.jpg.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 72, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) demonstrate unprecedented efficacy in multiple malignancies; however, the mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance are poorly understood and predictive biomarkers are scarce. INSPIRE is a phase 2 basket study to evaluate the genomic and immune landscapes of peripheral blood and tumors following pembrolizumab treatment. METHODS: Patients with incurable, locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors that have progressed on standard therapy, or for whom no standard therapy exists or standard therapy was not deemed appropriate, received 200 mg pembrolizumab intravenously every three weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected at baseline, during treatment, and at progression. One core biopsy was used for immunohistochemistry and the remaining cores were pooled and divided for genomic and immune analyses. Univariable analysis of clinical, genomic, and immunophenotyping parameters was conducted to evaluate associations with treatment response in this exploratory analysis. RESULTS: Eighty patients were enrolled from March 21, 2016 to June 1, 2017, and 129 tumor and 382 blood samples were collected. Immune biomarkers were significantly different between the blood and tissue. T cell PD-1 was blocked (≥98%) in the blood of all patients by the third week of treatment. In the tumor, 5/11 (45%) and 11/14 (79%) patients had T cell surface PD-1 occupance at weeks six and nine, respectively. The proportion of genome copy number alterations and abundance of intratumoral 4-1BB+ PD-1+ CD8 T cells at baseline (P < 0.05), and fold-expansion of intratumoral CD8 T cells from baseline to cycle 2-3 (P < 0.05) were associated with treatment response. CONCLUSION: This study provides technical feasibility data for correlative studies. Tissue biopsies provide distinct data from the blood and may predict response to pembrolizumab.

10.
Blood Adv ; 2(23): 3506-3514, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530777

RESUMO

Mature T-cell lymphomas consisting of an expanded clonal population of T cells that possess common rearrangements of the T-cell receptor (TCR) encoding genes can be identified and monitored using molecular methods of T-cell repertoire analysis. We have developed a hybrid-capture method that enriches DNA sequencing libraries for fragments encoding rearranged TCR genes from all 4 loci in a single reaction. We use this method to describe the TCR repertoires of 63 putative lymphoma clinical isolates, 7 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations, and a collection of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Dominant Variable (V) and Joining (J) gene pair rearrangements in cancer cells were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing; clonality assessment of clinical isolates using BIOMED-2 methods showed agreement for 73% and 77% of samples at the ß and γ loci, respectively, whereas ß locus V and J allele prevalence in PBMCs were well correlated with results from commercial PCR-based DNA sequencing assays (r 2 = 0.94 with Adaptive ImmunoSEQ, 0.77-0.83 with Invivoscribe LymphoTrack TRB Assay). CapTCR-seq allows for rapid, high-throughput and flexible characterization of dominant clones within TCR repertoire that will facilitate quantitative analysis of patient samples and enhance sensitivity of tumor surveillance over time.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Biblioteca Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico do Linfócito T/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células T/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo
11.
Nature ; 563(7732): 579-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429608

RESUMO

The use of liquid biopsies for cancer detection and management is rapidly gaining prominence1. Current methods for the detection of circulating tumour DNA involve sequencing somatic mutations using cell-free DNA, but the sensitivity of these methods may be low among patients with early-stage cancer given the limited number of recurrent mutations2-5. By contrast, large-scale epigenetic alterations-which are tissue- and cancer-type specific-are not similarly constrained6 and therefore potentially have greater ability to detect and classify cancers in patients with early-stage disease. Here we develop a sensitive, immunoprecipitation-based protocol to analyse the methylome of small quantities of circulating cell-free DNA, and demonstrate the ability to detect large-scale DNA methylation changes that are enriched for tumour-specific patterns. We also demonstrate robust performance in cancer detection and classification across an extensive collection of plasma samples from several tumour types. This work sets the stage to establish biomarkers for the minimally invasive detection, interception and classification of early-stage cancers based on plasma cell-free DNA methylation patterns.

