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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565264

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide, and HER2-positive breast cancer accounts for approximately 15% of all breast cancer diagnoses. The advent of HER2-targeting therapies has dramatically improved the survival of these patients, significantly reducing their risk of recurrence and death. However, as a significant proportion of patients ultimately develop resistance to these therapies, it is extremely important to identify new treatments to further improve their clinical outcomes. Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment and history of several cancer types, and it has already been approved as a standard of care for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Based on a strong preclinical rationale, immunotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer represents an intriguing field that is currently under clinical investigation. There is a close interplay between HER2-targeting therapies (both approved and under investigation) and the immune system, and several new immunotherapeutic strategies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, CAR-T cells and therapeutic vaccines, are being studied in this disease. In this narrative review, we discuss the clinical evidence and the future perspectives of immunotherapy for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454806

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. During the past three decades, several improvements in the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer have been achieved with the introduction of optimized adjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine treatment. However, estimating the risk of relapse of breast cancer on an individual basis is still challenging. The IRIDE (hIGh Risk DEfinition in breast cancer) working group was established with the aim of reviewing evidence from the literature to synthesize the current relevant features that predict hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancer relapse. A panel of experts in breast cancer was involved in identifying clinical, pathological, morphological, and genetic factors. A RAND consensus method was used to define the relevance of each risk factor. Among the 21 features included, 12 were considered relevant risk factors for relapse. For each of these, we provided a consensus statement and relevant comments on the supporting scientific evidence. This work may guide clinicians in the practical management of hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancers.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267574

RESUMO

Trastuzumab is a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitor used to treat HER2+ metastatic gastric cancer (mGC). The present study aims to investigate the relationship between CDH1 mRNA expression and HER2-positivity in mGC using a multiplexed gene expression profile in two series of gastric cancer (GC): Series 1 (n = 38): HER2+ and HER2- mGC; Series 2 (n = 36) HER2- GC with and without metastasis. To confirm the results, the same expression profiles were analyzed in 354 GC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. The difference in gene expression connected HER2 overexpression with canonical wingless-type (Wnt)/ß-catenin pathway and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression loss of E-cadherin (E-CAD). CDH1 mRNA expression was simultaneously associated with the rs16260-A variant and an increase in E-CAD expression. Differences in retinoic acid receptor alfa (RARA), RPL19 (coding for the 60S ribosomal L19 protein), catenin delta 1 (CTNND1), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) mRNA levels-all included in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway-were found associated with overall survival (OS). RARA, CTNND1, and EGF resulted in independent OS prognostic factors. EGF was confirmed as an independent factor along with TNM stage in HER2-overpressed mGC from TCGA collection. Our study highlighted factors involved in the WNT/ß-catenin pathway that interconnected E-CAD with HER2 overexpression and patient survival.

5.
Oncologist ; 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278078

RESUMO

Despite the strong prognostic stratification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) enumeration in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), current clinical trials usually do not include a baseline CTCs in their design. This study aimed to generate a classifier for CTCs prognostic simulation in existing datasets for hypothesis generation in patients with MBC. A K-nearest neighbor machine learning algorithm was trained on a pooled dataset comprising 2436 individual MBC patients from the European Pooled Analysis Consortium and the MD Anderson Cancer Center to identify patients likely to have CTCs ≥ 5/7 mL blood (StageIVaggressive vs StageIVindolent). The model had a 65.1% accuracy and its prognostic impact resulted in a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.89 (Simulatedaggressive vs Simulatedindolent  P < .001), similar to patients with actual CTCs enumeration (HR 2.76; P < .001). The classifier's performance was then tested on an independent retrospective database comprising 446 consecutive hormone receptor (HR)-positive HER2-negative MBC patients. The model further stratified clinical subgroups usually considered prognostically homogeneous such as patients with bone-only or liver metastases. Bone-only disease classified as Simulatedaggressive had a significantly worse overall survival (OS; P < .0001), while patients with liver metastases classified as Simulatedindolent had a significantly better prognosis (P < .0001). Consistent results were observed for patients who had undergone CTCs enumeration in the pooled population. The differential prognostic impact of endocrine- (ET) and chemotherapy (CT) was explored across the simulated subgroups. No significant differences were observed between ET and CT in the overall population, both in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. In contrast, a statistically significant difference, favoring CT over ET was observed among Simulatedaggressive patients (HR: 0.62; P = .030 and HR: 0.60; P = .037, respectively, for PFS and OS).

