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1.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944221

RESUMO

Importance: A randomized clinical trial is needed to determine whether the second-generation Abl-tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib is more effective than the first-generation inhibitor imatinib mesylate for childhood Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Objective: To determine whether dasatinib given at a daily dosage of 80 mg/m2 is more effective than imatinib mesylate at a daily dosage of 300 mg/m2 to improve event-free survival of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL in the context of intensive chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, phase 3 randomized clinical trial was conducted at 20 hospitals in China. Enrollment occurred from January 1, 2015, through September 18, 2018, and randomization was stopped on October 4, 2018, when the early stopping criterion of the trial was met. Patients aged 0 to 18 years were recruited. Of the 225 patients with the diagnosis, 35 declined participation and 1 died before treatment, leaving 189 patients available for analysis. Data were analyzed from January 1 through August 4, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive daily dasatinib (n = 92) or imatinib (n = 97) continuously for the entire duration of ALL therapy from the time of diagnosis made during remission induction to the end of continuation therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was event-free survival, analyzed based on intention to treat. The secondary outcomes were relapse, death due to toxic effects, and overall survival. Results: Among the 189 participants (136 male [72.0%]; median age, 7.8 [interquartile range (IQR), 5.2-11.3] years) and a median follow-up of 26.4 (IQR, 16.3-34.1) months, the 4-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 71.0% (95% CI, 56.2%-89.6%) and 88.4% (95% CI, 81.3%-96.1%), respectively, in the dasatinib group and 48.9% (95% CI, 32.0%-74.5%; P = .005, log-rank test) and 69.2% (95% CI, 55.6%-86.2%; P = .04, log-rank test), respectively, in the imatinib group. The 4-year cumulative risk of any relapse was 19.8% (95% CI, 4.2%-35.4%) in the dasatinib group and 34.4% (95% CI, 15.6%-53.2%) in the imatinib group (P = .01, Gray test), whereas the 4-year cumulative risk of an isolated central nervous system relapse was 2.7% (95% CI, 0.0%-8.1%) in the dasatinib group and 8.4% (95% CI, 1.2%-15.6%) in the imatinib group (P = .06, Gray test). There were no significant differences in the frequency of severe toxic effects between the 2 treatment groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Intensive chemotherapy including dasatinib at a dosage of 80 mg/m2 per day yielded superior results in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL compared with imatinib mesylate at a dosage of 300 mg/m2 per day and provided excellent control of central nervous system leukemia without the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 692, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959839

RESUMO

Cranial radiation therapy is associated with white matter-specific brain injury, cortical volume loss, mineralization, microangiopathy and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis, neurocognitive testing and 3 T brain MRI's were obtained in 101 survivors treated with cranial radiation. Small focal intracerebral hemorrhages only visible on exquisitely sensitive MRI sequences were identified and localized using susceptibility weighted imaging. Modified Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of cranial radiation on cumulative number and location of microbleeds in each brain region, and multiple linear regression was used to evaluate microbleeds on neurocognitive outcomes, adjusting for age at diagnosis and sex. At least one microbleed was present in 85% of survivors, occurring more frequently in frontal lobes. Radiation dose of 24 Gy conveyed a 5-fold greater risk (95% CI 2.57-10.32) of having multiple microbleeds compared to a dose of 18 Gy. No significant difference was found in neurocognitive scores with either the absence or presence of microbleeds or their location. Greater prevalence of microbleeds in our study compared to prior reports is likely related to longer time since treatment, better sensitivity of SWI for detection of microbleeds and the use of a 3 T MRI platform.

4.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 13(1): 55-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657974

RESUMO

Introduction: Historically, the majority of childhood cancers, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), were not thought to have a hereditary basis. However, recent germline genomic studies have revealed that at least 5 - 10% of children with cancer (and approximately 3 - 4% of children with ALL) develop the disease due to an underlying genetic predisposition.Areas covered: This review discusses several recently identified ALL predisposing conditions and provides updates on other more well-established syndromes. It also covers topics related to the evaluation and management of children and family members at increased ALL risk.Expert opinion: Germline predisposition is gaining recognition as an important risk factor underlying the development of pediatric ALL. The challenge now lies in how best to capitalize on germline genetic information to improve ALL diagnosis, treatment, and perhaps even prevention.

