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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) anti-spike (S) IgG antibody production after vaccination with BNT162b2 and the protection from symptomatic breakthrough infections in health care workers. METHODS: This prospective observational study (RENAISSANCE) had as a primary end point the evaluation of serologic response to BNT162b2 14 days after a second dose. SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG antibodies were evaluated with LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay (DiaSorin S.p.A.), which is able to detect the presence of both binding and neutralizing antibodies for trimeric spike glycoprotein. Participants were recruited from February 1, 2021, to February 22, 2021. Occurrence of vaccine breakthrough infections was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on symptomatic and contact cases up to June 6, 2021. RESULTS: Of 2569 staff evaluated, only 4 were nonresponders (0.16%; 95% CI, 0.04% to 0.41%). All 4 nonresponders were severely immunosuppressed and receiving treatment with mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid. At 14 days after the second dose, 67.5% (1733) of staff had anti-S IgG titers of 2000 BAU/mL or higher; 19.2% (494), between 1500 and 2000 BAU/mL; 9.8% (251), between 1000 and 1500 BAU/mL; and 3.4% (87), 1000 BAU/mL or lower. Women had a higher probability of having higher titers than men (64.5% [1044/1618] vs 58.3% [410/703]; P=.005). This was confirmed after adjustment for age group (odds ratio, 1.275; 95% CI, 1.062 to 1.531; P=.009). Four months after the end of the vaccination program, only 13 participants (0.26%) had experienced a breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 1 nonresponder. This was the only participant requiring hospitalization for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The vaccination campaign among health care workers at the ASST GOM Niguarda has resulted in a marked serologic response and reduction of incident COVID-19 cases. Yet, the lack of protection should not be overlooked in immunocompromised individuals.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842924

RESUMO

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.

3.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811949

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of features of dysmetabolism on liver disease severity, evolution, and clinical outcomes in a real-life cohort of patients treated with direct acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To this end, we considered 7,007 patients treated between 2014 and 2018, 65.3% with advanced fibrosis, of whom 97.7% achieved viral eradication (NAVIGATORE-Lombardia registry). In a subset (n = 748), liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was available at baseline and follow-up. Higher body mass index (BMI; odds ratio [OR] 1.06 per kg/m2 , 1.03-1.09) and diabetes (OR 2.01 [1.65-2.46]) were independently associated with advanced fibrosis at baseline, whereas statin use was protective (OR 0.46 [0.35-0.60]; P < 0.0001 for all). The impact of BMI was greater in those without diabetes (P = 0.003). Diabetes was independently associated with less pronounced LSM improvement after viral eradication (P = 0.001) and in patients with advanced fibrosis was an independent predictor of the most frequent clinical events, namely de novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; hazard ratio [HR] 2.09 [1.20-3.63]; P = 0.009) and cardiovascular events (HR 2.73 [1.16-6.43]; P = 0.021). Metformin showed a protective association against HCC (HR 0.32 [0.11-0.96]; P = 0.043), which was confirmed after adjustment for propensity score (P = 0.038). Diabetes diagnosis further refined HCC prediction in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease at high baseline risk (P = 0.024). Conclusion: Metabolic comorbidities were associated with advanced liver fibrosis at baseline, whereas statins were protective. In patients with advanced fibrosis, diabetes increased the risk of de novo HCC and of cardiovascular events. Optimization of metabolic comorbidities treatment by a multi-disciplinary management approach may improve cardiovascular and possibly liver-related outcomes.

4.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14882, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidence regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients' clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 March to 31 May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases (n = 710) and negatives as controls (n = 619), for a total number of patients of 1.329. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymised form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+ ), sodium (Na+ ), chlorine (Cl- ) and calcium (Ca++ ) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. RESULTS: We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalaemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1, P < .0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54, P < .001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35, P < .001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69, P < .001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcaemic was 7.2 (95% CI 4.8-10.6, P < .0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcaemic (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypochloraemia and sodium alterations. Hypokalaemia is more frequent among women and hypocalcaemia among men.

