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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micra transcatheter pacemaker (TPS) usually achieves low implant pacing threshold (IPT). However, IPT may increase in some patients during follow-up. AIM: To apply implant parameters in predicting long-term occurrence of very high pacing threshold (VHPT) in patients with Micra-TPS. METHODS: A cohort of 110 consecutive patients implanted with a Micra-TPS from 2014 to 2018 was evaluated at discharge and at 1-12-24-36-48-month follow-up. VHPT was defined as >2V/0.24msec. VHPT predictors were identified. RESULTS: Micra-TPS was implanted successfully in 108 patients (98.2%). During a mean follow-up of 24±16 months, 18 patients (16.7%) died of causes non-pacemaker-related, and 4 (3.8%) developed VHPT. Patients with VHPT had higher IPT and lower implant impedance than non-VHPT patients: 1±0.31 vs. 0.55±0.29 V/0.24 msec (p=0.003) and 580±59 vs. 837± 232 ohms (p=0.03), respectively. IPT and impedance had excellent discriminative power to predict VHPT (area under the curve: 0.85±0.07 and 0.91±0.05, respectively).Negative predictive value (NPV) of IPT ≤0.5V/0.24 msec was 100%; positive predictive value (PPV) was 8% throughout follow-up. Implant impedance ≤600 ohm had NPV of 99% throughout follow-up, whereas PPV varied: 16%, 21%, 16%, and 28% at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Sequential combination of IPT >0.5V/0.24 msec and impedance ≤600Ω improved PPV to 25%, 35%, 27% and 44%, respectively, whereas NPV remained 99% throughout follow-up. CONCLUSION: Despite favorable long-term electrical performance of Micra-TPS, a small percent of patients developed VHPT during follow-up. Sequential combination of IPT and impedance could allow the implanter to identify patients who will develop VHPT during long-term follow-up. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(7): 497-501, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495716

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infection remains a major complication among heart transplant (HT) recipients, causing approximately 20% of deaths in the first year after transplantation. In this population, Aspergillus spp. can have various clinical presentations including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with high mortality (53-78%). OBJECTIVES: To establish the characteristics of IPA infection in HT recipients and their outcomes in our center. METHODS: Among 328 HTs performed in our center between 1998 and 2016, we identified five cases of IPA. Patient medical records were examined and clinical variables were extracted. RESULTS: All cases were male, and mean age was 62 years. The most common indication for HT was non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Productive cough was reported as the main symptom. The radiological assessment was based on chest X-ray and chest computed tomography. The most commonly reported radiographic abnormality was multiple nodular opacities in both techniques. Bronchoscopy was performed in all patients and Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated in four cases on bronchoalveolar lavage culture. Treatment included amphotericin in four patients, subsequently changed to voriconazole in three, and posaconazole in one patient, with total treatment lasting an average of 12 months. Neutropenia was found in only one patient, renal failure was observed in two patients, and concurrent cytomegalovirus infection in three patients. All patients were alive after a mean follow-up of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: IPA is a potentially lethal complication after HT. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of aggressive treatment are the cornerstone of better survival.

5.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(10): 127, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520271

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review present knowledge regarding preventive and antitachycardia pacing algorithms, aimed to reduce atrial fibrillation (AF) burden in patients when pacing is indicated. RECENT FINDINGS: Reactive antitachycardia pacing (ATP), the new generation of ATP, is significantly associated with a reduced risk of AF. In patients with indication for pacing and history of AF, pacemakers endowed with atrial preventive pacing and atrial ATP combined with managed ventricular pacing proved superior to standard dual-chamber pacing. Managed ventricular pacing is an algorithm that minimizes unnecessary right ventricular pacing. Progression to persistent AF is prevented by ventricular pacing minimization in patients with normal PR interval. The synergistic effect of pacemakers that combine atrial preventive pacing with reactive ATP and with algorithms that minimize ventricular pacing can reduce AF incidence and decrease the combined endpoint of permanent AF, hospital admissions, and mortality.