5.
Blood ; 135(1): 41-55, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697823

RESUMO

To study the mechanisms of relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 103 diagnosis-relapse-germline trios and ultra-deep sequencing of 208 serial samples in 16 patients. Relapse-specific somatic alterations were enriched in 12 genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, TP53, NT5C2, FPGS, CREBBP, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, WHSC1, PRPS1, and PRPS2) involved in drug response. Their prevalence was 17% in very early relapse (<9 months from diagnosis), 65% in early relapse (9-36 months), and 32% in late relapse (>36 months) groups. Convergent evolution, in which multiple subclones harbor mutations in the same drug resistance gene, was observed in 6 relapses and confirmed by single-cell sequencing in 1 case. Mathematical modeling and mutational signature analysis indicated that early relapse resistance acquisition was frequently a 2-step process in which a persistent clone survived initial therapy and later acquired bona fide resistance mutations during therapy. In contrast, very early relapses arose from preexisting resistant clone(s). Two novel relapse-specific mutational signatures, one of which was caused by thiopurine treatment based on in vitro drug exposure experiments, were identified in early and late relapses but were absent from 2540 pan-cancer diagnosis samples and 129 non-ALL relapses. The novel signatures were detected in 27% of relapsed ALLs and were responsible for 46% of acquired resistance mutations in NT5C2, PRPS1, NR3C1, and TP53. These results suggest that chemotherapy-induced drug resistance mutations facilitate a subset of pediatric ALL relapses.

6.
Cancer ; 126(4): 870-878, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater than one-half of children who are treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) develop ≥1 treatment-related medical conditions in their lifetime, many of which are known risk factors for diabetes mellitus. In the current study, the authors evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among clinically assessed adult survivors of childhood ALL METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective evaluation of data from survivors of ALL and community controls who were enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study between October 1, 2007, and June 30, 2016. Participants were adults with ≥10 years of survival of childhood ALL and community controls who completed clinical and laboratory evaluations. Data for the current analysis were abstracted from medical records. Exposures evaluated herein included chemotherapy and radiation exposures and medical history, including drug-induced diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Of 1360 eligible adults who were ≥10-year survivors of childhood ALL, a total of 1044 completed the evaluations; these individuals had a mean age of 33.97±9.14 years and 50.86% were male. The 368 controls, 45.65% of whom were male, had a mean age of 35.33±10.21 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was found in approximately 7.47% of survivors and 3.80% of controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.11-3.87). In adjusted models, among survivors, older age (OR, 1.05 for each additional year; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR, 7.40; 95% CI, 2.61-20.97), and drug-induced diabetes mellitus occurring during ALL therapy (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.53-8.61) were found to be associated with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Adult survivors of childhood ALL are at an increased risk of T2DM. Adult survivors of childhood ALL who are of older age, with an overweight or obese body mass index, and/or who developed drug-induced diabetes mellitus during treatment should be closely monitored for T2DM during long-term follow-up.

7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(3): e27968, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407461

RESUMO

Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only are at risk for neurocognitive impairment. Regions of interest were identified a priori based on glucocorticoid receptor distribution, and sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models were used to test associations between brain MRI morphology and total number of intrathecal injections, and serum concentration of dexamethasone and methotrexate. Compared with controls, ALL survivors have persistently smaller volumes in the bilateral cerebellum (P < 0.005), hippocampal subregions (P < 0.03), temporal lobe regions (P < 0.03), frontal lobe regions (P < 0.04), and parietal lobe regions (precuneus; P < 0.002). Long-term problems with learning may be related to residual posttreatment brain differences.

