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2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(1): e28730, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute pancreatitis (AP) due to chemotherapy-induced pancreatic injury is a common side effect of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood malignancy. The American College of Radiology recommends ultrasound (US) for initial imaging of AP in all populations to assess for ductal obstruction. However, US may be insensitive to diagnose and assess chemotherapy-associated AP. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Patients with ALL and AP were identified from protocol databases, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3. Chemotherapy dosing, amylase/lipase levels, clinical symptoms, and US/computed tomography (CT) reports within 10 days of diagnosis were recorded. All CT images were reviewed for revised Atlanta classification and CT severity index (CTSI). RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients, aged 2-21 years, experienced 88 episodes of AP, undergoing 98 US and 44 CT. Seventy-two events (82%) occurred within 30 days of asparaginase administration. Sixty-nine episodes (78%) were initially diagnosed by the presence of abdominal pain and pancreatic enzyme elevation. Overall sensitivities for AP detection were 47% using US and 98% for CT. US sensitivity was greatest in CTCAE grade 4 (86%) and necrotizing pancreatitis (67%). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of AP in children with ALL can be diagnosed with clinical history and labs. US has limited sensitivity in detecting pancreatitis in this population. Imaging to diagnose AP in this patient population could be limited to clinically equivocal cases.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025839, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216140

RESUMO

Importance: Treatment with contemporary chemotherapy-only protocols is associated with risk for neurocognitive impairment among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Objective: To determine whether concurrent use of methotrexate and glucocorticoids is associated with interference with the antioxidant system of the brain and damage and disruption of glucocorticoid-sensitive regions of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to July 2019 in a single pediatric cancer tertiary care center. Participants included survivors of childhood ALL who were more than 5 years from cancer diagnosis, age 8 years or older, and treated on an institutional chemotherapy-only protocol. Age-matched community members were recruited as a control group. Data were analyzed from August 2017 to August 2020. Exposure: ALL treatment using chemotherapy-only protocols. Main Outcomes and Measures: This study compared brain volumes between survivors and individuals in a community control group and examined associations among survivors of methotrexate and dexamethasone exposure with neurocognitive outcomes. Functional and effective connectivity measures were compared between survivors with and without cognitive impairment. The Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, a neurocognitive evaluation in which individuals are asked to copy a figure and then draw the figure from memory, was scored according to published guidelines and transformed into age-adjusted z scores based on nationally representative reference data and used to measure organization and planning deficits. ß values for neurocognitive tests represented the amount of change in cerebellar volume or chemotherapy exposure associated with 1 SD change in neurocognitive outcome by z score (mm3/1 SD in z score for cerebellum, mm3/[g×hr/L] for dexamethasone and methotrexate AUC, and mm3/intrathecal count for total intrathecal count). Results: Among 302 eligible individuals, 218 (72%) participated in the study and 176 (58%) had usable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. Among these, 89 (51%) were female participants and the mean (range) age was 6.8 (1-18) years at diagnosis and 14.5 (8-27) years at evaluation. Of 100 community individuals recruited as the control group, 82 had usable MRI results; among these, 35 (43%) were female individuals and the mean (range) age was 13.8 (8-26) years at evaluation. There was no significant difference in total brain volume between survivors and individuals in the control group. Survivors of both sexes showed decreased mean (SD) cerebellar volumes compared with the control population (female: 70 568 [6465] mm3 vs 75 134 [6780] mm3; P < .001; male: 77 335 [6210] mm3 vs 79 020 [7420] mm3; P < .001). In female survivors, decreased cerebellar volume was associated with worse performance in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (left cerebellum: ß = 55.54; SE = 25.55; P = .03; right cerebellum: ß = 52.57; SE = 25.50; P = .04) and poorer dominant-hand motor processing speed (ie, grooved pegboard performance) (left cerebellum: ß = 82.71; SE = 31.04; P = .009; right cerebellum: ß = 91.06; SE = 30.72; P = .004). In female survivors, increased number of intrathecal treatments (ie, number of separate injections) was also associated with Worse Rey-Osterrieth test performance (ß = -0.154; SE = 0.063; P = .02), as was increased dexamethasone exposure (ß = -0.0014; SE = 0.0005; P = .01). Executive dysfunction was correlated with increased global efficiency between smaller brain regions (Pearson r = -0.24; P = .01) compared with individuals without dysfunction. Anatomical connectivity showed differences between impaired and nonimpaired survivors. Analysis of variance of effective-connectivity weights identified a significant interaction association (F = 3.99; P = .02) among the direction and strength of connectivity between the cerebellum and DLPFC, female sex, and executive dysfunction. Finally, no effective connectivity was found between the precuneus and DLPFC in female survivors with executive dysfunction. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that dexamethasone exposure was associated with smaller cerebello-thalamo-cortical regions in survivors of ALL and that disruption of effective connectivity was associated with impairment of executive function in female survivors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tálamo/patologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6600-6615, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164984