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326652

RESUMO

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare disease for which scarce evidence is available. We summarized data available on systemic treatment of advanced SBA. METHODS: Scientific literature was evaluated to find phase II or phase III clinical trials on systemic treatment for advanced SBA. MeSH terms were selected and combined for the initial search, then inclusion and exclusion criteria were set in a search protocol. Four medical oncologists looked for evidence on Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Moreover, abstracts from 2016 to June 2021 from the American Society for Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposium and World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer were browsed. The selected studies, matching the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were finally tabulated and analyzed. RESULTS: The trials finally selected were 18 phase II/III clinical trials. Four small phase II trials support the activity of oxaliplatin-based doublets in first-line treatment (CAPOX and mFOLFOX). CONCLUSION: No good level evidence is available on the use of bevacizumab, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor, targeted agents or immunotherapy. First-line treatments are largely derived from colorectal cancer protocols, mainly oxaliplatin-based doublets.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205771

RESUMO

In the past decade, nine antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have been approved for the treatment of various tumors, four of which specifically for solid malignancies. ADCs deliver the cytotoxic payload to the cancer site, thereby improving chemotherapy efficacy while reducing systemic drug exposure and toxicity. With their high selectivity, ADCs are associated with a manageable side-effect profile, with nausea and vomiting being among the most frequent toxicities, although this may vary according to the respective ADC and the associated payload. Information about the emetic risk of the new ADC compounds is limited. Three virtual focus groups of Italian oncologists were held to raise awareness on the importance of an antiemetic prophylaxis regimen to prevent and mitigate ADC-associated emesis and its sequelae. After reviewing published evidence and guidelines, the three expert panels shared their experience on the early use of ADCs gained through the participation in specific clinical trials and their clinical practice. The following issues were discussed: antiemetic therapy during trastuzumab deruxtecan treatment, with a protocol adopted at the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy); the use of steroids; the management of anticipatory nausea during trastuzumab deruxtecan therapy; nutritional counselling; and effective doctor-patient communication. The experts acknowledged that recommendations should be drug-specific, and formulated opinion-based advice intended to guide physicians in their daily practice until further evidence emerges.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053468

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is among the deadliest gynecological malignancies. The acquired resistance to platinum-based therapies and the intrinsic heterogeneity of the disease contribute to the low survival rate. To improve patients' outcomes, new combinatorial approaches able to target different tumor vulnerabilities and enhance the efficacy of the current therapies are required. AKT inhibitors are promising antineoplastic agents able to act in synergy with PARP inhibitors, but the spectrum of patients who can benefit from this combination is unclear, since the role of the three different isoforms of AKT is still unknown. Here, we study the expression of AKT isoforms on a retrospective cohort of archive tissue by RT-droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) analyzing their association with the clinicopathological features of patients. Based on AKT1/AKT2 and AKT1/AKT3 ratios, we define four AKT classes which were related to patients' survival, tumor morphology and BRCA1 expression. Moreover, our results show that high AKT3 expression levels were frequently associated with tumors having classic features, a low number of mitoses and the presence of psammoma bodies. Overall, our study obtains new insights on AKT isoforms and their associations with the clinicopathological features of HGSOC patients. These evidences could help to better define the subsets of patients who can benefit from AKT and PARP inhibitors therapy in future clinical trials.