8.
Cancer ; 126(3): 640-648, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for both treatment-related exercise intolerance and neurocognitive deficits. This analysis aimed to identify the association between exercise intolerance and neurocognitive impairments in ALL survivors. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, results from a 2-hour standardized neuropsychological assessment, and self-report questionnaires were obtained for 341 adult survivors of childhood ALL and 288 controls. Multivariable modeling was used to test associations between oxygen uptake at 85% estimated heart rate (rpkVO2 ) and neuropsychological test and self-reported questionnaire domains, adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis, cranial radiation, anthracycline, and methotrexate exposure and tobacco smoking status. RESULTS: Compared with controls, survivors had worse rpkVO2 and performance on verbal intelligence, focused attention, verbal fluency, working memory, dominant/nondominant motor speed, visual-motor speed, memory span, and reading and math measures (all P < .001). In adjusted models, exercise intolerance was associated with decreases in performance of verbal ability, focused attention, verbal fluency, working memory, dominant motor speed, nondominant motor speed, visual-motor speed, memory span, reading academics, and math academics in survivors. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association between exercise intolerance and neurocognitive outcomes. Research is needed to determine whether interventions that improve exercise tolerance impact neurocognitive function in ALL survivors.

9.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(1): 176-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563145

RESUMO

Much has been written about the promise of "precision medicine," especially in oncology, where somatic mutations can influence the response of cancer cells to "targeted therapy." There have been successful examples of targeted therapy improving the outcome of some childhood cancers, such as the addition of an ABL class tyrosine kinase inhibitor to conventional chemotherapy substantially improving the cure rate for patients with BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although there are other mutations serving as putative targets in various childhood leukemias and solid tumors, effective targeted therapy has yet to be established for them in prospective clinical trials. There are also uncertainties about which "targeted therapy" to use when patients have multiple targetable genomic lesions in their cancer cells, given the paucity of data upon which to develop evidence-based guidelines for selecting and integrating targeted agents for individual patients. There are also multiple examples of inherited germline variants for which evidence-based guidelines have been developed by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium to guide the selection and dosing of medications in children with cancer. Clinical pharmacology is poised to play a critical role in both the discovery and development of new targeted anticancer agents and their evidence-based translation into better treatment for children with cancer. To embrace these challenges and opportunities of "precision medicine," clinical and basic pharmacologists must expand the depth of our science and the bandwidth of our translational capacity if we are to optimize precision medicine and advance the treatment of cancer in children and adults.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28040, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids and asparaginase, used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), can cause hypertriglyceridemia. We compared triglyceride levels, risk factors, and associated toxicities in two ALL trials at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital with identical glucocorticoid regimens, but different asparaginase formulations. In Total XV (TXV), native Escherichia coli l-asparaginase was front-line therapy versus the pegylated formulation (PEG-asparaginase) in Total XVI (TXVI). PROCEDURE: Patients enrolled on TXV (n = 498) and TXVI (n = 598) were assigned to low-risk (LR) or standard/high-risk (SHR) treatment arms (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00137111 and NCT00549848). Triglycerides were measured four times and were evaluable in 925 patients (TXV: n = 362; TXVI: n = 563). The genetic contribution was assessed using a triglyceride polygenic risk score (triglyceride-PRS). Osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and pancreatitis were prospectively graded. RESULTS: The largest increase in triglycerides occurred in TXVI SHR patients treated with dexamethasone and PEG-asparaginase (4.5-fold increase; P <1 × 10-15 ). SHR patients treated with PEG-asparaginase (TXVI) had more severe hypertriglyceridemia (>1000 mg/dL) compared to native l-asparaginase (TXV): 10.5% versus 5.5%, respectively (P = .007). At week 7, triglycerides did not increase with dexamethasone treatment alone (LR patients) but did increase with dexamethasone plus asparaginase (SHR patients). The variability in triglycerides explained by the triglyceride-PRS was highest at baseline and declined with therapy. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with osteonecrosis (P = .0006) and thrombosis (P = .005), but not pancreatitis (P = .4). CONCLUSION: Triglycerides were affected more by PEG-asparaginase than native l-asparaginase, by asparaginase more than dexamethasone, and by drug effects more than genetics. It is not clear whether triglycerides contribute to thrombosis and osteonecrosis or are biomarkers of the toxicities.

