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1.
Nat Med ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127716

RESUMO

People with obesity commonly face a pervasive, resilient form of social stigma. They are often subject to discrimination in the workplace as well as in educational and healthcare settings. Research indicates that weight stigma can cause physical and psychological harm, and that affected individuals are less likely to receive adequate care. For these reasons, weight stigma damages health, undermines human and social rights, and is unacceptable in modern societies. To inform healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the public about this issue, a multidisciplinary group of international experts, including representatives of scientific organizations, reviewed available evidence on the causes and harms of weight stigma and, using a modified Delphi process, developed a joint consensus statement with recommendations to eliminate weight bias. Academic institutions, professional organizations, media, public-health authorities, and governments should encourage education about weight stigma to facilitate a new public narrative about obesity, coherent with modern scientific knowledge.

2.
Obes Rev ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048465

RESUMO

Evidence of weight stigma and its harmful consequences have led to increased attention to the words that are used to talk about obesity and body weight, including calls for efforts to carefully consider weight-related terminology and promote respectful language in the obesity and medical fields. Despite increased research studies examining people's preferences for specific words that describe body weight, there has been no systematic review to synthesize existing evidence on perceptions of and preferences for weight-related terminology. To address this gap, the current systematic review identified 33 studies (23 quantitative, 10 qualitative) that examined people's preferences for weight-related terminology in the current research literature (from 1999 to 2019). Across studies, findings generally suggest that neutral terminology (eg, "weight" or "unhealthy weight") is preferred and that words like "obese" and "fat" are least acceptable, particularly in provider-patient conversations about weight. However, individual variation in language preferences is evident across demographic characteristics like race/ethnicity, gender, and weight status. Of priority is future research that can improve upon the limited diversity of the existing literature, both with respect to sample diversity and the use of culturally relevant weight-related terminology, which is currently lacking in measurement. Implications for patient-provider communication and public health communication are discussed.

3.
Am Psychol ; 75(2): 274-289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053000

RESUMO

Weight stigma is a key aspect of the lived experience of individuals with obesity, and adversely affects health. This article provides an overview of recent evidence examining links between experiences of weight stigma and weight-related behaviors and health (e.g., maladaptive eating, physical activity, stress, obesity, weight loss), including health consequences for individuals with heightened vulnerability to weight stigma (e.g., youth and people seeking bariatric surgery) and implications for clinicians working with individuals who have obesity. This literature points to weight stigma as a psychosocial contributor to obesogenic behaviors, yet the role of weight stigma in weight loss among treatment-seeking individuals has received little attention. Research priorities are identified, including the need for future studies to (a) determine the potentially predictive value of specific characteristics of weight-stigmatizing experiences for weight loss (such as the time period, interpersonal sources, and coping responses for stigma experiences), (b) identify mechanisms through which weight stigma may undermine or facilitate weight-related treatment outcomes, and (c) test strategies that can be implemented in weight management programs to reduce the negative impact of weight stigma on health behaviors. Broadly, more attention should be directed to weight stigma in the obesity field as a relevant psychosocial factor in obesity-focused prevention and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Soc Sci Med ; 249: 112854, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097842

RESUMO

People react to, and are affected by, stigmatizing experiences in different ways. The current study examined different reactions to weight stigma to identify who may be vulnerable to lasting distress from these experiences. Using a mixed methods approach, this study compared qualitative descriptions of reactions to experiences of weight stigma in conjunction with quantitative measures of weight bias internalization (WBI) and other health indices. Data were collected from September 2017 to August 2018. Participants were U.S. adults enrolled in a commercial weight management program (n = 425, 96% female) who reported previous experiences of weight stigma (on quantitative measures), and who also qualitatively described feeling either no longer distressed (n = 178) or still distressed (n = 247) by those experiences. Qualitative analyses revealed that participants who were no longer distressed engaged in self-acceptance, were not concerned about other's evaluations of them, and prioritized health rather than appearance. Those who were still distressed from previous weight stigma experiences considered their body weight, and being stigmatized for it, as playing a prominent role in shaping their self-perception, they blamed themselves for experiencing the consequences of weight stigma, and ruminated on their memories of stigmatizing experiences. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated that participants who were still distressed reported greater WBI, greater perceived stress, and poorer mental health than participants who were no longer distressed. When adding WBI to the model predicting perceived stress, differences between participants who were no longer distressed versus still distressed attenuated and became statistically insignificant, suggesting that these qualitative reaction patterns to stigma may be related to participants' level of WBI. Given that some people may experience longer term distress from weight stigma than others, this study can inform interventions aimed to prevent or mitigate the negative consequences associated with being stigmatized.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978983