5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e29504, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a huge strain on the health care system globally. The metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, was one of the regions most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Risk prediction models developed by combining administrative databases and basic clinical data are needed to stratify individual patient risk for public health purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a stratification tool aimed at improving COVID-19 patient management and health care organization. METHODS: A predictive algorithm was developed and applied to 36,834 patients with COVID-19 in Italy between March 8 and the October 9, 2020, in order to foresee their risk of hospitalization. Exposures considered were age, sex, comorbidities, and symptoms associated with COVID-19 (eg, vomiting, cough, fever, diarrhea, myalgia, asthenia, headache, anosmia, ageusia, and dyspnea). The outcome was hospitalizations and emergency department admissions for COVID-19. Discrimination and calibration of the model were also assessed. RESULTS: The predictive model showed a good fit for predicting COVID-19 hospitalization (C-index 0.79) and a good overall prediction accuracy (Brier score 0.14). The model was well calibrated (intercept -0.0028, slope 0.9970). Based on these results, 118,804 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 25 to December 11, 2020, were stratified into low, medium, and high risk for COVID-19 severity. Among the overall study population, 67,030 (56.42%) were classified as low-risk patients; 43,886 (36.94%), as medium-risk patients; and 7888 (6.64%), as high-risk patients. In all, 89.37% (106,179/118,804) of the overall study population was being assisted at home, 9% (10,695/118,804) was hospitalized, and 1.62% (1930/118,804) died. Among those assisted at home, most people (63,983/106,179, 60.26%) were classified as low risk, whereas only 3.63% (3858/106,179) were classified at high risk. According to ordinal logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of being hospitalized or dead was 5.0 (95% CI 4.6-5.4) among high-risk patients and 2.7 (95% CI 2.6-2.9) among medium-risk patients, as compared to low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: A simple monitoring system, based on primary care data sets linked to COVID-19 testing results, hospital admissions data, and death records may assist in the proper planning and allocation of patients and resources during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Algoritmos , Teste para COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the change in the incidence and causes of hospitalization between 2008 and 2018 among persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2008 onwards in Italy. METHODS: We included participants in the ICONA (Italian Cohort Naïve Antiretrovirals) cohort who started ART in 2008. All the hospitalizations occurring during the first 30 days from the start of ART were excluded. Hospitalizations were classified as due to: AIDS-defining conditions (ADC), non-ADC infections and non-infections/non-ADC (i.e., cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal-genitourinary, cancers, gastrointestinal-liver, psychiatric and other diseases). Comparisons of rates across time were assessed using Poisson regression. The Poisson multivariable model evaluated risk factors for hospitalizations, including both demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 9524 PLWHIV were included; 6.8% were drug users, 48.9% men-who-have sex with men (MSM), 39.6% heterosexual contacts; 80.8% were males, 42.3% smokers, 16.6% coinfected with HCV and 6.8% with HBV (HBsAg-positive). During 36,157 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), there were 1058 hospitalizations in 747 (7.8%) persons; they had HIV-RNA >50 copies mL in 34.9% and CD4 < 200/mmc in 27%. Causes of hospitalization were 23% ADC, 22% non-ADC infections, 55% non-infections/non-ADC (11% cancers; 9% gastrointestinal-liver; 6% cardiovascular; 5% renal-genitourinary; 5% psychiatric; 4% pulmonary; 15% other). Over the study period, the incidence rate (IR) decreased significantly (from 5.8 per 100 PYFU in 2008-2011 to 2.21 per 100 PYFU in 2016-2018). Age > 50 years, intravenous drug use (IDU), family history of cardiovascular disease, HIV-RNA > 50, CD4 < 200, were associated with a higher hospitalization risk. CONCLUSIONS: In our population of PLWHIV, the rate of hospitalization decreased over time.