6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542850

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the use of the new generation P2Y12 inhibitors (Ticagrelor and Prasugrel) with aspirin is the recommended therapy in acute NSTE-ACS patients, their current use in clinical practice remains quite low and might be related, among several variables, with increased comorbidity burden. We aimed to assess the prevalence of these treatments and whether their use could be associated with comorbidity. METHOD: A multicentric prospective registry was conducted at 8 Cardiac Intensive Care Units (October 2017-April 2018) in patients admitted with non ST elevation myocardial infarction. Antithrombotic treatment was recorded and the comorbidity risk was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. We created a multivariate model to identify the independent predictors of the use of new inhibitors of P2Y12. RESULTS: A total of 629 patients were included, median age 67 years, 23.2% women, 359 patients (57.1%) treated with clopidogrel and 40.6% with new P2Y12 inhibitors: ticagrelor (228 patients, 36.2%) and prasugrel (30 patients, 4.8%). Among the patients with very high comorbidity (Charlson Score > 6) clopidogrel was the drug of choice (82.6%), meanwhile in patients with low comorbility (Charlson Score 0-1) was the ticagrelor or prasugrel (63.6%). Independent predictors of the use of ticagrelor or prasugrel were a low Charlson Comorbidity Index, a low CRUSADE score and the absence of prior bleeding. CONCLUSION: Antiplatelet treatment with Ticagrelor or Pasugrel was low in patients admitted with NSTE-ACS. Comorbidity calculated with Charlson Comorbidity Index was a powerful predictor of the use of new generation P2Y12 inhibitors in this population.

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(12): 1849-1854, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Micra transcatheter pacing system (Micra TPS) is often implanted in patients with atrial fibrillation and thus with increased thromboembolic risk. It is unknown whether the use of anticoagulants, associated with the use of a large venous introducer, implies an increased risk of bleeding in this group of patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of bleeding and thromboembolic complications after Micra TPS implantation with and without therapeutic anticoagulation. METHODS: This single-center observational study included 107 consecutive patients receiving the Micra TPS from 2014 to 2018. At procedure completion, a figure-of-eight suture was placed at the femoral puncture site after sheath withdrawal and was maintained for 24 hours. In patients receiving enoxaparin or new oral anticoagulants, treatment was discontinued 12 or 24 hours before the procedure, respectively, and was reinitiated 4-6 hours postprocedure. In those receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), dosing was not discontinued and the procedure was performed if the international normalized ratio was less than 3. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients (60%) did not receive anticoagulants. Of the 43 (40%) who did, 29 (67%) received VKAs, 8 (19%) received new oral anticoagulants, and 6 (14%) received enoxaparin. Two patients presented hemorrhagic or thromboembolic complications during short-term follow-up: 1 woman receiving VKAs presented hemorrhagic pericardial effusion without tamponade and 1 woman not receiving anticoagulants presented thrombosis of the ipsilateral saphenous vein. CONCLUSION: Bleeding and thromboembolic complications after receiving Micra TPSs are infrequent. The use of anticoagulant therapy, regardless of the type, does not increase the complications associated with the procedure.

9.
Europace ; 21(9): 1286-1296, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038177

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a cornerstone of therapy for patients with heart failure, reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and a wide QRS complex. However, not all patients respond to CRT: 30% of CRT implanted patients are currently considered clinical non-responders and up to 40% do not achieve LV reverse remodelling. In order to achieve the best CRT response, appropriate patient selection, device implantation, and programming are important factors. Optimization of CRT pacing intervals may improve results, increasing the number of responders, and the magnitude of the response. Echocardiography is considered the reference method for atrioventricular and interventricular (VV) intervals optimization but it is time-consuming, complex and it has a large interobserver and intraobserver variability. Previous studies have linked QRS shortening to clinical response, echocardiographic improvement and favourable prognosis. In this review, we describe the electrocardiographic optimization methods available: 12-lead electrocardiogram; fusion-optimized intervals (FOI); intracardiac electrogram-based algorithms; and electrocardiographic imaging. Fusion-optimized intervals is an electrocardiographic method of optimizing CRT based on QRS duration that combines fusion with intrinsic conduction. The FOI method is feasible and fast, further reduces QRS duration, can be performed during implant, improves acute haemodynamic response, and achieves greater LV remodelling compared with nominal programming of CRT.

