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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with acute ischemic stroke related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess the classification performance of clinical and laboratory parameters in predicting in-hospital outcome of these patients. METHODS: In the setting of the STROKOVID study including patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the ten hub hospitals in Lombardy, Italy, between March 8 and April 30, 2020, we compared clinical features of patients with confirmed infection and non-infected patients by logistic regression models and survival analysis. Then, we trained and tested a random forest (RF) binary classifier for the prediction of in-hospital death among patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 1013 patients, 160 (15.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male sex (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06-2.27) and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05-2.43) were independently associated with COVID-19 status. Patients with COVID-19 had increased stroke severity at admission [median NIHSS score, 9 (25th to75th percentile, 13) vs 6 (25th to75th percentile, 9)] and increased risk of in-hospital death (38.1% deaths vs 7.2%; HR 3.30; 95% CI 2.17-5.02). The RF model based on six clinical and laboratory parameters exhibited high cross-validated classification accuracy (0.86) and precision (0.87), good recall (0.72) and F1-score (0.79) in predicting in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19 patients have distinctive risk factor profile and etiology, increased clinical severity and higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients. A simple model based on clinical and routine laboratory parameters may be useful in identifying ischemic stroke patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are unlikely to survive the acute phase.

2.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3561-3568, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683456

RESUMO

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the ten centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients [median age, 74 years (interquartile range (IQR), 62-80.75); males, 154 (52.0%); 34 (11.5%) COVID-19] qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group [230 (IQR 200.5-270) minutes vs. 190 (IQR 150-245) minutes; p = 0.007], especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤ 50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs. 16.6%; OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.82-13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs. 81.0%; OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs. 19.5%; OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs. 8.8%; OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , COVID-19 , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reperfusão , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia
3.
Brain Sci ; 11(1)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430236

RESUMO

Hypertensive crisis, defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure >179 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure >109 mmHg, typically causes end-organ damage; the brain is an elective and early target, among others. The strong relationship between arterial hypertension and cerebrovascular diseases is supported by extensive evidence, with hypertension being the main modifiable risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, especially when it is uncontrolled or rapidly increasing. However, despite the large amount of data on the preventive strategies and therapeutic measures that can be adopted, the management of high BP in patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases presenting at the emergency department is still an area of debate. Overall, the outcome of stroke patients with high blood pressure values basically depends on the occurrence of hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency, the treatment regimen adopted, the drug dosages and their timing, and certain stroke features. In this narrative review, we provide a timely update on the current treatment, debated issues, and future directions related to hypertensive crisis in patients referred to the emergency department because of an acute cerebrovascular event. This will also focus greater attention on the management of certain stroke-related, time-dependent interventions, such as intravenous thrombolysis and mechanic thrombectomy.

4.
Brain Sci ; 10(11)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the association between motor-evoked potential (MEP) abnormalities and motor deficit is well established, few studies have reported the correlation between MEPs and signs of pyramidal tract dysfunction without motor weakness. We assessed MEPs in patients with pyramidal signs, including motor deficits, compared to patients with pyramidal signs but without weakness. METHODS: Forty-three patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were dichotomized into 21 with pyramidal signs including motor deficit (Group 1) and 22 with pyramidal signs and normal strength (Group 2), and both groups were compared to 33 healthy controls (Group 0). MEPs were bilaterally recorded from the first dorsal interosseous and tibialis anterior muscle. The central motor conduction time (CMCT) was estimated as the difference between MEP latency and peripheral latency by magnetic stimulation. Peak-to-peak MEP amplitude and right-to-left differences were also measured. RESULTS: Participants were age-, sex-, and height-matched. MEP latency in four limbs and CMCT in the lower limbs were prolonged, and MEP amplitude in the lower limbs decreased in Group 1 compared to the others. Unlike motor deficit, pyramidal signs were not associated with MEP measures, even when considering age, sex, and height as confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: In CSM, isolated pyramidal signs may not be associated, at this stage, with MEP changes.