RESUMO

There is increasing scientific and public support for the notion that some foods may be addictive, and that poor weight control and obesity may, for some people, stem from having a food addiction. However, it remains unclear how a food addiction model (FAM) explanation for obesity and weight control will affect weight stigma. In two experiments (N = 530 and N = 690), we tested the effect of a food addiction explanation for obesity and weight control on weight stigma. In Experiment 1, participants who received a FAM explanation for weight control and obesity reported lower weight stigma scores (e.g., less dislike of 'fat people', and lower personal willpower blame) than those receiving an explanation emphasizing diet and exercise (F(4,525) = 7.675, p = 0.006; and F(4,525) = 5.393, p = 0.021, respectively). In Experiment 2, there was a significant group difference for the dislike of 'fat people' stigma measure (F(5,684) = 5.157, p = 0.006), but not for personal willpower weight stigma (F(5,684) = 0.217, p = 0.81). Participants receiving the diet and exercise explanation had greater dislike of 'fat people' than those in the FAM explanation and control group (p values < 0.05), with no difference between the FAM and control groups (p >0.05). The FAM explanation for weight control and obesity did not increase weight stigma and resulted in lower stigma than the diet and exercise explanation that attributes obesity to personal control. The results highlight the importance of health messaging about the causes of obesity and the need for communications that do not exacerbate weight stigma.

6.
LGBT Health ; 7(1): 37-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755811

RESUMO

Purpose: We examined how substance use differed as a function of sex assigned at birth and gender identity (cisgender, transgender, or nonbinary/genderqueer) by type of substance. We sought to test whether current gender identity and sex assigned at birth were key factors in substance use among a large contemporary sample that included transgender and nonbinary/genderqueer adolescents. Methods: We analyzed data from a large national U.S. sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents (n = 11,129) collected between April and December 2017. Chi-square tests of independence were used to test whether substance use behaviors varied by sex assigned at birth and gender identity. A series of multivariate logistic regression models tested the odds of substance use by sex assigned at birth and gender identity, as well as the interaction between sex assigned at birth and gender identity. Results: More than half of our sample reported lifetime alcohol use, and one-fourth of the sample reported lifetime marijuana use. Adolescents assigned male at birth had higher prevalence of substance use compared with adolescents assigned female at birth (AFAB). Multivariate models elucidated greater risk for most substance use outcomes for transgender adolescents compared with cisgender adolescents. We found significant interaction effects between gender identity and sex assigned at birth for recent alcohol use and lifetime and recent cigarette use among adolescents AFAB. Conclusions: These findings have implications for stakeholders who develop nationally representative surveys, researchers who examine substance use disparities among SGM adolescents, and mental health professionals who treat underage substance use among vulnerable populations.

7.
J Res Adolesc ; 30 Suppl 2: 431-442, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758906

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time of identity exploration, and preliminary evidence indicates the ways adolescents are describing their sexual and gender identities (SOGI) are changing. A nuanced understanding of SOGI is necessary for valid assessment in developmental research. Current measures do not capture the diversity of emerging identities among young people. Our study analyzed a national sample of 17,112 sexual and gender minority adolescents (13-17 years) to better understand how identity labels are reported across sexual, gender, and ethnoracial minorities. Adolescents reported 26 distinct SOGI categories; 24% of adolescents utilized nontraditional SOGI labels, such as pansexual and nonbinary. These identifications varied significantly as a function of ethnoracial identity. Results have implications for how scholars conceptualize and measure SOGI among adolescents.