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDInterpatient differences in the accumulation of methotrexate's active polyglutamylated metabolites (MTXPGs) in leukemia cells influence its antileukemic effects.METHODSTo identify genomic and epigenomic and patient variables determining the intracellular accumulation of MTXPGs, we measured intracellular MTXPG levels in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells from 388 newly diagnosed patients after in vivo high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) (1 g/m2) treatment, defined ALL subtypes, and assessed genomic and epigenomic variants influencing folate pathway genes (mRNA, miRNA, copy number alterations [CNAs], SNPs, single nucleotide variants [SNVs], CpG methylation).RESULTSWe documented greater than 100-fold differences in MTXPG levels, which influenced its antileukemic effects (P = 4 × 10-5). Three ALL subtypes had lower MTXPG levels (T cell ALL [T-ALL] and B cell ALL [B-ALL] with the TCF3-PBX1 or ETV6-RUNX1 fusions), and 2 subtypes had higher MTXPG levels (hyperdiploid and BCR-ABL like). The folate pathway genes SLC19A1, ABCC1, ABCC4, FPGS, and MTHFD1 significantly influenced intracellular MTXPG levels (P = 2.9 × 10-3 to 3.7 × 10-8). A multivariable model including the ALL subtype (P = 1.1 × 10-14), the SLC19A1/(ABCC1 + ABCC4) transporter ratio (P = 3.6 × 10-4), the MTX infusion time (P = 1.5 × 10-3), FPGS mRNA expression (P = 2.1 × 10-3), and MTX systemic clearance (P = 4.4 × 10-2) explained 42% of the variation in MTXPG accumulation (P = 1.1 × 10-38). Model simulations indicated that a longer infusion time (24 h vs. 4 h) was superior in achieving higher intracellular MTXPG levels across all subtypes if ALL.CONCLUSIONSThese findings provide insights into mechanisms underlying interpatient differences in intracellular accumulation of MTXPG in leukemia cells and its antileukemic effectsFUNDINGTHE National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Institute of General Medical Sciences of the NIH, the Basque Government Programa Posdoctoral de Perfeccionamiento de Personal Investigador doctor, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC).

5.
Front Med ; 14(6): 689-700, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074527

RESUMO

The cure rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has exceeded 90% in some contemporary clinical trials. However, the dose intensity of conventional chemotherapy has been pushed to its limit. Further improvement in outcome will need to rely more heavily on molecular therapeutic as well as immuno-and cellular-therapy approaches together with precise risk stratification. Children with ETV6-RUNX1 or hyperdiploid > 50 ALL who achieve negative minimal residual disease during early remission induction are suitable candidates for reduction in treatment. Patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive or Ph-like ALL with ABL-class fusion should be treated with dasatinib. BH3 profiling and other preclinical methods have identified several high-risk subtypes, such as hypodiplod, early T-cell precursor, immature T-cell, KMT2A-rearranged, Ph-positive and TCF-HLF-positive ALL, that may respond to BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax. There are other fusions or mutations that may serve as putative targets, but effective targeted therapy has yet to be established. For other high-risk patients or poor early treatment responders who do not have targetable genetic lesions, current approaches that offer hope include blinatumomab, inotuzumab and CAR-T cell therapy for B-ALL, and daratumumab and nelarabine for T-ALL. With the expanding therapeutic armamentarium, we should start focus on rational combinations of targeted therapy with non-overlapping toxicities.