10.
Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J ; 19(4): 140-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794927

RESUMO

AIMS: Riata® implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads from St. Jude Medical are prone to malfunction. This study aimed to describe the rate of this lead's malfunction in a very long-term follow-up. METHODS: This single-centre observational study included 50 patients who received a Riata 7Fr dual-coil lead between 2003 and 2008. Follow-up was conducted both in person and remotely, and analysed at 8-month intervals. We evaluated the rates of cable externalization (CE), electrical failure (EF), and the interaction of these two complications. Structural lead failure was defined as radiographic CE. Oversensing of non-cardiac signal or sudden changes in impedance, sensing, or pacing thresholds constituted EF. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.2 ±â€¯2.9 years, 16 patients (32%) died. We observed lead malfunction in 13 patients (26%): three (23%) due to CE, six (46%) to EF and four (31%) to both complications. Of the malfunctioning leads, 77% failed after seven years of follow-up. The incidence rate (IR) of overall malfunction per 100 patients per year was 0.9 during the first seven years post-implantation, increased to 7.0 after the 7th year and more than doubled (to 16.7) after 10 years. Beyond seven years post-implantation, IR per 100 patient-years increased in both EF and CE (from 0.6 to 5.6 vs. 0.3 to 4.2, respectively). Presence of CE was associated with a 4-fold increase in the proportion of EF. CONCLUSION: The incidence of Riata ICD lead malfunction, both for EF and CE, increased dramatically after seven years and then more than doubled after 10 years post-implantation.

12.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(7): 1344-1351, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is common and has been related to higher mortality and major complications. No comparison between balloon-expandable (BEV) and self-expanding valves (SEV) regarding drop platelet count (DPC) has been reported to date. The objectives of this study were to analyze the differences in DPC between BEVs or SEVs and their prognostic implications in clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing TAVI. Platelet counts after TAVI were collected. Two groups were created: DPC ≤ 30% and DPC > 30%. VARC-2 criteria were used to define outcomes. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 195 patients (age 77.5 ± 6.7, 57.4% males). All of them but one experienced DPC (mean DPC 31.9 ± 15.3%). DPC was significantly higher among the patients treated with BEV compared to those treated with SEV (36.3 ± 15.1% vs 27.7 ± 14.4, P < 0.001). After multivariate analysis, the use of BEV was independently associated with a higher rate of DPC > 30% (67.4% vs 36.0%; OR 3.4; 95% CI, 1.42-8.16). At 30 days, the DPC > 30% was associated with a higher rate of life-threatening/major bleeding, major vascular complications, in-hospital sepsis and mortality. At one year, there were no statistically significant differences in the mortality rate between groups (6.35% vs 10.0%, HR 1.54; 95% CI, 0.56-4.25). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the use of BEV was associated with a higher risk of DPC after TAVI. A DPC rate > 30% was associated with an increased risk of major complications at 30 days.

13.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 37(10): 865.e1-865.e4, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is an infrequent finding. Revascularization is recommended in the presence of demonstrated viability or ischemia. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has long been considered the preferred option. Patients with previous CABG due to LMCA disease with occlusion of one graft and progression of the LMCA to CTO constitute a special population, as just one ischemic artery remains. For these patients, there is no other option for revascularization other than cardiac surgery (requiring resternotomy) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the LMCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of 620 patients with CTO diagnosed in our center, we identified five with previous CABG due to LMCA disease for a retrospective case series. They had occlusion of one graft and progression of the LMCA to CTO. All five underwent PCI. Each patient received a functional classification for angina, myocardial ischemic tests, and a follow-up coronary angiogram during a median follow-up of 63 months. Coronary angiogram showed CTO of the semi-protected LMCA lesions with two CABGs previously performed in all patients, one occluded and the other patent. Three patients had occluded saphenous vein grafts to the circumflex coronary artery, and the rest had left internal mammary artery-left anterior descending artery CABG failure. Ischemia and viability were demonstrated. Surgery was ruled out due to high surgical risk. PCI due to CTO of the LMCA with drug-eluting stents was performed. In a five-year follow-up period, four patients remained asymptomatic and event free. One post-PCI death occurred from non-cardiovascular cause. CONCLUSIONS: PCI due to CTO of the LMCA following CABG can be successful and safe and can provide sustained clinical improvements in selected cases.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Echocardiography ; 34(10): 1544-1545, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670782

RESUMO

Myxoma is a rare cause of severe mitral stenosis. We describe a challenging case of severe mitral stenosis and reversible pulmonary hypertension produced by a giant left atrial myxoma. The greatest risk is a diagnostic delay due to focus on discarding a pulmonary etiology of dyspnea. Physical examination and early echocardiographic assessment are the keys to avoid overlooking this uncommon pathology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cardíacas/complicações , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Mixoma/complicações , Mixoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Mixoma/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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