5.
Brain Sci ; 10(8)2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Fabry's disease (FD) may be asymptomatic or show a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including cerebrovascular disease, mainly affecting posterior circulation. Few and conflicting studies on cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in asymptomatic FD (aFD) subjects have been published. Our study aims to assess TCD in aFD subjects to identify any preclinical CBF change. METHODS: A total of 30 aFD subjects were consecutively recruited and compared to 28 healthy controls. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal in all participants. TCD was used to study blood flow velocity and indices of resistance of intracranial arteries from the middle cerebral artery (MCA), bilaterally, and from the basilar artery (BA). Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVR) was also evaluated from MCA. RESULTS: No difference was found between groups for MCA parameters of CBF velocity and CVR. Compared to controls, a higher mean blood flow velocity and a lower resistance index from BA were observed in FD subjects. No correlation was found between any BA-derived TCD parameter and the level of lyso-globotriaosylceramide. CONCLUSIONS: aFD subjects show evidence of altered CBF velocity in posterior circulation. Preclinical detection of neurovascular involvement in FD might allow appropriate management and prevention of future cerebrovascular complications and disability.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408706

RESUMO

Several studies explored the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in dementia, suggesting a role in slowing down cognitive decline. Nevertheless, in 2003 a systematic review concluded there was insufficient evidence to recommend a clinical use, although a meta-analysis in the same year showed a significant advantage for ALC for clinical scales and psychometric tests. Since then, other studies have been published; however, a critical review is still lacking. We provide an update of the studies on ALC in primary and secondary dementia, highlighting the current limitations and translational implications. Overall, the role of ALC in dementia is still under debate. The underlying mechanisms may include restoring of cell membranes and synaptic functioning, enhancing cholinergic activity, promoting mitochondrial energy metabolism, protecting against toxins, and exerting neurotrophic effects. The effects of ALC on the gut-liver-brain axis seem to identify the category of patients in which the new insights contribute most to the mechanisms of action of ALC, likely being the liver metabolism and the improvement of hepatic detoxifying mechanisms the primary targets. In this framework, our research group has dealt with this topic, focusing on the ALC-related cross-talk mechanisms. Further studies with homogeneous sample and longitudinal assessment are needed before a systematic clinical application.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Demência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Nootrópicos/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340195

RESUMO

In the last years, there has been a significant growth in the literature exploring the pathophysiology of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). As an "umbrella term" encompassing any degree of vascular-related cognitive decline, VCI is deemed to be the most common cognitive disorder in the elderly, with a significant impact on social and healthcare expenses. Interestingly, some of the molecular, biochemical, and electrophysiological abnormalities detected in VCI seem to correlate with disease process and progression, eventually promoting an adaptive plasticity in some patients and a maladaptive, dysfunctional response in others. However, the exact relationships between vascular lesion, cognition, and neuroplasticity are not completely understood. Recent findings point out also the possibility to identify a panel of markers able to predict cognitive deterioration in the so-called "brain at risk" for vascular or mixed dementia. This will be of pivotal importance when designing trials of disease-modifying drugs or non-pharmacological approaches, including non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques. Taken together, these advances could make VCI a potentially preventable cause of both vascular and degenerative dementia in late life. This review provides a timely update on the recent serological, cerebrospinal fluid, histopathological, imaging, and neurophysiological studies on this "cutting-edge" topic, including the limitations, future perspectives and translational implications in the diagnosis and management of VCI patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Algoritmos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
8.
J Pain Res ; 12: 2941-2950, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695483