6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124053

RESUMO

6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is widely used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and its cytotoxicity is primarily mediated by thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) metabolites. A recent genomewide association study has identified germline polymorphisms (e.g., rs72846714) in the NT5C2 gene associated with 6-MP metabolism in patients with ALL. However, the full spectrum of genetic variation in NT5C2 is unclear and its impact on 6-MP drug activation has not been comprehensively examined. To this end, we performed targeted sequencing of NT5C2 in 588 children with ALL and identified 121 single nucleotide polymorphisms nominally associated with erythrocyte TGN during 6-MP treatment (P < 0.05). Of these, 61 variants were validated in a replication cohort of 372 children with ALL. After considering linkage disequilibrium and multivariate analysis, we confirmed two clusters of variants, represented by rs72846714 and rs58700372, that independently affected 6-MP metabolism. Functional studies showed that rs58700372 directly altered the activity of an intronic enhancer, with the variant allele linked to higher transcription activity and reduced 6-MP metabolism (lower TGN). By contrast, rs72846714 was not located in a regulatory element and instead its association signal was explained by linkage disequilibrium with a proximal functional variant rs12256506 that activated NT5C2 transcription in-cis. Our results indicated that NT5C2 germline variation significantly contributes to interpatient variability in thiopurine drug disposition.

7.
Blood ; 136(16): 1797-1798, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057700
8.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE : Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive deficits, and examining individual variability is essential to understand these risks. This study evaluated latent longitudinal trajectories and risk factors of neurocognitive outcomes in childhood ALL. METHODS : There were 233 participants with ALL who were enrolled on a phase 3, risk-stratified chemotherapy-only clinical trial (NCT00137111) and who completed protocol-directed neurocognitive assessments [47.6% female, mean (SD) = 6.6 (3.7) years]. Measures of sustained attention, learning/memory, and parent ratings of attention were completed during and after treatment. Longitudinal latent class analyses were used to classify participants into distinct trajectories. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of class membership. RESULTS : Within the overall group, attention performance was below age expectations across time (Conners Continuous Performance Test detectability/variability, p < 0.01); memory performance and parent ratings were below expectations at later phases (California Verbal Learning Test learning slope, p < 0.05; Conners Parent Rating Scale, Revised attention/learning, p < 0.05). Most participants (80-89%) had stable neurocognitive profiles; smaller groups showed declining (3-6%) or improving (3-11%) trajectories. Older age (p = 0.020), female sex (p = 0.018), and experiencing sepsis (p = 0.047) were associated with greater attention problems over time. Lower baseline IQ was associated with improved memory (p = 0.035) and fewer ratings of attention problems (p = 0.013) over time. CONCLUSIONS : Most patients with ALL have stable neurocognitive profiles. Smaller groups have significant impairments shortly after diagnosis or have worsening performance over time. A tiered assessment approach, which includes consideration of individual and clinical risk factors, may be useful for monitoring neurocognitive functioning during treatment and survivorship.

9.
Nat Cancer ; 1(3): 329-344, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885175

RESUMO

Identification of genomic and epigenomic determinants of drug resistance provides important insights for improving cancer treatment. Using agnostic genome-wide interrogation of mRNA and miRNA expression, DNA methylation, SNPs, CNAs and SNVs/Indels in primary human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, we identified 463 genomic features associated with glucocorticoid resistance. Gene-level aggregation identified 118 overlapping genes, 15 of which were confirmed by genome-wide CRISPR screen. Collectively, this identified 30 of 38 (79%) known glucocorticoid-resistance genes/miRNAs and all 38 known resistance pathways, while revealing 14 genes not previously associated with glucocorticoid-resistance. Single cell RNAseq and network-based transcriptomic modelling corroborated the top previously undiscovered gene, CELSR2. Manipulation of CELSR2 recapitulated glucocorticoid resistance in human leukemia cell lines and revealed a synergistic drug combination (prednisolone and venetoclax) that mitigated resistance in mouse xenograft models. These findings illustrate the power of an integrative genomic strategy for elucidating genes and pathways conferring drug resistance in cancer cells.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882024