8.
Fam Community Health ; 43(1): 17-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764303

RESUMO

This study explored weight-based victimization by family members, accepting lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) attitudes, and family connectedness, and how these experiences are associated with health, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms among LGBTQ adolescents. Data came from the LGBTQ National Teen Survey (N = 9261, mean age = 15.6 years). The 3 key variables were significantly associated with poorer self-rated health, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. For example, weight-based victimization was associated with approximately 2 more points on the depressive symptoms scale (ß = 1.81, P < .001), adjusting for covariates. Findings highlight the negative impact of weight-based victimization among LGBTQ youth, even in the context of other types of family support.

9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(11): 1906-1915, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite elevated rates of obesity among some groups of sexual minority (SM) adults, research examining weight stigma in this population is scarce. METHODS: Weight stigma and weight-related health correlates were assessed in SM adults (N = 658) versus heterosexual adults (N = 658) matched on sex, race/ethnicity, age, education, and BMI. Adults enrolled in WW (formerly Weight Watchers) completed digital questionnaires assessing experienced weight stigma, weight bias internalization (WBI), weight cycling, eating self-efficacy, eating to cope, physical activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). RESULTS: Survey response rates ranged from 0.8% to 3.5%. There were no differences in experienced weight stigma between SM and heterosexual participants; more than two-thirds experienced weight stigma, and more than 50% reported stigma from family, health care providers, teachers and classmates, and community members. Gay men endorsed higher WBI than heterosexual men (ß = 0.22, P < 0.001). Regardless of sexual orientation, WBI was associated with poorer mental HRQOL, lower eating self-efficacy, and increased eating to cope, controlling for demographics and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing weight stigma is as common for SM adults as heterosexual adults engaged in weight management, and WBI is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors and poor mental HRQOL. Increased attention to weight stigma and its health implications in SM populations is warranted.

10.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1598-1605, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A substantial amount of literature has suggested that weight stigma impairs health. Evidence on gender differences in weight stigma has been mixed, but studies of weight stigma within men have been primarily absent from the literature. METHODS: In two samples of men recruited nationally from across the United States (N = 1,753), participants completed self-report measures assessing their height, weight, demographics, weight stigma (experienced and internalized), psychological well-being (depression), health behaviors (sleep, alcohol, smoking, binge eating, dieting, physical activity), and self-rated health. RESULTS: Regression analyses showed that, independent of race, socioeconomic status, and BMI, experienced weight stigma and weight bias internalization among men were associated with poor health, including greater depressive symptoms, increased dieting, lower self-reported health, and increased odds of binge eating. Neither internalized nor experienced weight stigma was consistently associated with physical activity, smoking, drinking, or trouble sleeping. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both experienced and internalized weight stigma are associated with several indices of poor health in men. It may be informative for future work to examine how men cope with weight stigma, particularly if certain coping responses to stigma involve behaviors that contribute to poorer health.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217623, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease across diverse groups in the U.S. population, and increasing research has identified stigma as a potential barrier to cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. This systematic review examines evidence linking discrimination and cardiovascular health among socially stigmatized groups. STUDY DESIGN: Six databases were systematically reviewed from inception through February 2018 for studies with adult subjects, focusing on cardiovascular health indicators among social groups stigmatized because of their gender, race/ethnicity, age, body weight/obesity, or sexual orientation. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality and risk of bias for nonrandomized studies, and the Cochrane Collaboration 7-item domain for randomized controlled and experimental trials. RESULTS: The search identified 84 eligible studies published between 1984 and 2017. Studies retrieved were categorized according to demonstrated links between stigma and cardiovascular disease risk factors including blood pressure (n = 45), heart rate variability (n = 6), blood/saliva cardiovascular biomarkers (n = 18), as well as other indicators of cardiovascular health (n = 15). Based on the findings from included studies, 86% concluded that there was a significant relationship among stigma or discrimination and cardiovascular health indicators among socially stigmatized groups. However, there were varying degrees of evidence supporting these relationships, depending on the type of discrimination and cardiovascular health indicator. The current evidence implies an association between perceived discrimination and cardiovascular health. However, a majority of these studies are cross-sectional (73%) and focus on racial discrimination (79%), while using a wide variety of measurements to assess social discrimination and cardiovascular health. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should include longitudinal and randomized controlled trial designs, with larger and more diverse samples of individuals with stigmatized identities, using consistent measurement approaches to assess social discrimination and its relationship with cardiovascular health.

