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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 643-654, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial assessed pembrolizumab versus placebo in patients with resected high-risk stage III melanoma. At 15-month median follow-up, pembrolizumab improved recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74], p<0·0001) compared with placebo, leading to its approval in the USA and Europe. This report provides the final results for the secondary efficacy endpoint, distant metastasis-free survival and an update of the recurrence-free survival results. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with complete resection of cutaneous melanoma metastatic to lymph node, classified as American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, seventh edition (AJCC-7) stage IIIA (at least one lymph node metastasis >1 mm), IIIB, or IIIC (without in-transit metastasis), and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a central interactive voice response system to receive intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg or placebo every 3 weeks for up to 18 doses or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. Randomisation was stratified according to disease stage and region, using a minimisation technique, and clinical investigators, patients, and those collecting or analysing the data were masked to treatment assignment. The two coprimary endpoints were recurrence-free survival in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and in patients with PD-L1-positive tumours. The secondary endpoint reported here was distant metastasis-free survival in the ITT and PD-L1-positive populations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02362594, and EudraCT, 2014-004944-37. FINDINGS: Between Aug 26, 2015, and Nov 14, 2016, 1019 patients were assigned to receive either pembrolizumab (n=514) or placebo (n=505). At an overall median follow-up of 42·3 months (IQR 40·5-45·9), 3·5-year distant metastasis-free survival was higher in the pembrolizumab group than in the placebo group in the ITT population (65·3% [95% CI 60·9-69·5] in the pembrolizumab group vs 49·4% [44·8-53·8] in the placebo group; HR 0·60 [95% CI 0·49-0·73]; p<0·0001). In the 853 patients with PD-L1-positive tumours, 3·5-year distant metastasis-free survival was 66·7% (95% CI 61·8-71·2) in the pembrolizumab group and 51·6% (46·6-56·4) in the placebo group (HR 0·61 [95% CI 0·49-0·76]; p<0·0001). Recurrence-free survival remained longer in the pembrolizumab group 59·8% (95% CI 55·3-64·1) than the placebo group 41·4% (37·0-45·8) at this 3·5-year follow-up in the ITT population (HR 0·59 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]) and in those with PD-L1-positive tumours 61·4% (56·3-66·1) in the pembrolizumab group and 44·1% (39·2-48·8) in the placebo group (HR 0·59 [95% CI 0·49-0·73]). INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab adjuvant therapy provided a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in distant metastasis-free survival at a 3·5-year median follow-up, which was consistent with the improvement in recurrence-free survival. Therefore, the results of this trial support the indication to use adjuvant pembrolizumab therapy in patients with resected high risk stage III cutaneous melanoma. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 655-664, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054 trial in patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma demonstrated improved recurrence-free survival with adjuvant pembrolizumab compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74]; p<0·0001). This study reports the results from the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) exploratory endpoint. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with previously untreated histologically confirmed stage IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC resected cutaneous melanoma, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 1 or 0 were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a central interactive voice-response system on the basis of a minimisation technique stratified for stage and geographic region to receive intravenously 200 mg pembrolizumab or placebo. Treatment was administered every 3 weeks for 1 year, or until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxicity, or death. The primary endpoint of the trial was recurrence-free survival (reported elsewhere). HRQOL was a prespecified exploratory endpoint, with global health/quality of life (GHQ) over 2 years measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 as the primary analysis. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02362594, and EudraCT, 2014-004944-37, and long-term follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 26, 2015, and Nov 14, 2016, 1019 patients were assigned to pembrolizumab (n=514) or placebo (n=505). Median follow-up was 15·1 months (IQR 12·8-16·9) at the time of this analysis. HRQOL compliance was greater than 90% at baseline, greater than 70% during the first year, and greater than 60% thereafter for both groups. Because of low absolute compliance numbers at later follow-up, the analysis was truncated to week 84. Baseline GHQ scores were similar between groups (77·55 [SD 18·20] in the pembrolizumab group and 76·54 [17·81] in the placebo group) and remained stable over time. The difference in average GHQ score between the two groups over the 2 years was -2·2 points (95% CI -4·3 to -0·2). The difference in average score during treatment was -1·1 points (95% CI -3·2 to 0·9) and the difference in average score after treatment was -2·2 points (-4·8 to 0·4). These differences are within the 5-point clinical relevance threshold for the QLQ-C30 and are therefore clinically non-significant. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab does not result in a clinically significant decrease in HRQOL compared with placebo when given as adjuvant therapy for patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma. These results support the use of adjuvant pembrolizumab in this setting. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 692, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals from melanoma-prone families have similar or reduced sun-protective behaviors compared to the general population. Studies on trends in sun-related behaviors have been temporally and geographically limited. METHODS: Individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families (GenoMEL) were retrospectively asked about sunscreen use, sun exposure (time spent outside), sunburns, and sunbed use at several timepoints over their lifetime. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association between these outcomes and birth cohort defined by decade spans, after adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: A total of 2407 participants from 547 families across 17 centers were analyzed. Sunscreen use increased across subsequent birth cohorts, and although the likelihood of sunburns increased until the 1950s birth cohort, it decreased thereafter. Average sun exposure did not change across the birth cohorts, and the likelihood of sunbed use increased in more recent birth cohorts. We generally did not find any differences in sun-related behavior when comparing melanoma cases to non-cases. Melanoma cases had increased sunscreen use, decreased sun exposure, and decreased odds of sunburn and sunbed use after melanoma diagnosis compared to before diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although sunscreen use has increased and the likelihood of sunburns has decreased in more recent birth cohorts, individuals in melanoma-prone families have not reduced their overall sun exposure and had an increased likelihood of sunbed use in more recent birth cohorts. These observations demonstrate partial improvements in melanoma prevention and suggest that additional intervention strategies may be needed to achieve optimal sun-protective behavior in melanoma-prone families.