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. TCF3-PBX1 fusion defines a common molecular subtype of ALL with unique clinical features, but the molecular basis of its inherited susceptibility is unknown. In a genome-wide association study of 1,494 ALL cases and 2,057 non-ALL controls, we identified a germline risk locus located in an intergenic region between BCL11A and PAPOLG: rs2665658, P = 1.88 × 10-8 for TCF3-PBX1 ALL vs. non-ALL, and P = 1.70 × 10-8 for TCF3-PBX1 ALL vs. other-ALL. The lead variant was validated in a replication cohort, and conditional analyses pointed to a single causal variant with subtype-specific effect. The risk variant is located in a regulatory DNA element uniquely activated in ALL cells with the TCF3-PBX1 fusion, and may distally modulate the transcription of the adjacent gene REL. Our results expand the understanding of subtype-specific ALL susceptibility and highlight plausible interplay between germline variants and somatic genomic abnormalities in ALL pathogenesis.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction therapy is one of the strongest prognostic factors in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and MRD-directed treatment intensification improves survival. Little is known about the effects of inherited genetic variants on inter-patient variability in MRD. METHODS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 2,597 children on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL0232 trial for high-risk B-ALL. Association between genotype and end-of-induction MRD levels was evaluated for 863,370 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), adjusting for genetic ancestry and treatment strata. Top variants were further evaluated in a validation cohort of 491 patients from the COG P9905/6 ALL trials. The independent prognostic value of SNPs was determined in multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: In the discovery GWAS, we identified a genome-wide significant association at the GATA3 locus (rs3824662, odds ratio [OR] = 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35 to 1.84, P = 1.15 × 10-8 as a dichotomous variable). This association was replicated in the validation cohort (P = .003, MRD as a dichotomous variable). The rs3824662 risk allele independently predicted ALL relapse after adjusting for age, white blood cell count and leukemia DNA index (P = .04 and .007 in the discovery and validation cohort, respectively) and remained prognostic when the analyses were restricted to MRD-negative patients (P = .04 and .03 for the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively). CONCLUSION: Inherited GATA3 variant rs3824662 strongly influences ALL response to remission induction therapy and is associated with relapse. This work highlights the potential utility of germline variants in upfront risk stratification in ALL.

12.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 1(1): 96-111, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793890

RESUMO

Relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a leading cause of childhood death. Prior studies have shown clonal mutations at relapse often arise from relapse-fated subclones that exist at diagnosis. However, the genomic landscape, evolutionary trajectories and mutational mechanisms driving relapse are incompletely understood. In an analysis of 92 cases of relapsed childhood ALL, incorporating multimodal DNA and RNA sequencing, deep digital mutational tracking and xenografting to formally define clonal structure, we identify 50 significant targets of mutation with distinct patterns of mutational acquisition or enrichment. CREBBP, NOTCH1, and Ras signaling mutations rose from diagnosis subclones, whereas variants in NCOR2, USH2A and NT5C2 were exclusively observed at relapse. Evolutionary modeling and xenografting demonstrated that relapse-fated clones were minor (50%), major (27%) or multiclonal (18%) at diagnosis. Putative second leukemias, including those with lineage shift, were shown to most commonly represent relapse from an ancestral clone rather than a truly independent second primary leukemia. A subset of leukemias prone to repeated relapse exhibited hypermutation driven by at least three distinct mutational processes, resulting in heightened neoepitope burden and potential vulnerability to immunotherapy. Finally, relapse-driving sequence mutations were detected prior to relapse using deep digital PCR at levels comparable to orthogonal approaches to monitor levels of measurable residual disease. These results provide a genomic framework to anticipate and circumvent relapse by earlier detection and targeting of relapse-fated clones.

13.
Cancer ; 126(21): 4800-4805, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel therapies are urgently needed for pediatric patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: To determine whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat could be safely given in combination with intensive chemotherapy, a phase 1 trial was performed in which 17 pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory AML received panobinostat (10, 15, or 20 mg/m2 ) before and in combination with fludarabine and cytarabine. RESULTS: All dose levels were tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed at any dose level. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that exposure to panobinostat was proportional to the dose given, with no associations between pharmacokinetic parameters and age, weight, or body surface area. Among the 9 patients who had sufficient (>2%) circulating blasts on which histone acetylation studies could be performed, 7 demonstrated at least 1.5-fold increases in acetylation. Although no patients had a decrease in circulating blasts after single-agent panobinostat, 8 of the 17 patients (47%), including 5 of the 6 patients treated at dose level 3, achieved complete remission. Among the 8 complete responders, 6 (75%) attained negative minimal residual disease status. CONCLUSIONS: Panobinostat can be safely administered with chemotherapy and results in increased blast histone acetylation. This suggests that it should be further studied in AML.