RESUMO

Migrainous infarction (MI) is a rare complication of migraines that accounts for 0.5-1.5% of all ischemic strokes. Although the pathogenesis of MI is still debated, cortical spreading depression and the consequent biochemical cascade and hemodynamic changes are presumed to play an important role. Here we describe a case of MI and systematically review the literature on the complex and possibly bidirectional relationship between migraine and stroke. A 44-year-old female with history of migraine with visual aura presented at the Emergency Department due to a sudden onset of left limb paresis and hypoesthesia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed right fronto-parietal ischemic stroke. Two days after hospitalization, the patient experienced a prolonged visual aura and showed ultrasound evidence of intracranial artery vasospasm. To date, there have been 33 published articles on a total 119 patients with MI, although intracranial vasospasm has rarely been reported. Sustained hyperexcitability of cortical neurons, impairment of γ-aminobutyric acid inhibitory circuitry, altered serotonergic transmission, release of vasoconstrictive molecules, and cerebral blood flow changes have been proposed as pathogenic mechanisms of MI. The present case provides insight into the pathophysiological link between stroke and migraine, thus aiding clinicians in therapeutic decision-making although additional studies are needed to clarify the clinical, neuroradiological, and ultrasound findings that link MI and stroke-related migraine.

10.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214003

RESUMO

Introduction: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are known to be susceptible to several sources of variability. However, conflicting evidences on individual characteristics in relatively small sample sizes have been reported. We investigated the effect of age, height, and sex on MEPs of the motor cortex and spinal roots in a large cohort. Methods: A total of 587 subjects clinically and neuroradiologically intact were included. MEPs were recorded during mild tonic contraction through a circular coil applied over the "hot spot" of the first dorsal interosseous and tibialis anterior muscles (TAs), bilaterally. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) was estimated as the difference between MEP cortical latency and the peripheral motor conduction time (PMCT) by cervical or lumbar magnetic stimulation. Peak-to-peak MEP amplitude to cortical stimulation and right-to-left difference of each parameter were also measured. Results: After Bonferroni correction, general linear (multiple) regression analysis showed that both MEP cortical latency and PMCT at four limbs positively correlated with age and height. At lower limbs, an independent effect of sex on the same measures was also observed (with females showing smaller values than males). CMCT correlated with both age (negatively) and height (positively) when analyzed by a single regression; however, with a multiple regression analysis this significance disappeared, due to the correction for the multicollinearity within the dataset. Conclusion: Physical individual features need to be considered for a more accurate and meaningful MEPs interpretation. Both in clinical practice and in research setting, patients and controls should be matched for age, height, and sex.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are considered as a risk factor for vascular dementia, data on their impact on cerebral hemodynamics are scarce. We test and compare transcranial Doppler (TCD) features in WML patients with or without associated cognitive impairment. METHODS: A sample of non-demented elderly patients with WMLs was consecutively recruited. Mean blood flow velocity (MBFV), pulsatility index (PI), peak systolic blood flow velocity (PSV), end-diastolic blood flow velocity (EDV), and resistivity index (RI) were recorded from the middle cerebral artery bilaterally. Global cognitive functioning, frontal lobe abilities, functional status, and WML severity were also assessed. RESULTS: 161 patients satisfying the clinical criteria for vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) were age-matched with 97 presenting WMLs without any cognitive deficit. VCI-ND patients exhibited a decrease in MBFV and EDV, as well as an increase in PI, RI, and PSV. Moreover, a significant correlation between all TCD parameters and the severity of executive dysfunction was observed, whereas PI, RI, and EDV were significantly correlated with the WML load. CONCLUSIONS: VCI-ND showed a hemodynamic pattern indicative of cerebral hypoperfusion and enhanced vascular resistance. These changes may be considered as the TCD correlate of VCI-ND due to microcirculation pathology. TCD provides useful indices of the occurrence and severity of small vessel disease and executive dysfunction in elderly patients at risk of future dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(3): 383-393, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While AD can be definitively confirmed by postmortem histopathologic examination, in vivo imaging may improve the clinician's ability to identify AD at the earliest stage. The aim of the study was to test the performance of amyloid PET using new processing imaging algorithm for more precise diagnosis of AD. METHODS: Amyloid PET results using a new processing imaging algorithm (MRI-Less and AAL Atlas) were correlated with clinical, cognitive status, CSF analysis, and other imaging. The regional SUVR using the white matter of cerebellum as reference region and scores from clinical and cognitive tests were used to create ROC curves. Leave-one-out cross-validation was carried out to validate the results. RESULTS: Forty-four consecutive patients with clinical evidence of dementia, were retrospectively evaluated. Amyloid PET scan was positive in 26/44 patients with dementia. After integration with 18F-FDG PET, clinical data and CSF protein levels, 22 of them were classified as AD, the remaining 4 as vascular or frontotemporal dementia. Amyloid and FDG PET, CDR 1, CSF Tau, and p-tau levels showed the best true positive and true negative rates (amyloid PET: AUC = .85, sensitivity .91, specificity .79). A SUVR value of 1.006 in the inferior frontal cortex and of 1.03 in the precuneus region was the best cutoff SUVR value and showed a good correlation with the diagnosis of AD. Thirteen of 44 amyloid PET positive patients have been enrolled in clinical trials using antiamyloid approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Amyloid PET using SPM-normalized SUVR analysis showed high predictive power for the differential diagnosis of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos de Anilina , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Estilbenos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 316, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061847