12.
Cell Rep ; 25(5): 1318-1331.e4, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380421

RESUMO

Overall survival remains very poor for patients diagnosed as having head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identification of additional biomarkers and novel therapeutic strategies are important for improving patient outcomes. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), generated by implanting fresh tumor tissue directly from patients into immunodeficient mice, recapitulate many of the features of their corresponding clinical cancers, including histopathological and molecular profiles. Using a large collection of PDX models of HNSCC, we demonstrate that rapid engraftment into immunocompromised mice is highly prognostic and show that genomic deregulation of the G1/S checkpoint pathway correlates with engraftment. Furthermore, CCND1 and CDKN2A genomic alterations are predictive of response to the CDK4and CDK6 inhibitor abemaciclib. Overall, our study supports the pursuit of CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for a substantial proportion of HNSCC patients and demonstrates the potential of using PDX models to identify targeted therapies that will benefit patients who have the poorest outcomes.

13.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 81, 2018 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) who received initial debulking surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy can experience highly variable clinical responses. A small percentage of women experience exceptional long-term survival (long term (LT), 10+ years), while others develop primary resistance to therapy and succumb to disease in less than 2 years (short term (ST)). To improve clinical management of HGSOC, there is a need to better characterize clinical and molecular profiles to identify factors that underpin these disparate survival responses. METHODS: To identify clinical and tumor molecular biomarkers associated with exceptional clinical response or resistance, we conducted an integrated clinical, exome, and transcriptome analysis of 41 primary tumors from LT (n = 20) and ST (n = 21) HGSOC patients. RESULTS: Younger age at diagnosis, no residual disease post debulking surgery and low CA125 levels following surgery and chemotherapy were clinical characteristics of LT. Tumors from LT survivors had increased somatic mutation burden (median 1.62 vs. 1.22 non-synonymous mutations/Mbp), frequent BRCA1/2 biallelic inactivation through mutation and loss of heterozygosity, and enrichment of activated CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and effector memory CD4+ T cells. Characteristics of ST survival included focal copy number gain of CCNE1, lack of BRCA mutation signature, low homologous recombination deficiency scores, and the presence of ESR1-CCDC170 gene fusion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that exceptional long- or short-term survival is determined by a concert of clinical, molecular, and microenvironment factors.

14.
Cancer Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) encompass a spectrum of disorders including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering myeloma, plasma cell myeloma, and plasma cell leukemia. Molecular subtypes have been defined by recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities and somatic mutations that are prognostic and predictive. Karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have historically been used to guide management; however, new technologies and markers raise the need to reassess current testing algorithms. METHODS: We convened a panel of representatives from international clinical laboratories to capture current state-of-the-art testing from published reports and to put forward recommendations for cytogenomic testing of plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed 65 papers applying FISH, chromosomal microarray (CMA), next-generation sequencing, and gene expression profiling for plasma cell neoplasm diagnosis and prognosis. We also performed a survey of our peers to capture current laboratory practice employed outside our working group. RESULTS: Plasma cell enrichment is widely used prior to FISH testing, most commonly by magnetic bead selection. A variety of strategies for direct, short- and long-term cell culture are employed to ensure clonal representation for karyotyping. Testing of clinically-informative 1p/1q, del(13q) and del(17p) are common using karyotype, FISH and, increasingly, CMA testing. FISH for a variety of clinically-informative balanced IGH rearrangements is prevalent. Literature review found that CMA analysis can detect abnormalities in 85-100% of patients with PCNs; more specifically, in 5-53% (median 14%) of cases otherwise normal by FISH and cytogenetics. CMA results in plasma cell neoplasms are usually complex, with alteration counts ranging from 1 to 74 (median 10-20), primarily affecting loci not covered by FISH testing. Emerging biomarkers include structural alterations of MYC as well as somatic mutations of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and TP53. Together, these may be measured in a comprehensive manner by a combination of newer technologies including CMA and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Our survey suggests most laboratories have, or are soon to have, clinical CMA platforms, with a desire to move to NGS assays in the future. CONCLUSION: We present an overview of current practices in plasma cell neoplasm testing as well as an algorithm for integrated FISH and CMA testing to guide treatment of this disease.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358567