15.
Cancer Med ; 9(18): 6550-6555, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are frequently utilized in pediatric oncology patients as prophylaxis or step-down therapy following broad spectrum beta-lactam therapy for febrile neutropenia. Concerns regarding neurotoxicity limit the use of these agents. No studies have evaluated the association between fluoroquinolone use and neurotoxicity in pediatric oncology patients receiving other neurotoxic agents such as vincristine. METHODS: An observational cohort study comprising patients aged 0-18 at diagnosis enrolled on a prospective study for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at a pediatric comprehensive cancer center between October 2007 and November 2018. Data for neuropathic pain and sensory or motor neuropathy were collected prospectively, and a Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate associations between administration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics during induction therapy and subsequent development of vincristine-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (VIPN). RESULTS: A total of 598 participants were enrolled, including 338 (57%) who received fluoroquinolones during induction therapy; of these 470 (79%) were diagnosed with VIPN and 139 (23%) were diagnosed with high-grade (Grade 3+) VIPN. On unadjusted analyses, and analyses adjusted for age and race, there was no evidence of an association between fluoroquinolone exposure and subsequent VIPN (hazard ratio [HR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.04, P = .08) or high-grade VIPN (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.4-2.2, P = .87). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this observational study do not show an association between exposure to fluoroquinolone antibiotics during induction therapy for ALL and subsequent development of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathies, and suggest that a large increase in VIPN is unlikely.

16.
J Pediatr ; 223: 120-127.e3, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic yield of baseline chest radiographs (CXRs) of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the CXR findings at diagnosis for 990 patients aged 1-18 years with ALL treated during the Total XV and XVI studies at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and evaluated the associations of these findings with clinical characteristics and initial management. RESULTS: Common findings were peribronchial/perihilar thickening (n = 187 [19.0%]), pulmonary opacity/infiltrate (n = 159 [16.1%]), pleural effusion/thickening (n = 109 [11.1%]), mediastinal mass (n = 107 [10.9%]), and cardiomegaly (n = 68 [6.9%]). Portable CXRs provided results comparable with those obtained with 2-view films. Forty of 107 patients with a mediastinal mass (37.4%) had tracheal deviation/compression. Mediastinal mass, pleural effusion/thickening, and tracheal deviation/compression were more often associated with T-cell ALL than with B-cell ALL (P < .001 for all). Pulmonary opacity/infiltrate was associated with younger age (P = .003) and was more common in T-cell ALL than in B-cell ALL (P = .001). Peribronchial/perihilar thickening was associated with younger age (P < .001) and with positive central nervous system disease (P = .012). Patients with cardiomegaly were younger (P = .031), more often black than white (P = .007), and more often categorized as low risk than standard/high risk (P = .017). Patients with a mediastinal mass, pleural effusion/thickening, tracheal deviation/compression, or pulmonary opacity/infiltrate were more likely to receive less invasive sedation and more intensive care unit admissions and respiratory support (P ≤ .001 for all). Cardiomegaly was associated with intensive care unit admission (P = .008). No patients died of cardiorespiratory events during the initial 7 days of management. CONCLUSIONS: The CXR can detect various intrathoracic lesions and is helpful in planning initial management.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(29): 3418-3429, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706634