9.
ACS Omega ; 6(43): 28611-28619, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746556

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is one of the major life-threatening cancers in women, with a survival rate of less than 50%. So far, chemotherapy is the main therapeutic tool to cure this lethal disease; however, in many cases, it fails to cure HGSOC even with severe side effects. Self-therapeutic nanomaterials could be an effective alternative to chemotherapy, facilitated by their diverse physicochemical properties and the ability to generate reactive species for killing cancer cells. Herein, inorganic cobalt hydroxide nanosheets (Co(OH)2 NS) were synthesized by a simple solution process at room temperature, and morphological, spectroscopic, and crystallographic analyses revealed the formation of Co(OH)2 NS with good crystallinity and purity. The as-prepared Co(OH)2 NS showed excellent potency, comparable to the FDA-approved cisplatin drug to kill ovarian cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis (nnexin V) revealed increased cellular apoptosis for Co(OH)2 NS than cobalt acetate (the precursor). Tracking experiments demonstrated that Co(OH)2 NS are internalized through the lysosome pathway, although relocalization in the cytoplasm has been observed. Hence, Co(OH)2 NS could be an effective self-therapeutic drug and open up an area for the optimization of self-therapeutic properties of cobalt nanomaterials for cancer treatment.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259137, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699578

RESUMO

Lenvatinib (LENVA) is an oral antineoplastic drug used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and thyroid carcinoma. LENVA therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) should be mandatory for a precision medicine to optimize the drug dosage. To this end, the development of a sensitive and robust quantification method to be applied in the clinical setting is essential. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of LENVA in human plasma. On this premise, sample preparation was based on a protein precipitation and the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Synergi Fusion RP C18 column in 4 min. The method was completely and successfully validated according to European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, with good linearity in the range of 0.50-2000 ng/mL (R≥0.9968). Coefficient of variation (CV) for intra- and inter-day precision was ≤11.3% and accuracy ranged from 96.3 to 109.0%, internal standard normalized matrix effect CV% was ≤2.8% and recovery was ≥95.6%. Successful results were obtained for sensitivity (signal to noise (S/N) ratio >21) and selectivity, dilution integrity (CV% ≤ 4.0% and accuracy 99.9-102%), and analyte stability under various handling and storage conditions both in matrix and solvents. This method was applied to quantify LENVA in patient's plasma samples and covered the concentration range achievable in patients. In conclusion, a sensitive and robust quantification method was developed and validated to be applied in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Compostos de Fenilureia/sangue , Quinolinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700133