12.
Health Psychol ; 38(8): 727-737, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weight-based victimization (WBV) involves being the target of intentional physical, verbal, or psychological harm because of one's body weight. Youth experience harmful health consequences from WBV, but this literature has neglected sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth, despite their high rates of overweight and obesity, and mental health problems. The present study assessed health behaviors (substance use), self-rated health, perceived control over stressors, depressive symptoms and self-esteem as a function of WBV in a large, national sample of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) adolescents. METHOD: Participants (N = 9,838, Mage = 15.6 years, SD = 1.26) completed a web-based battery of questionnaires examining victimization, health, family, and school experiences of LGBTQ adolescents in the United States. RESULTS: WBV was associated with increased odds of alcohol use, binge drinking, marijuana use, and cigarette use, independent of adolescents' age, race, body mass index (BMI), sexual identity, gender identity, caregiver education, and U.S. region. Frequency of WBV at school and weight teasing from family members were both consistently associated with lower self-rated health, lower perceived control over stressors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptom scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings present the first large-scale evidence of the relationship between WBV and adverse health behaviors in SGM youth. Sexual minority youth who experience WBV, especially from family members, may be vulnerable to adverse health behaviors and low perceived health, regardless of their BMI. These findings highlight the importance of considering WBV when examining health behaviors in LGBTQ youth, and increased awareness of these issues among health care professionals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
13.
Appetite ; 141: 104321, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202917

RESUMO

Weight-based victimization (WBV) is a common form of bullying associated with maladaptive eating, and poor weight-related health. Although sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth experience a number of eating and weight-related health disparities, the link between WBV and these outcomes has not been investigated in this vulnerable population. Data came from the LGBTQ Teen Study, a national survey of SGM adolescents. Participants provided data to assess body mass index (BMI), WBV, sexual identity, gender identity, dieting, binge eating, eating to cope with stress, weight control behaviors, exercise, and stress (N = 9679). The sample was 66% White, with a mean age of 15.6 years; 58.5% had healthy weight, and 37.2% had overweight or obesity. Over half of participants reported WBV from family members and peers. WBV from family members was associated with maladaptive eating (i.e., binge-eating, unhealthy weight-control behaviors), dieting, and poor weight-related health (i.e., stress, exercise avoidance, less physical activity and poorer sleep); relationships remained significant after accounting for participants' age, BMI percentile for age and sex, race, gender identity, and sexual identity. Higher frequency of WBV at school, but not history of peer weight-based victimization, was associated with more maladaptive eating, dieting, and poorer weight-related health on all outcomes except physical activity. This is the first large-scale study that examined links between WBV, maladaptive eating behaviors, and weight-related health in SGM adolescents. These results suggest the need for increased awareness that WBV may play a role in maladaptive eating, and weight-related health of SGM youth, and may contribute to both elevated levels of eating disorders and obesity in this population.