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Risk-stratified therapy, which modifies treatment on the basis of clinical and biologic features, has improved 5-year overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to 90%, but its impact on long-term toxicity remains unknown. METHODS: We assessed all-cause and health-related late mortality (including late effects of cancer therapy), subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs), chronic health conditions, and neurocognitive outcomes among 6,148 survivors of childhood ALL (median age, 27.9 years; range, 5.9-61.9 years) diagnosed between 1970 and 1999. Therapy combinations and treatment intensity defined 6 groups: 1970s-like (70s), standard- or high-risk 1980s-like (80sSR, 80sHR) and 1990s-like (90sSR, 90sHR), and relapse/transplantation (R/BMT). Cumulative incidence, standardized mortality ratios, and standardized incidence ratios were compared between treatment groups and with the US population. RESULTS: Overall, 20-year all-cause late mortality was 6.6% (95% CI, 6.0 to 7.1). Compared with 70s, 90sSR and 90sHR experienced lower health-related late mortality (rate ratio [95% CI]: 90sSR, 0.2 [0.1 to 0.4]; 90sHR, 0.3 [0.1 to 0.7]), comparable to the US population (standardized mortality ratio [95% CI]: 90sSR, 1.3 [0.8 to 2.0]; 90sHR, 1.7 [0.7 to 3.5]). Compared with 70s, 90sSR had a lower rate of SMN (rate ratio [95% CI], 0.3 [0.1 to 0.6]) that was not different from that of the US population (standardized incidence ratio [95% CI], 1.0 [0.6 to 1.6]). The 90sSR group had fewer severe chronic health conditions than the 70s (20-year cumulative incidence [95% CI], 11.0% [9.7% to 12.3%] v 22.5% [19.4% to 25.5%]) and a lower prevalence of impaired memory (prevalence ratio [95% CI], 0.7 [0.6 to 0.9]) and task efficiency (0.5 [0.4 to 0.7]). CONCLUSION: Risk-stratified therapy has reduced late morbidity and mortality among contemporary survivors of standard-risk ALL, represented by 90sSR. Health-related late mortality and SMN risks among 5-year survivors of contemporary, standard-risk childhood ALL are comparable to the general population.

18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(9): e28539, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin at 20 mg/kg per day in the treatment of vincristine-related neuropathic pain. PROCEDURE: Children aged 1-18 years who developed vincristine-induced neuropathy on a St Jude frontline acute lymphoblastic leukemia trial were prospectively enrolled on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II trial with two treatment arms: gabapentin plus opioid versus placebo plus opioid. Daily evaluations of morphine dose (mg/kg per day) and pain scores were conducted for up to 21 days; the values of the two arms were compared to assess analgesic efficacy. RESULTS: Of 51 study participants, 49 were eligible for analyses. Twenty-five participants were treated with gabapentin, with a mean (SD) dose of 17.97 (2.76) mg/kg per day (median 18.26, range 6.82-21.37). The mean (SD) opioid doses taken, expressed as morphine equivalent daily (mg/kg per day), were 0.26 (0.43) in the gabapentin group (25 patients, 432 days) and 0.15 (0.22) in the placebo group (24 patients, 411 days; P = .15). Only the risk classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was significantly associated with the daily morphine dosage (P = .0178): patients in the lower risk arm received higher daily morphine dosages. Multivariate analyses revealed a significant difference between the groups' average daily scores for the previous 24 h and "right now." CONCLUSION: In this population of children with vincristine-related neuropathic pain, opioid consumption and pain scores were higher in the gabapentin group than in the placebo group. Future randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies should test gabapentin given longer or at a higher dose.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12074, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694622

RESUMO

Although the cure rate for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has exceeded 80% with contemporary therapy, relapsed ALL remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Relapse-specific mutations can be identified by comprehensive genome sequencing and might have clinical significance. Applying whole-exome sequencing to eight triplicate samples, we identified in one patient relapse-specific mutations in the folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) gene, whose product catalyzes the addition of multiple glutamate residues (polyglutamation) to methotrexate upon their entry into the cells. To determine the prevalence of mutations of the FPGS mutations, and those of two important genes in the thiopurine pathway, NT5C2 and PRPS1, we studied 299 diagnostic and 73 relapsed samples in 372 patients. Three more FPGS mutants were identified in two patients, NT5C2 mutations in six patients, and PRPS1 mutants in two patients. One patient had both NT5C2 and PRPS1 mutants. None of these alterations were detected at diagnosis with a sequencing depth of 1000X, suggesting that treatment pressure led to increased prevalence of mutations during therapy. Functional characterization of the FPGS mutants showed that they directly resulted in decreased enzymatic activity, leading to significant reduction in methotrexate polyglutamation, and therefore likely contributed to drug resistance and relapse in these cases. Thus, besides genomic alterations in thiopurine metabolizing enzymes, the relapse-specific mutations of FPGS represent another critical mechanism of acquired antimetabolite drug resistance in relapsed childhood ALL.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Mutação , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Prognóstico
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