RESUMO

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is strongly suggested to define the proper drug dosage to overcome inter- and intra-patient variability in drug exposure, which is typically observed with oral anticancer agents, such as palbociclib (PALBO), ribociclib (RIBO) and letrozole (LETRO), all approved for the treatment of HR+, HER2- locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (BC). Optimal TDM implementation requires a blood sampling organization that can be hampered by limited availability of health and laboratory personnel. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) sampling is proposed to overcome such limitations. The aim of this work was the development of a new LC-MS/MS method to analyze DBS samples containing PALBO, RIBO, and LETRO. Analytes extraction from DBS was performed by adding a methanolic solution containing the corresponding internal standards. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed using a LC Nexera (Shimadzu) system coupled with an API 4000 QTrap (SCIEX) mass spectrometer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Luna Omega Polar C18 column (Phenomenex). The method was applied to 38 clinical samples collected by finger prick. The influence of hematocrit and spot size, sample homogeneity, stability, and correlation between finger prick and venous DBS measurement were assessed. The analytical validation was performed according to EMA and FDA guidelines. The analytical range of the method was 1 to 250 ng/mL for PALBO, 40 to 10000 ng/mL for RIBO, and 2 to 500 ng/mL for LETRO, where linearity was assessed, obtaining mean coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9979 for PALBO, 0.9980 for RIBO, and 0.9987 for LETRO). The LC-MS/MS method runtime was 6.6 min. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated reproducibility, as the percentage difference between the two quantifications was lower than 20% for 100% of PALBO, 81.8% of RIBO, and 90.9% of LETRO paired samples. Intra- and inter-day precision (CV (%)) was lower than 11.4% and intra- and inter-day accuracy was between 90.0 and 106.5%. DBS sample stability at room temperature was confirmed for 2.5 months. A positive correlation was observed between DBS and plasma concentrations for the 3 drugs, Lin's concordance correlation coefficients obtained by DBS normalization applying a selected strategy were 0.958 for PALBO, 0.957 for RIBO, and 0.963 for LETRO. In conclusion, a fast, easy, and reproducible DBS LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of palbociclib; ribociclib and letrozole was developed to be used in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/sangue , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Letrozol/sangue , Piperazinas/sangue , Purinas/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
12.
Gynecol Oncol ; 163(3): 498-505, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most common type of malignant ovarian neoplasm and the main cause of ovarian cancer related deaths worldwide. Although novel biomarkers such as homologous recombination deficiency testing have been implemented into the clinical decision-making algorithm since diagnosis, morphological classification and immunohistochemistry analysis are essential for diagnostic purpose. This study aims at identifying histologic and clinical features that can be predictive of patients' prognosis. METHODS: Morphological and architectural characterization including SET (Solid-Endometroid-Transitional)/Classic features was carried out in a cohort of 234 patients analyzing 695 slides. From each slide tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TILs), the presence of necrosis, the number of mitoses, the presence of psammoma bodies, giant cells and atypical mitoses were recorded. Morphological heterogeneity was quantified by the Shannon's diversity index (SDI) considering the percentage of each architectural pattern per patient's slide. RESULTS: The frequency of architectural patterns and morphological variables varied with respect of the surgical strategy (primary debulking surgery vs interval surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy). HGSOCs exhibiting SET features had a longer overall as well as progression free survival. Among SET features, pseudo-endometrioid and transitional like patterns had the best outcome, while it was heterogenous for solid pattern, that had better outcome for BRCA 1 negative and less heterogeneous tumors. In patients submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy a higher intratumor heterogeneity as defined by SDI was a negative independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive histological examination considering architectural patterns and their heterogeneity can help in prognostication of HGSOCs.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1458-1467, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of extending aromatase inhibitor therapy beyond 5 years in the context of previous aromatase inhibitors remains controversial. We aimed to compare extended therapy with letrozole for 5 years versus the standard duration of 2-3 years of letrozole in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who have already received 2-3 years of tamoxifen. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial was done at 69 hospitals in Italy. Women were eligible if they were postmenopausal at the time of study entry, had stage I-III histologically proven and operable invasive hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, had received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for at least 2 years but no longer than 3 years and 3 months, had no signs of disease recurrence, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 2-3 years (control group) or 5 years (extended group) of letrozole (2·5 mg orally once a day). Randomisation, with stratification by centre, with permuted blocks of size 12, was done with a centralised, interactive, internet-based system that randomly generated the treatment allocation. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was invasive disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analysis was done for patients who received at least 1 month of study treatment. This trial was registered with EudraCT, 2005-001212-44, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01064635. FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2005, and Oct 24, 2010, 2056 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive letrozole for 2-3 years (n=1030; control group) or for 5 years (n=1026; extended group). After a median follow-up of 11·7 years (IQR 9·5-13·1), disease-free survival events occurred in 262 (25·4%) of 1030 patients in the control group and 212 (20·7%) of 1026 in the extended group. 12-year disease-free survival was 62% (95% CI 57-66) in the control group and 67% (62-71) in the extended group (hazard ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·65-0·93; p=0·0064). The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were arthralgia (22 [2·2%] of 983 patients in the control group vs 29 [3·0%] of 977 in the extended group) and myalgia (seven [0·7%] vs nine [0·9%]). There were three (0·3%) serious treatment-related adverse events in the control group and eight (0·8%) in the extended group. No deaths related to toxic effects were observed. INTERPRETATION: In postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who received 2-3 years of tamoxifen, extended treatment with 5 years of letrozole resulted in a significant improvement in disease-free survival compared with the standard 2-3 years of letrozole. Sequential endocrine therapy with tamoxifen for 2-3 years followed by letrozole for 5 years should be considered as one of the optimal standard endocrine treatments for postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. FUNDING: Novartis and the Italian Ministry of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Mastectomia , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440803