RESUMO

Replicative immortality is a hallmark of cancer cells governed by telomere maintenance. Approximately 90% of human cancers maintain their telomeres by activating telomerase, driven by the transcriptional upregulation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Although TERT promoter mutations (TPMs) are a major cancer-associated genetic mechanism of TERT upregulation, many cancers exhibit TERT upregulation without TPMs. In this study, we describe the TERT hypermethylated oncological region (THOR), a 433-bp genomic region encompassing 52 CpG sites located immediately upstream of the TERT core promoter, as a cancer-associated epigenetic mechanism of TERT upregulation. Unmethylated THOR repressed TERT promoter activity regardless of TPM status, and hypermethylation of THOR counteracted this repressive function. THOR methylation analysis in 1,352 human tumors revealed frequent (>45%) cancer-associated DNA hypermethylation in 9 of 11 (82%) tumor types screened. Additionally, THOR hypermethylation, either independently or along with TPMs, accounted for how approximately 90% of human cancers can aberrantly activate telomerase. Thus, we propose that THOR hypermethylation is a prevalent telomerase-activating mechanism in cancer that can act independently of or in conjunction with TPMs, further supporting the utility of THOR hypermethylation as a prognostic biomarker.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(22): 5685-5696, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065096

RESUMO

Purpose: Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 are essential for the maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance but play a detrimental role in most cancers due to their ability to suppress antitumor immunity. The phenotype of human circulating Treg cells has been extensively studied, but less is known about tumor-infiltrating Treg cells. We studied the phenotype and function of tumor-infiltrating Treg cells in ovarian cancer and melanoma to identify potential Treg cell-associated molecules that can be targeted by tumor immunotherapies.Experimental Design: The phenotype of intratumoral and circulating Treg cells was analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry, mass cytometry, RNA-seq, and functional assays.Results: Treg cells isolated from ovarian tumors displayed a distinct cell surface phenotype with increased expression of a number of receptors associated with TCR engagement, including PD-1, 4-1BB, and ICOS. Higher PD-1 and 4-1BB expression was associated with increased responsiveness to further TCR stimulation and increased suppressive capacity, respectively. Transcriptomic and mass cytometry analyses revealed the presence of Treg cell subpopulations and further supported a highly activated state specifically in ovarian tumors. In comparison, Treg cells infiltrating melanomas displayed lower FOXP3, PD-1, 4-1BB, and ICOS expression and were less potent suppressors of CD8 T-cell proliferation.Conclusions: The highly activated phenotype of ovarian tumor-infiltrating Treg cells may be a key component of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Receptors that are expressed by tumor-infiltrating Treg cells could be exploited for the design of novel combination tumor immunotherapies. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5685-96. ©2018 AACR.

17.
Nature ; 559(7714): 400-404, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988082

RESUMO

The incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) increases with age and mortality exceeds 90% when diagnosed after age 65. Most cases arise without any detectable early symptoms and patients usually present with the acute complications of bone marrow failure1. The onset of such de novo AML cases is typically preceded by the accumulation of somatic mutations in preleukaemic haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that undergo clonal expansion2,3. However, recurrent AML mutations also accumulate in HSPCs during ageing of healthy individuals who do not develop AML, a phenomenon referred to as age-related clonal haematopoiesis (ARCH)4-8. Here we use deep sequencing to analyse genes that are recurrently mutated in AML to distinguish between individuals who have a high risk of developing AML and those with benign ARCH. We analysed peripheral blood cells from 95 individuals that were obtained on average 6.3 years before AML diagnosis (pre-AML group), together with 414 unselected age- and gender-matched individuals (control group). Pre-AML cases were distinct from controls and had more mutations per sample, higher variant allele frequencies, indicating greater clonal expansion, and showed enrichment of mutations in specific genes. Genetic parameters were used to derive a model that accurately predicted AML-free survival; this model was validated in an independent cohort of 29 pre-AML cases and 262 controls. Because AML is rare, we also developed an AML predictive model using a large electronic health record database that identified individuals at greater risk. Collectively our findings provide proof-of-concept that it is possible to discriminate ARCH from pre-AML many years before malignant transformation. This could in future enable earlier detection and monitoring, and may help to inform intervention.