11.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 38(4): 595-610, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811553

RESUMO

The 5-year survival rate for children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved to more than 90% in high-income countries. However, further increases in the intensity of conventional chemotherapy would be associated with significant adverse effects; therefore, novel approaches are necessary. The last decade has seen significant advances in targeted therapy with immunotherapy and molecular therapeutics, as well as advances in risk stratification for therapy based on somatic and germline genetic analysis and monitoring of minimal residual disease. For immunotherapy, the approval of antibody-based therapy (with blinatumomab in 2014 and inotuzumab ozogamicin in 2017) and T cell-based therapy (with tisagenlecleucel in 2017) by the US Food and Drug Administration has significantly improved the response rate and outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory B-ALL. These strategies have also been tested in the frontline setting, and immunotherapy against a new ALL-associated antigen has been developed. Incorporating effective immunotherapy into ALL therapy would enable the intensity of conventional chemotherapy to be decreased and thereby reduce associated toxicity, leading to further improvement in survival and quality of life for patients with ALL.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5348, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767839

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence for a strong inherited genetic basis of susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children. To identify new risk variants for B-cell ALL (B-ALL) we conducted a meta-analysis with four GWAS (genome-wide association studies), totalling 5321 cases and 16,666 controls of European descent. We herein describe novel risk loci for B-ALL at 9q21.31 (rs76925697, P = 2.11 × 10-8), for high-hyperdiploid ALL at 5q31.1 (rs886285, P = 1.56 × 10-8) and 6p21.31 (rs210143 in BAK1, P = 2.21 × 10-8), and ETV6-RUNX1 ALL at 17q21.32 (rs10853104 in IGF2BP1, P = 1.82 × 10-8). Particularly notable are the pleiotropic effects of the BAK1 variant on multiple haematological malignancies and specific effects of IGF2BP1 on ETV6-RUNX1 ALL evidenced by both germline and somatic genomic analyses. Integration of GWAS signals with transcriptomic/epigenomic profiling and 3D chromatin interaction data for these leukaemia risk loci suggests deregulation of B-cell development and the cell cycle as central mechanisms governing genetic susceptibility to ALL.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(35): 3377-3391, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite contemporary treatment, up to 10% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia still experience relapse. We evaluated whether a higher dosage of PEG-asparaginase and early intensification of triple intrathecal therapy would improve systemic and CNS control. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, 598 consecutive patients age 0 to 18 years received risk-directed chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation in the St Jude Total Therapy Study 16. Patients were randomly assigned to receive PEG-asparaginase 3,500 U/m2 versus the conventional 2,500 U/m2. Patients presenting features that were associated with increased risk of CNS relapse received two extra doses of intrathecal therapy during the first 2 weeks of remission induction. RESULTS: The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates for the 598 patients were 88.2% (95% CI, 84.9% to 91.5%) and 94.1% (95% CI, 91.7% to 96.5%), respectively. Cumulative risk of any-isolated or combined-CNS relapse was 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5% to 2.5%). Higher doses of PEG-asparaginase did not affect treatment outcome. T-cell phenotype was the only independent risk factor for any CNS relapse (hazard ratio, 5.15; 95% CI, 1.3 to 20.6; P = . 021). Among 359 patients with features that were associated with increased risk for CNS relapse, the 5-year rate of any CNS relapse was significantly lower than that among 248 patients with the same features treated in the previous Total Therapy Study 15 (1.8% [95% CI, 0.4% to 3.3%] v 5.7% [95% CI, 2.8% to 8.6%]; P = .008). There were no significant differences in the cumulative risk of seizure or infection during induction between patients who did or did not receive the two extra doses of intrathecal treatment. CONCLUSION: Higher doses of PEG-asparaginase failed to improve outcome, but additional intrathecal therapy during early induction seemed to contribute to improved CNS control without excessive toxicity for high-risk patients.