4.
Dermatology ; : 1-8, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative diagnosis of malignant collision tumors (MCT) is extremely difficult. The value of dermoscopy to improve the correct detection of these tumors has not been previously studied. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MCT with and without dermoscopy and to describe the dermoscopic features of a large series of MCT. METHODS: Dermoscopic images of 161 MCT were evaluated. Clinical and dermoscopic images of histopathologically proven MCT intermingled with other tumors were randomly presented to clinicians with different levels of experience, blinded to the diagnosis and objective of the study. The clinical and dermoscopic diagnostic accuracies were measured separately. RESULTS: A total of 161 histopathologically proven cases of MCT were collected. The most frequent MCT was basal cell carcinoma-seborrheic keratosis collision tumor (CT; 37.9%), followed by basal cell carcinoma-melanocytic nevus CT (19.9%), and melanoma-seborrheic keratosis CT (6.8%). Diagnostic accuracy among experts on dermoscopy was 71.4%. The study included 119 participants. The percentage of correct diagnoses was 8% by naked eye examination and 36.4% by dermoscopy (p < 0.001). The presence of the malignant component in the cases of MCT was not recognizable in 19.1% of cases by naked eye examination and in 11.8% of cases by dermoscopy (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of MCT can be assisted and clarified by dermoscopy. However, many of these lesions manifest complex morphologies and continue to be challenging, even for experts on dermoscopy. Atypical, uncertain, or non-classifiable lesions still need a complete excision for the final diagnosis.

5.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 101(3): adv00425, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686449

RESUMO

Several studies have suggested that naevus-associated melanomas differ from de novo melanomas, being thinner and with less ulceration; however, the prognostic implication is unclear. The objective of this study was to describe clinicopathological, genetic and survival characteristics of de novo and naevus-associated melanomas in a cohort of primary invasive cutaneous melanomas over a 20-year period. Of the 2,227 patients included in the study, 509 (22.86%) had naevus-associated melanomas. Compared with patients with de novo melanoma, they were younger, with a fairer phototype and a higher naevus count, tumours were predominantly the superficial spreading subtype, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I, located on the trunk, and there were fewer signs of invasiveness (thinner Breslow index, less ulceration, lower mitotic index and less satellitosis). Germline mutation-al status did not show any significant association. As determined through univariate analysis, overall surviv-al was significantly better in patients with naevus- associated melanoma (hazard ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.80, p < 0.001), but multivariate analysis did not support this prognostic indication (hazard ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.75-1.18, p < 0.606). Despite this, we conclude that naevus- associated and de novo melanomas should be considered as different subtypes of melanoma.