18.
Semin Hematol ; 55(1): 38-40, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759151

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA faithfully recapitulates somatic mutations detected in bone marrow aspirates from patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed or recurrent myeloma. Extending these methods to enable detection of minimal residual disease will require increased sensitivity and breadth of genomic assays to maximize information content from small quantities of cell-free DNA; as well as definition of a clinically meaningful ctDNA concentration in comparison with conventional bone marrow cell-count thresholds. This review describes the use of cell-free DNA sequencing in myeloma to date, identifies challenges associated with pushing limit of detection of these assays into the realm of detecting minimal residual disease, and describes potential strategies to overcome these challenges.

19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 14(3): e1006080, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590101

RESUMO

Somatic copy number variations (CNVs) play a crucial role in development of many human cancers. The broad availability of next-generation sequencing data has enabled the development of algorithms to computationally infer CNV profiles from a variety of data types including exome and targeted sequence data; currently the most prevalent types of cancer genomics data. However, systemic evaluation and comparison of these tools remains challenging due to a lack of ground truth reference sets. To address this need, we have developed Bamgineer, a tool written in Python to introduce user-defined haplotype-phased allele-specific copy number events into an existing Binary Alignment Mapping (BAM) file, with a focus on targeted and exome sequencing experiments. As input, this tool requires a read alignment file (BAM format), lists of non-overlapping genome coordinates for introduction of gains and losses (bed file), and an optional file defining known haplotypes (vcf format). To improve runtime performance, Bamgineer introduces the desired CNVs in parallel using queuing and parallel processing on a local machine or on a high-performance computing cluster. As proof-of-principle, we applied Bamgineer to a single high-coverage (mean: 220X) exome sequence file from a blood sample to simulate copy number profiles of 3 exemplar tumors from each of 10 tumor types at 5 tumor cellularity levels (20-100%, 150 BAM files in total). To demonstrate feasibility beyond exome data, we introduced read alignments to a targeted 5-gene cell-free DNA sequencing library to simulate EGFR amplifications at frequencies consistent with circulating tumor DNA (10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01%) while retaining the multimodal insert size distribution of the original data. We expect Bamgineer to be of use for development and systematic benchmarking of CNV calling algorithms by users using locally-generated data for a variety of applications. The source code is freely available at http://github.com/pughlab/bamgineer.


Assuntos
Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Alelos , Simulação por Computador , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genômica , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
20.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 186, 2017 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775249

RESUMO

Cranial radiotherapy improves survival of the most common childhood cancers, including brain tumors and leukemia. Unfortunately, long-term survivors are faced with consequences of secondary neoplasia, including radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs). We characterized 31 RIMs with exome/NF2 intronic sequencing, RNA sequencing and methylation profiling, and found NF2 gene rearrangements in 12/31 of RIMs, an observation previously unreported in sporadic meningioma (SM). Additionally, known recurrent mutations characteristic of SM, including AKT1, KLF4, TRAF7 and SMO, were not observed in RIMs. Combined losses of chromosomes 1p and 22q were common in RIMs (16/18 cases) and overall, chromosomal aberrations were more complex than that observed in SM. Patterns of DNA methylation profiling supported similar cell of origin between RIMs and SMs. The findings indicate that the mutational landscape of RIMs is distinct from SMs, and have significant therapeutic implications for survivors of childhood cranial radiation and the elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of meningiomas.Radiation-induced meningiomas are often more aggressive than sporadic ones. In this study, the authors perform an exome, methylation and RNA-seq analysis of 31 cases of radiation-induced meningioma and show NF2 rearrangement, an observation previously unreported in the sporadic tumors.


Assuntos
Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Genes da Neurofibromatose 2 , Neoplasias Meníngeas/genética , Meningioma/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Cerebelares/radioterapia , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia/radioterapia , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/etiologia , Meningioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
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