14.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(10): e12534, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many parents engage in "weight talk" with their child, such as encouraging their child to lose weight or making comments about their own weight or others' weight. What parents say to their children about weight can affect children's well-being, yet little is known about parental characteristics that may be at play regarding this common practice. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the role of weight stigma in parental weight talk, and whether internalized weight bias mediates the relationship between parents' experiences of weight stigma and weight-based conversations and comments. METHODS: A sample of 453 parents (Mage  = 35.07) with children 2 to 17 years old (Mage  = 8.76) completed surveys measuring parental experiences with weight stigma, weight bias internalization, and frequency of different types of parental weight talk. Mediations were tested via the PROCESS macro. RESULTS: Independent of controls (parent BMI, child BMI percentile, parent and child sex, parent and child age, race, income, and education), experienced weight stigma was indirectly associated with greater frequency of weight-based conversations (ß = .08) and comments about oneself (ß = .08) and others (ß = .04) via parents' internalized weight bias. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer novel insights for understanding parental weight talk and can inform pediatric providers working with families on weight-related issues.

15.
J Psychosom Res ; 122: 88-93, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the prevalence of weight-based teasing by family members and associations with unhealthy weight control behaviors, body satisfaction, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms among adolescents from three immigrant communities (Latinx, Hmong, and Somali). METHODS: Data come from EAT 2010, a population-based study of weight and related behaviors (N = 1577, mean age = 14.5 years). Adjusted models tested associations between weight-based teasing and well-being, controlling for BMI and ethnic group; effect modification by ethnic group and acculturation were also explored. RESULTS: Family weight-based teasing was common (12.1%-42.9% reporting this experience across gender and ethnic groups) and was associated with all four measures of well-being in the expected direction. Associations were statistically equivalent in all ethnic groups and were not modified by acculturation. CONCLUSION: Youth from immigrant communities experience family weight-based teasing and associated threats to well-being. Additional research is needed to further understand the cultural context of weight-based teasing and develop relevant prevention messages.

16.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(7): e12514, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Children and adolescents with overweight and obesity are vulnerable to weight-based victimization. Research on weight-based victimization and sexual identity have been largely isolated from one another; little is known about the nature of weight-based victimization in sexual and gender minority (SGM: eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth. Our study is the first to examine the nature, extent, and sources of weight-based victimization in a large sample of SGM adolescents. METHODS: This study utilized data from the LGBTQ National Teen Survey, a comprehensive online survey assessing victimization, school experiences, health behaviors, and sexuality-specific experiences of SGM adolescents across the United States. The sample was composed of 9838 SGM adolescents (Mage  = 15.6 years). RESULTS: Across diverse sexual orientation and gender identity groups, 44% to 70% of adolescents reported weight-based teasing from family members, and 42% to 57% reported weight-based teasing from peers. Approximately one-third of adolescents reported these experiences from both family and peers. Weight-based victimization was prevalent across body weight categories, particularly at highest (obesity) and lowest (underweight) extremes. Moreover, weight-based victimization was prevalent across adolescents who endorsed established sexual identity labels (eg, gay, lesbian, bisexual) and emerging labels (eg, pansexual, asexual). CONCLUSIONS: Weight-based victimization, from family members and peers, is prevalent among SGM adolescents, across diverse body sizes and sexual and gender identities. Pediatric providers should be aware that SGM youth may be vulnerable to weight-based victimization, across diverse body sizes.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Família , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade Feminina , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2271, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519207

RESUMO

Background: Emerging evidence has demonstrated a high prevalence of weight bias internalization (WBI) among adults, as well as consistent links between internalization and adverse psychological and physical health. However, research examining WBI in youth and its impact on their health is scarce, especially among youth seeking weight loss treatment who may be particularly vulnerable to weight stigma from peers and parents. To address this research gap, the present study assessed WBI in a weight loss treatment-seeking sample of adolescents, examining associations between internalization and adolescents' eating behaviors and parental weight-related communication. Methods: Adolescents (N = 148, M age = 15.97 years), completed online self-report measures to assess WBI (using the modified version of the WBI Scale), body weight, binge eating, eating as a coping strategy, and weight teasing from peers and family members. Adolescents also reported on the frequency of parental comments about body weight, parental dieting, and parental encouragement of adolescent dieting. Results: Adolescents expressed a high mean level of internalized weight bias (M = 5.45, SD = 0.88). Higher levels of internalization were observed across increasing body weight categories; no differences were observed for gender or history of weight teasing. WBI was significantly higher among adolescents who reported binge eating and eating to cope with distress. Regression analyses showed that weight-related comments from mothers (but not fathers) significantly predicted adolescents' WBI (including frequency of mothers' comments about adolescents' body weight, comments about their own body weight, and encouragement of their adolescent to diet), as did increased dieting frequency among mothers. Conclusion: The present study provides novel insights to the scant literature on WBI in youth. Findings indicate that WBI is high in both girls and boys engaged in weight loss, and is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors, higher frequency of maternal dieting, and mothers' comments about body weight. These findings have important clinical implications for youth and families engaged in weight loss treatment, and underscore the need for research to clarify adverse effects of internalization on weight-related health in youth and to better understand the role that parental weight communication may have on adolescents' internalization.