7.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772339

RESUMO

To date, is yet to be elucidated whether the body location of cutaneous melanoma can significantly affect an early dermoscopic diagnosis and, consequently, if it can be regarded as a prognostic factor. To investigate the dermoscopic appearance of early melanomas (EMs) at different body sites; to test the ability of dermoscopists in recognizing specific dermoscopic features in EMs. A pool of 106 experienced dermoscopists evaluated the presence of 10 dermoscopic features assumed as suggestive of malignancy among 268 images of EMs with ambiguous appearance located at 16 body sites. According to 720 evaluations, EMs of the "upper extremities" showed a prevalence of early atypical lentiginous features. EMs of the "anterior trunk" exhibited the lower rate of recognition for all features. EMs of the "rear trunk" can be regarded as an intermediate area, showing high recognition rates of regression-related and chronic-traumatism-related features.

11.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432480

RESUMO

The recent WHO classification of skin tumors has underscored the importance of acknowledging intermediate grade melanocytic proliferations. A multistep acquisition of oncogenic events drives the progressive transformation of nevi into melanomas. The various pathways described are modulated by the initial oncogenic drivers that define the common, blue, and Spitz nevi groups. Intermediate lesions are most often the result of a clonal evolution within such nevi. Based on this established classification, we have suggested for each pathway a practical diagnostic approach, benefiting from the recently developed molecular tools, both in the setting of general pathology labs and expert centers. Moreover, recommendations regarding the re-excision and clinical follow-up are given to support decision-making in multidisciplinary tumor boards.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 145: 29-37, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 8th edition of the AJCC manual for melanoma includes many changes leading to major substage migrations, which could lead to important clinical reassessments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the differences and prognostic value of the 8th AJCC classification in comparison with the 7th edition. METHODS: Clinical and histopathological data were retrieved from five melanoma referral centers including 7815 melanoma patients diagnosed between January 1998 and December 2018. All patients were reclassified and compared using the 7th and 8th classifications of the AJCC. Sankey plots were used to evaluate the migration of patients between the different versions. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and curves based on the Kaplan-Meier method were used to investigate survival differences between the 7th and 8th editions. RESULTS: The number of patients classified as stages IB, IIIA, and IIIB decreased while the patients classified as stages IA and IIIC increased notably. Migration analysis showed that many patients in group I were understaged whereas a significant percentage of patients in group III were upstaged. Indirect OS analysis showed a loss in the linearity in the AJCC 8th edition and the groups tended to overlap. Direct OS analysis between groups and versions of the AJCC showed a better prognosis within the new stage III patients, with no effect on those in stages I and II. CONCLUSION: The 8th AJCC edition represents an important change in the classification of patients. We observe that the main migratory changes occur in stage I and III, that severity linearity is lost and groups overlap, and that a more advanced stage does not mean a worse prognosis.

13.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 34(3): 618-628, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342058