15.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(32): 3018-3031, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Direct assessment of Leydig cell function in childhood cancer survivors has been limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for Leydig cell failure (LCF), Leydig cell dysfunction (LCD), and associated adverse health outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study with cross-sectional health outcomes analysis, we evaluated 1,516 participants (median age, 30.8 years) at a median of 22.0 years after cancer diagnosis. LCF was defined as serum total testosterone less than 250 ng/dL (or 8.67 nmol/L) and luteinizing hormone greater than 9.85 IU/L, and LCD by testosterone as 250 ng/dL or greater and luteinizing hormone greater than 9.85 IU/L. Polytomous logistic regression evaluated associations with demographic and treatment-related risk factors. Log-binomial regression evaluated associations with adverse physical and psychosocial outcomes. Piecewise exponential models assessed the association with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The prevalence of LCF and LCD was 6.9% and 14.7%, respectively. Independent risk factors for LCF included an age of 26 years or older at assessment, testicular radiotherapy at any dose, and alkylating agents at cyclophosphamide equivalent doses of 4,000 mg/m2 or greater. The risk increased with older age, higher doses of testicular radiotherapy, and cyclophosphamide equivalent doses. LCF was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction, muscle weakness, and all-cause mortality. LCD was associated with unilateral orchiectomy and the same risk factors as LCF; no significant associations were found with adverse physical or psychosocial outcomes. CONCLUSION: Older age, testicular radiotherapy, and exposure to alkylating agents were associated with LCF, which was associated with adverse physical and psychosexual outcomes. LCD, although having similar risk factors, was not associated with adverse health outcomes. Additional studies are needed to investigate the role of sex hormone replacement in mitigating the burden from adverse outcomes in survivors.

16.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(8): 1599637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413907

RESUMO

T-cell malignancies expressing the γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) are often associated with poor prognosis. Here, we determined the clinical outcome of pediatric patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) expressing the γδ TCR. Of 100 newly diagnosed T-ALL patients, 93 had γδ TCR analysis performed at diagnosis. Repertoire was evaluated by paired sequencing of the rearranged TCR. All patients received intensified chemotherapy and those with minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥ 1% on day 42-46 became candidates for hematopoietic cell transplantation. Of the 93 T-ALL patients, 12 (13%) had γδ T-ALL and 11 (12%) had early T-cell precursor (ETP) ALL. Compared to the remaining 70 T-ALL patients, the γδ T-ALL patients were more likely to have MRD ≥ 1% on day 15-19 (67% vs. 33%, P = 0.03) and day 42-49 (33% vs. 7%; P = 0.007) of remission induction. The 10-year overall survival for γδ T-ALL patients (66.7% ± 22.2%) were lower than that of T-ALL patients (93.3% ± 7.3%, P = 0.001). TCR analysis demonstrated a conserved clonotype. In conclusion, the data suggest that children with γδ T-ALL may have a poor response to remission induction, based on MRD levels and decreased survival than the other T-ALL patients, despite receiving risk-directed therapy.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7320-7330, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the pharmacokinetics and skin toxicity profile of sorafenib in children with refractory/relapsed malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sorafenib was administered concurrently or sequentially with clofarabine and cytarabine to patients with leukemia or with bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide to patients with solid tumor malignancies. The population pharmacokinetics (PPK) of sorafenib and its metabolites and skin toxicities were evaluated. RESULTS: In PPK analysis, older age, bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide regimen, and higher creatinine were associated with decreased sorafenib apparent clearance (CL/f; P < 0.0001 for all), and concurrent clofarabine and cytarabine administration was associated with decreased sorafenib N-oxide CL/f (P = 7e-4). Higher bilirubin was associated with decreased sorafenib N-oxide and glucuronide CL/f (P = 1e-4). Concurrent use of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 inhibitors was associated with increased sorafenib and decreased sorafenib glucuronide CL/f (P < 0.003). In exposure-toxicity analysis, a shorter time to development of grade 2-3 hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) was associated with concurrent (P = 0.0015) but not with sequential (P = 0.59) clofarabine and cytarabine administration, compared with bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide, and with higher steady-state concentrations of sorafenib (P = 0.0004) and sorafenib N-oxide (P = 0.0275). In the Bayes information criterion model selection, concurrent clofarabine and cytarabine administration, higher sorafenib steady-state concentrations, larger body surface area, and previous occurrence of rash appeared in the four best two-predictor models of HFSR. Pharmacokinetic simulations showed that once-daily and every-other-day sorafenib schedules would minimize exposure to sorafenib steady-state concentrations associated with HFSR. CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib skin toxicities can be affected by concurrent medications and sorafenib steady-state concentrations. The described PPK model can be used to refine exposure-response relations for alternative dosing strategies to minimize skin toxicity.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6101-6115, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373627