RESUMO

Introduction: Late-life depression is a well-known risk factor for future dementia. Increasing evidences also show a link between cerebral hypoperfusion and neurodegeneration, although data on Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD)-derived measures in patients with "Vascular Depression" (VD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess and correlate TCD parameters with cognitive function and severity of subcortical ischemic vascular disease in a sample of VD patients. Methods: Seventy six patients (mean age 72.5 ± 5.3 years; 53.9% females) met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for unipolar major depression. Mean blood flow velocity (MBFv) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded from the middle cerebral artery. Quantification of depressive symptoms (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale -HDRS), neuropsychological test evaluating frontal lobe abilities (Stroop Color-Word test interference-Stroop T), and white matter lesions (WMLs) load according to the Fazekas visual score were also assessed. Results: WMLs severity was mild in 20 patients (group I), moderate in 32 (group II), and severe in 24 (group III). The groups were comparable in terms of clinical features, vascular risk factors profile, and HDRS score, whereas Stroop T score was worse in group III. An increased PI and a reduced MBFv were found in VD patients with severe WMLs. According to the regression analysis, a reduced MBFv was independently and significantly associated with depressive symptoms and executive dysfunction, even after adjusting for demographic features and vascular risk factors. Similarly, an independent and significant association was observed between the increase of PI and both Stroop T and WMLs severity. Conclusions: A TCD profile of low perfusion and high vascular resistance in VD patients suggests a diffuse cerebrovascular pathology likely arising from the small vessels and then extending to larger arteries. Hemodynamic dysfunction might play a pathogenic role in the development of cognitive impairment in patients with late-life depression and subcortical ischemic vascular disease. TCD represents a valuable tool in the early detection, assessment, and management of VD patients at risk for dementia.

14.
Brain Stimul ; 9(2): 225-33, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An impairment of central cholinergic activity, as evaluated non-invasively by the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) of motor responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), was observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. Conversely, the involvement of central cholinergic neurotransmission in vascular dementia (VaD) is still under debate and data on Vascular Cognitive Impairment--No Dementia (VCI-ND) at risk for future VaD are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To test for the first time SAI in patients with VCI-ND. METHODS: Single-pulse TMS measures of cortical excitability and SAI were evaluated in 25 VCI-ND patients with subcortical ischemic lesions and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Functional status, neuropsychological tests evaluating frontal lobe abilities, and white matter lesions (WMLs) load were assessed. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between patients and controls for the mean SAI, although this result did not resist after the Bonferroni correction. In the whole group of patients and controls, SAI showed a correlation with worse scores at the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (r = 0.376, p < 0.01). SAI also positively correlated with the total vascular burden (r = 0.345, p < 0.05) but not with the WML severity. CONCLUSIONS: Central cholinergic pathway does not seem to be involved in VCI-ND, and the current results differ from those reported in primary cholinergic forms of dementia, such as AD. SAI might represent a valuable additional tool in the differential diagnosis of the dementing processes and in identifying potential responders to cholinergic agents.