RESUMO

Nevus count is highly determined by inherited variants and has been associated with the origin of melanoma. De novo melanomas (DNMMs) are more prevalent in patients with a low nevus count and have distinctive dermoscopic features than nevus-associated melanomas. We evaluated the impact of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTAP (rs10811629, rs2218220, rs7023329 and rs751173), PLA2G6 (rs132985 and rs2284063), IRF4 (rs12203592), and PAX3 (rs10180903 and rs7600206) genes associated with nevus count and melanoma susceptibility, and the MC1R variants on dermoscopic features of 371 melanomas from 310 patients. All MTAP variants associated with a low nevus count were associated with regression structures (peppering and mixed regression), blue-whitish veil, shiny white structures, and pigment network. SNPs of PLA2G6 (rs132985), PAX3 (rs7600206), and IRF4 (rs12203592) genes were also associated with either shiny white structures or mixed regression (all corrected p-values ≤ .06). Melanomas from red hair color MC1R variants carriers showed lower total dermoscopy score (p-value = .015) and less blotches than melanomas from non-carriers (p-value = .048). Our results provide evidence that germline variants protective for melanoma risk and/or associated with a low nevus count are associated with certain dermoscopic features, more characteristic of de novo and worse prognosis melanomas.

14.
J Dermatol Sci ; 101(2): 115-122, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely recognition of malignant melanoma (MM) is challenging for dermatologists worldwide and represents the main determinant for mortality. Dermoscopic examination is influenced by dermatologists' experience and fails to achieve adequate accuracy and reproducibility in discriminating atypical nevi (AN) from early melanomas (EM). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) model able to support dermatologists in the classification and management of atypical melanocytic skin lesions (aMSL). METHODS: A training set (630 images), a validation set (135) and a testing set (214) were derived from the idScore dataset of 979 challenging aMSL cases in which the dermoscopic image is integrated with clinical data (age, sex, body site and diameter) and associated with histological data. A DCNN_aMSL architecture was designed and then trained on both dermoscopic images of aMSL and the clinical/anamnestic data, resulting in the integrated "iDCNN_aMSL" model. Responses of 111 dermatologists with different experience levels on both aMSL classification (intuitive diagnosis) and management decisions (no/long follow-up; short follow-up; excision/preventive excision) were compared with the DCNNs models. RESULTS: In the lesion classification study, the iDCNN_aMSL achieved the best accuracy, reaching an AUC = 90.3 %, SE = 86.5 % and SP = 73.6 %, compared to DCNN_aMSL (SE = 89.2 %, SP = 65.7 %) and intuitive diagnosis of dermatologists (SE = 77.0 %; SP = 61.4 %). CONCLUSIONS: The iDCNN_aMSL proved to be the best support tool for management decisions reducing the ratio of inappropriate excision. The proposed iDCNN_aMSL model can represent a valid support for dermatologists in discriminating AN from EM with high accuracy and for medical decision making by reducing their rates of inappropriate excisions.

15.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247560

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Melanoma is a deadly cancer that physicians struggle to diagnose early because they lack the knowledge to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Deep machine learning approaches to image analysis offer promise but lack the transparency to be widely adopted as stand-alone diagnostics. AIM: We aimed to create a transparent machine learning technology (i.e., not deep learning) to discriminate melanomas from nevi in dermoscopy images and an interface for sensory cue integration. APPROACH: Imaging biomarker cues (IBCs) fed ensemble machine learning classifier (Eclass) training while raw images fed deep learning classifier training. We compared the areas under the diagnostic receiver operator curves. RESULTS: Our interpretable machine learning algorithm outperformed the leading deep-learning approach 75% of the time. The user interface displayed only the diagnostic imaging biomarkers as IBCs. CONCLUSIONS: From a translational perspective, Eclass is better than convolutional machine learning diagnosis in that physicians can embrace it faster than black box outputs. Imaging biomarkers cues may be used during sensory cue integration in clinical screening. Our method may be applied to other image-based diagnostic analyses, including pathology and radiology.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(19): 1218, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178750