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Data on hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) disorders in systematically evaluated childhood cancer survivors are limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe prevalence, risk factors, and associated adverse health outcomes of deficiencies in GH deficiency (GHD), TSH deficiency (TSHD), LH/FSH deficiency (LH/FSHD), and ACTH deficiency (ACTHD), and central precocious puberty (CPP). DESIGN: Retrospective with cross-sectional health outcomes analysis. SETTING: Established cohort; tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Participants (N = 3141; median age, 31.7 years) were followed for a median 24.1 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs for associations among HP disorders, tumor- and treatment-related risk factors, and health outcomes. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence was 40.2% for GHD, 11.1% for TSHD, 10.6% for LH/FSHD, 3.2% for ACTHD, and 0.9% for CPP among participants treated with HP radiotherapy (n = 1089), and 6.2% for GHD, and <1% for other HP disorders without HP radiotherapy. Clinical factors independently associated with HP disorders included HP radiotherapy (at any dose for GHD, TSHD, LH/FSHD, >30 Gy for ACTHD), alkylating agents (GHD, LH/FSHD), intrathecal chemotherapy (GHD), hydrocephalus with shunt placement (GHD, LH/FSHD), seizures (TSHD, ACTHD), and stroke (GHD, TSHD, LH/FSHD, ACTHD). Adverse health outcomes independently associated with HP disorders included short stature (GHD, TSHD), severe bone mineral density deficit (GHD, LH/FSHD), obesity (LH/FSHD), frailty (GHD), impaired physical health-related quality of life (TSHD), sexual dysfunction (LH/FSHD), impaired memory, and processing speed (GHD, TSHD). CONCLUSION: HP radiotherapy, central nervous system injury, and, to a lesser extent, chemotherapy are associated with HP disorders, which are associated with adverse health outcomes.

20.
Blood ; 134(15): 1227-1237, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350265

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and distinct somatic features, including CRLF2 rearrangement in ∼50% of cases; however, the role of inherited genetic variation in DS-ALL susceptibility is unknown. We report the first genome-wide association study of DS-ALL, comprising a meta-analysis of 4 independent studies, with 542 DS-ALL cases and 1192 DS controls. We identified 4 susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance: rs58923657 near IKZF1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; Pmeta = 5.32 × 10-15), rs3731249 in CDKN2A (OR, 3.63; Pmeta = 3.91 × 10-10), rs7090445 in ARID5B (OR, 1.60; Pmeta = 8.44 × 10-9), and rs3781093 in GATA3 (OR, 1.73; Pmeta = 2.89 × 10-8). We performed DS-ALL vs non-DS ALL case-case analyses, comparing risk allele frequencies at these and other established susceptibility loci (BMI1, PIP4K2A, and CEBPE) and found significant association with DS status for CDKN2A (OR, 1.58; Pmeta = 4.1 × 10-4). This association was maintained in separate regression models, both adjusting for and stratifying on CRLF2 overexpression and other molecular subgroups, indicating an increased penetrance of CDKN2A risk alleles in children with DS. Finally, we investigated functional significance of the IKZF1 risk locus, and demonstrated mapping to a B-cell super-enhancer, and risk allele association with decreased enhancer activity and differential protein binding. IKZF1 knockdown resulted in significantly higher proliferation in DS than non-DS lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our findings demonstrate a higher penetrance of the CDKN2A risk locus in DS and serve as a basis for further biological insights into DS-ALL etiology.

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