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the seventh most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. HCC typically arises within a cirrhotic liver, but in about 20% of cases occurs in absence of cirrhosis. Among non-cirrhotic risk factors, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) currently represents the most important emerging cause of HCC in developed countries. It has been estimated that annual incidence of HCC among patients with non-cirrhotic NAFLD is approximately 0.1-1.3 per 1000 patients/year and ranges from 0.5% to 2.6% among patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. However, only a few clinical trials enrolling HCC patients actually distinguished NAFLD/NASH-related cases from other non-cirrhotic causes and therefore evidence is still lacking in this subset of patients. This review aims to describe the biology underpinning NAFLD development, to investigate the main molecular pathways involved in its progression to NASH and HCC and to describe how different pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the onset of HCC can have an impact in clinical practice. We hereby also provide an overview of current HCC treatment options, with a particular focus on the available data on NAFLD-related cases in practice-changing clinical trials.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Inflamação , Resistência à Insulina , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204543

RESUMO

Alterations in components of the cell-cycle machinery are present in essentially all tumor types. In particular, molecular alterations resulting in dysregulation of the G1 to S phase transition have been observed in almost all human tumors, including ovarian cancer. These alterations have been identified as potential therapeutic targets in several cancer types, thereby stimulating the development of small molecule inhibitors of the cyclin dependent kinases. Among these, CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors confirmed in clinical trials that CDKs might indeed represent valid therapeutic targets in, at least some, types of cancer. CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors are now used in clinic for the treatment of patients with estrogen receptor positive metastatic breast cancer and their clinical use is being tested in many other cancer types, alone or in combination with other agents. Here, we review the role of CDK4 and CDK6 complexes in ovarian cancer and propose the possible use of their inhibitors in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients with different types and stages of disease.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298718

RESUMO

Different de-escalation strategies have been proposed to limit the risk of cumulative toxicity and guarantee quality of life during the treatment trajectory of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Programmed treatment interruptions, defined as drug holidays (DHs), have been implemented in clinical practice. We evaluated the association between DHs and overall survival (OS). This was a retrospective study, conducted at the University Hospital of Udine and the IRCCS CRO of Aviano. We retrieved records of 608 consecutive patients treated for mCRC from 1 January 2005 to 15 March 2017 and evaluated the impact of different de-escalation strategies (maintenance, DHs, or both) on OS through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. We also looked at attrition rates across treatment lines according to the chosen strategy. In our study, 19.24% of patients received maintenance therapy, 16.12% DHs, and 9.87% both, while 32.07% continued full-intensity first-line treatment up to progression or death. In uni- and multivariate analyses first-line continuous treatment and early discontinuation (treatment for less than 3 months) were associated to worse OS compared to non-continuous strategies (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.22-2.32; p = 0.002 and HR,4.89; 95% CI, 3.33-7.19; p < 0.001, respectively). Attrition rates were 22.8%, 20.61%, and 19.64% for maintenance, DHs, or both, respectively. For continuous therapy and for treatment of less than 3 months it was 21.57% and 49%. De-escalation strategies are safe and effective options. DHs after initial induction chemotherapy may be considered in clinically selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