RESUMO

Background: Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare subtype of spindle cell malignant melanoma characterized by frequent local recurrences and hematogenous spread, but without molecular classification. The aim of the study was to investigate in a DM series the incidence of relevant gene alterations in cancer, the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status and the association with clinicopathological features and melanoma progression. Methods: A total of 38 patients were included. Clinical follow-up and the histopathological features of all cases were retrospectively collected. PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and BRAF genomic alterations by real-time PCR were determined in 34 samples. Additionally, a molecular analysis by next-generation sequencing was performed in 25 DMs. Results: Tumors occurred predominantly in men (76%) and in the head and neck region (50%). Most tumors were pure DMs (66%), containing less than 10% of conventional melanoma. Overall, 48% of our cohort harbored TP53 mutations, most of them showing a molecular signature associated with ultraviolet (UV)-oncogenesis, and 29%, BRAF mutations. A positive correlation between TP53 with depth of invasion (P=0.005) and presence of elastosis (P=0.002) was found. High-expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells was observed in 38% of cases and correlated with depth of tumoral infiltration (P=0.003), TP53 (P=0.016), PD-1 (P<0.001) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) (P<0.001). PD-L1 expression in immune cells correlated with PD-1 (P=0.006), tumoral PD-L1 expression (P=0.029) and TP53 mutation (P=0.002). Survival correlated with depth of invasion (P=0.003), stage of tumors (P=0.015), positive sentinel lymph node (P=0.004), lymph node metastasis (P=0.024) and distant metastasis (P<0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that progressed DMs with deep tumoral infiltration frequently harbor TP53 mutations, PD-L1 expression and present a high inflammatory response, probably related to adaptive immune resistance in this tumor-type.

17.
Dermatol Pract Concept ; 10(4): e2020072, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150019
18.
Eur J Dermatol ; 30(5): 524-531, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a widely used technique, recommended in clinical practice guidelines worldwide for the early diagnosis of skin cancers. Intra-European disparities are reported for early detection and prognosis of skin cancers, however, no information exists about regional variation in patterns of dermoscopy use across Europe. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regional differences in patterns of dermoscopy use and training among European dermatologists. MATERIALS & METHODS: An online survey of European-registered dermatologists regarding dermoscopy training, practice and attitudes was established. Answers from Eastern (EE) versus Western European (WE) countries were compared and their correlation with their respective countries' gross domestic product/capita (GDPc) and total and government health expenditure/capita (THEc and GHEc) was analysed. RESULTS: We received 4,049 responses from 14 WE countries and 3,431 from 18 EE countries. A higher proportion of WE respondents reported dermoscopy use (98% vs. 77%, p<0.001) and training during residency (43% vs. 32%) or anytime (96.5% vs. 87.6%) (p<0.001) compared to EE respondents. The main obstacles in dermoscopy use were poor access to dermoscopy equipment in EE and a lack of confidence in one's skills in WE. GDPc, THEc and GHEc correlated with rate of dermoscopy use and dermoscopy training during residency (Spearman rho: 0.5-0.7, p<0.05), and inversely with availability of dermoscopy equipment. CONCLUSION: The rates and patterns of dermoscopy use vary significantly between Western and Eastern Europe, on a background of economic inequality. Regionally adapted interventions to increase access to dermoscopy equipment and training might enhance the use of this technique towards improving the early detection of skin cancers.

19.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113930

RESUMO

The incidence of melanoma has been increasing worldwide during recent decades. The objective of the study was to analyse the trends in incidence for in situ and invasive melanoma in the Spanish region of Catalonia during the period of 2008-2017. We designed a cross-sectional study with an age-period-cohort analysis of melanoma patient data from the Network of Melanoma Centres in Catalonia. Our database covered a population of over seven million and included a total of 8626 patients with incident melanoma. The main outcome measures were crude and age-standardised incidence rates to the European 2013 standard population. Joinpoint regression models were used to evaluate the population trends. We observed an increase in the age-standardised incidence rate (per 100,000 population) of all melanoma subtypes from 11.56 in 2008 to 13.78 in 2017 with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of 3.5%. This incidence increase was seen exclusively in the older population. Moreover, the stratified analysis showed a statistically significant increase in the age-standardised incidence rate for invasive (AAPC 2.1%) and in situ melanoma (AAPC 6.5%). In conclusion, the incidence of melanoma has continued to increase in the elderly population over recent decades, with a rapidly increasing trend of in situ melanomas and the lentigo maligna subtype.

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