Assuntos
Neurônios Colinérgicos/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Demência Vascular/diagnóstico , Vias Neurais , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transmissão Sináptica , Substância Branca/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129218, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic excitability was observed in de novo patients with celiac disease (CD) in a previous study with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), suggesting a subclinical involvement of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in asymptomatic patients. The aim of this investigation was to monitor the eventual changes in the same cohort of patients, evaluated after a period of gluten-free diet. METHODS: Patients were re-evaluated after a median period of 16 months during which an adequate gluten-free diet was maintained. Clinical, cognitive and neuropsychiatric assessment was repeated, as well as cortical excitability by means of single- and paired-pulse TMS from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the dominant hand. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, patients showed a significant decrease of the median resting motor threshold (from 35% to 33%, p<0.01). The other single-pulse (cortical silent period, motor evoked potentials latency and amplitude, central motor conduction time) and paired-pulse TMS measures (intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation) did not change significantly after the follow-up period. Antibodies were still present in 7 subjects. DISCUSSION: In patients under a gluten-free diet, a global increase of cortical excitability was observed, suggesting a glutamate-mediated functional reorganization compensating for disease progression. We hypothesize that glutamate receptor activation, probably triggered by CD-related immune system dysregulation, might result in a long-lasting motor cortex hyperexcitability with increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials, probably related to phenomena of long-term plasticity. The impact of the gluten-free diet on subclinical neurological abnormalities needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Transmissão Sináptica , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e102790, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25062250

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CD) may initially present as a neurological disorder or may be complicated by neurological changes. To date, neurophysiological studies aiming to an objective evaluation of the potential central nervous system involvement in CD are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the profile of cortical excitability to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in a group of de novo CD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty CD patients underwent a screening for cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms by means of the Mini Mental State Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, respectively. Instrumental exams, including electroencephalography and brain computed tomography, were also performed. Cortico-spinal excitability was assessed by means of single and paired-pulse TMS using the first dorsal interosseus muscle of the dominant hand. TMS measures consisted of resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials, cortical silent period (CSP), intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF). None of the CD was on gluten-free diet. A group of 20 age-matched healthy controls was used for comparisons. RESULTS: CD showed a significantly shorter CSP (78.0 vs 125.0 ms, p<0.025), a reduced ICI (0.3 vs 0.2, p<0.045) and an enhanced ICF (1.1 vs 0.7, p<0.042) compared to controls. A dysthymic disorder was identified in five patients. The effect size between dysthymic and non-dysthymic CD patients indicated a low probability of interference with the CSP (Cohen's d -0.414), ICI (-0.278) and ICF (-0.292) measurements. CONCLUSION: A pattern of cortical excitability characterized by "disinhibition" and "hyperfacilitation" was found in CD patients. Immune system dysregulation might play a central role in triggering changes of the motor cortex excitability.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Eletromiografia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 10(9): 3843-54, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23985770

RESUMO

Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco
20.
Neurosci Lett ; 534: 155-9, 2013 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23274709

RESUMO

Vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) is a condition at risk for future dementia and should be the target of preventive strategies. Recently, an enhanced intracortical facilitation observed in VCI-ND patients was proposed as a candidate neurophysiological marker of the disease process. The aim of this study was to monitor the excitability of the motor cortex and the functioning of excitatory/inhibitory intracortical circuits in patients with VCI-ND after a follow-up period of approximately 2 years, in order to pick out early markers of disease progression into dementia. Nine patients and 9 age-matched controls were re-evaluated for single and paired pulse TMS measures of cortical excitability, as well as for neuropsycological and functional assessment. Compared to the first evaluation, patients showed a decrease of the median resting motor threshold (rMT). Patients exhibited a significant worsening at Stroop Color-Word Test Interference scores without substantial functional impairment. Our study represents the first evidence of a decrease of rMT in VCI-ND patients during the progression of cognitive impairment. This result might be considered an index of motor cortex plasticity and interpreted as a compensatory mechanism for the loss of motor cortex neurons.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Potencial Evocado Motor , Seguimentos , Humanos , Córtex Motor/irrigação sanguínea , Teste de Stroop
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