18.
Pain Rep ; 3(Suppl 1): e679, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324171

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic pain in adolescents is a significant medical condition, affecting the physical and psychological well-being of youth and their families. Pain-related stigma is a significant psychosocial factor in adolescents with chronic pain that has been understudied, despite its implications for negative health outcomes, poor quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization. Objectives: To examine pain-related stigma in the literature documenting pediatric and adult health-related stigma and present preliminary findings from a focus group of adolescents with chronic pain. Methods: In this narrative review, we explored pain-related stigma research and conceptualized the literature to address pain-related stigma among adolescents with chronic pain. Additionally, we conducted a focus group of four adolescent females with chronic pain and using content analyses, coded the data for preliminary themes. Results: We propose a pain-related stigma model and framework based on our review and the findings from our focus group. Findings suggest that medical providers, school personnel (ie, teachers and school nurses), peers and even family members enact pain-related stigma toward adolescents with chronic pain. Conclusions: Based on this narrative review, there is preliminary evidence of pain-related stigma among adolescents with chronic pain and future research is warranted to better understand the nature and extent of this stigma within this population.

19.
Child Obes ; 14(5): 291-301, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With high rates of adolescent obesity, many parents are talking to adolescents about their body weight. Parental "weight talk" is linked with adverse health behaviors in youth, but we know little about what parents say in these conversations. Using a weight loss treatment-seeking sample of adolescents, the present study assessed adolescents' emotional reactions to words their parents use to describe their weight and preferred language for these interactions. METHODS: Adolescents enrolled in a national weight loss camp (N = 148) completed a questionnaire assessing their preferences for, and emotional reactions to, parental use of 18 words to describe their body weight. RESULTS: Findings showed a diverse range of weight language used by parents, with many words inducing negative emotional reactions of embarrassment, shame, and sadness in adolescents. Emotional responses to weight language varied according to adolescents' gender, BMI, and experience of weight-teasing from family members. CONCLUSIONS: Findings underscore the need to carefully consider language; parents should avoid making assumptions about what language to use in conversations with adolescents about their weight. Educating parents how to identify negative weight talk may help promote more supportive parental communication about weight-related health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terminologia como Assunto , Estados Unidos , Programas de Redução de Peso
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(6): 968-976, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the weight stigma experiences of men, examining characteristics of men who experienced weight stigma versus men who did not. METHODS: Data from three samples of men were examined (N = 1,513). Sample 1 consisted of men with obesity at elevated risk for weight stigma. Sample 2 comprised a convenience online panel. Sample 3 included men from a national online panel of US adults. Men in all samples completed almost identical questionnaires assessing demographics, anthropometrics, weight stigma, and dieting. RESULTS: Approximately 40% of men reported experiencing weight stigma. Weight stigma was associated with increased odds of having a BMI consistent with underweight or obesity relative to normal weight. Verbal mistreatment was the most common form of weight stigma experienced across all life stages for men. The most common sources of weight stigma were peers, family members, and strangers. Men reporting weight stigma were younger and less likely to be married, had higher BMIs, and were more likely to have tried to lose weight in the past year relative to men not reporting weight stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding differences among men as a function of weight stigma is important for practitioners, as it can identify men who may most benefit from intervention.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Obesidade/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza
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