17.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071228

RESUMO

Historically, metastatic melanoma was considered a highly lethal disease. However, recent advances in drug development have allowed a significative improvement in prognosis. In particular, BRAF/MEK inhibitors and anti-PD1 antibodies have completely revolutionized the management of this disease. Nonetheless, not all patients derive a benefit or a durable benefit from these therapies. To overtake this challenges, new clinically active compounds are being tested in the context of clinical trials. CDK4/6 inhibitors are drugs already available in clinical practice and preliminary evidence showed a promising activity also in melanoma. Herein we review the available literature to depict a comprehensive landscape about CDK4/6 inhibitors in melanoma. We present the molecular and genetic background that might justify the usage of these drugs, the preclinical evidence, the clinical available data, and the most promising ongoing clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos
18.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 5: 943-952, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136741

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy-based biomarkers, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), are increasingly important for the characterization of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The aim of the study was to explore CTCs and ctDNA dynamics to better understand their potentially complementary role in describing MBC. METHODS: The study retrospectively analyzed 107 patients with MBC characterized with paired CTCs and ctDNA assessments and a second prospective cohort, which enrolled 48 patients with MBC. CTCs were immunomagnetically isolated and ctDNA was quantified and then characterized through next-generation sequencing in the retrospective cohort and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction in the prospective cohort. Matched pairs variations at baseline, at evaluation one (EV1), and at progression were tested through the Wilcoxon test. The prognostic role of ctDNA parameters was also investigated. RESULTS: Mutant allele frequency (MAF) had a significant decrease between baseline and EV1 and a significant increase between EV1 and progression. Number of detected alterations steadily increased across timepoints, CTCs enumeration (nCTCs) significantly increased only between EV1 and progression. MAF dynamics across the main altered genes was then investigated. Plasma DNA yield did not vary across timepoints both in the retrospective cohort and in the prospective cohort, while the short fragments fraction showed a potential role as a prognostic biomarker. CONCLUSION: nCTCs and ctDNA provide complementary information about prognosis and treatment benefit. Although nCTCs appeared to assess tumor biology rather than tumor burden, MAF may be a promising biomarker for the dynamic assessment of treatment response and resistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 82, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183674

RESUMO

The GIM2 phase III trial demonstrated the benefit of dose-dense chemotherapy in node-positive early breast cancer (eBC). To better define the dose-dense effect in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup, we evaluated its benefit through a composite measure of recurrence risk. We conducted an ancillary analysis of the GIM2 trial evaluating the absolute treatment effect through a composite measure of recurrence risk (CPRS) in patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative eBC. CPRS was estimated through Cox proportional hazards models applied to the different clinicopathological features. The treatment effect was compared to the values of CPRS by using the Sub-population Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) process. The Disease-Free Survival (DFS)-oriented STEPP analysis showed distinct patterns of relative treatment effect with respect to CPRS. Overall, 5-year DFS differed across CPRS quartiles ranging from 95.2 to 66.4%. Each CPRS quartile was characterized by a different patients' composition, especially for age, lymph node involvement, tumor size, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, and Ki-67. A number needed to treat of 154 and 6 was associated with the lowest and the highest CPRS quartile, respectively. Dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy showed a consistent benefit in node-positive eBC patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative disease, but its effect varied according to CPRS.

20.
Med Oncol ; 38(6): 67, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970358

RESUMO

The multidisciplinary management represents a crucial part of the care for cancer patients, resulting in better clinical and process outcomes, with evidence of improved survival among different cancer primary sites, including breast. According with international recommendations established by the European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists (EUSOMA), all breast-cancer patients have to be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team including radiologist, pathologist, surgeon, medical oncologist and radiation oncologist. Thus, variations in clinical practice of each specialty should be discussed and shared with all team members to guarantee a fruitful cooperation among the involved specialists. During the last decades, radiation treatment was deeply changed by the evidence-based adoption of hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) as standard of treatment in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing conservative surgery. Moreover, mature randomized data have showed that partial breast irradiation (PBI) is an effective and safe alternative to whole breast irradiation in selected patients with low-risk early-stage breast cancer. Based on this background, we reviewed indications and critical issues of HFRT and PBI analyzing impact of their adoption from a multidisciplinary perspective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/radioterapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia/métodos , Cirurgiões
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