7.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: HCV shows complex interactions with lipid metabolism. Our aim was to examine total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes in HIV/HCV coinfected patients, after achieving sustained virological response (SVR), according to different HCV genotypes and specific antiretroviral use. METHODS: HIV/HCV coinfected patients, enrolled in the ICONA and HepaICONA cohorts, who achieved DAA-driven SVR were included. Paired t-tests were used to examine whether the pre- and post-SVR laboratory value variations were significantly different from zero. ANCOVA regression models were employed to estimate the causal effect of SVR and of PI/r use on lipid changes. The interaction between the effect of eradication and HCV genotype was formally tested. RESULTS: six hundred and ninety-nine HIV/HCV coinfected patients were enrolled. After HCV eradication, a significant improvement in liver function occurred, with a significant decrease in AST, ALT, GGT, and total plasmatic bilirubin. TC and LDL-C significantly increased by 21.4 mg/dL and 22.4 mg/dL, respectively (p < 0.001), after SVR, whereas there was no evidence for a change in HDL-C (p = 0.45) and triglycerides (p = 0.49). Notably, the TC and LDL-C increase was higher for participants who were receiving darunavir/ritonavir, and the TC showed a more pronounced increase among HCV genotype 3 patients (interaction-p value = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: complex and rapid changes in TC and LDL-C levels, modulated by HCV genotype and PI/r-based ART combinations, occurred in HIV/HCV coinfected patients after SVR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of these changes on the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resposta Viral Sustentada
8.
Gut ; 70(10): 1914-1924, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Explore the impact of COVID-19 on patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) and on their post-LT course. DESIGN: Data from consecutive adult LT candidates with COVID-19 were collected across Europe in a dedicated registry and were analysed. RESULTS: From 21 February to 20 November 2020, 136 adult cases with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 33 centres in 11 European countries were collected, with 113 having COVID-19. Thirty-seven (37/113, 32.7%) patients died after a median of 18 (10-30) days, with respiratory failure being the major cause (33/37, 89.2%). The 60-day mortality risk did not significantly change between first (35.3%, 95% CI 23.9% to 50.0%) and second (26.0%, 95% CI 16.2% to 40.2%) waves. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed Laboratory Model for End-stage Liver Disease (Lab-MELD) score of ≥15 (Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score 15-19, HR 5.46, 95% CI 1.81 to 16.50; MELD score≥20, HR 5.24, 95% CI 1.77 to 15.55) and dyspnoea on presentation (HR 3.89, 95% CI 2.02 to 7.51) being the two negative independent factors for mortality. Twenty-six patients underwent an LT after a median time of 78.5 (IQR 44-102) days, and 25 (96%) were alive after a median follow-up of 118 days (IQR 31-170). CONCLUSIONS: Increased mortality in LT candidates with COVID-19 (32.7%), reaching 45% in those with decompensated cirrhosis (DC) and Lab-MELD score of ≥15, was observed, with no significant difference between first and second waves of the pandemic. Respiratory failure was the major cause of death. The dismal prognosis of patients with DC supports the adoption of strict preventative measures and the urgent testing of vaccination efficacy in this population. Prior SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection did not affect early post-transplant survival (96%).


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Transplantados , Causas de Morte , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Listas de Espera
9.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062916

RESUMO

To complement RT-qPCR testing for diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, many countries have introduced the use of rapid antigen tests. As they generally display lower real-life performances than expected, their correct positioning as frontline screening is still controversial. Despite the lack of data from daily clinical use, third generation microfluidic assays (such as the LumiraDx SARS-CoV-2 Ag test) have recently been suggested to have similar performances to RT-qPCR and have been proposed as alternative diagnostic tools. By analyzing 960 nasopharyngeal swabs from 960 subjects at the emergency department admissions of a tertiary COVID-19 hospital, LumiraDx assay demonstrated a specificity of 97% (95% CI: 96-98), and a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI: 82-89) in comparison with RT-qPCR, which increases to 91% (95% CI: 86-95) for samples with a cycle threshold ≤ 29. Fifty false-negative LumiraDx-results were confirmed by direct quantification of genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA through droplet-digital PCR (median (IQR) load = 5880 (1657-41,440) copies/mL). Subgenomic N and E RNAs were detected in 52% (n = 26) and 56% (n = 28) of them, respectively, supporting the presence of active viral replication. Overall, the LumiraDx test complies with the minimum performance requirements of the WHO. Yet, the risk of a misrecognition of patients with active COVID-19 persists, and the need for confirmatory RT-qPCR should not be amended.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/análise , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(6): 677-681, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941488

RESUMO

The vaccination campaign against Sars-CoV-2 commenced in Italy at the end of December 2020. The first ones to receive the immunization against the virus were the health workers and the residents of nursing homes, following which the vaccine would be available for the entire population, beginning with the most vulnerable individuals. SARS-CoV2 vaccines have been demonstrated to be safe for the general population, although no data for patients with liver diseases or those having undergone liver transplantation are available so far. The present position statement AISF is an attempt to suggest, based on the published data on the impact of Sars-Cov-2 infection in patients with chronic liver disease, a possible priority for vaccination for this category of patients.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Programas de Imunização , Hepatopatias , Risco Ajustado/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/classificação , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this secondary analysis of the TESEO cohort is to identify, early in the course of treatment with tocilizumab, factors associated with the risk of progressing to mechanical ventilation and death and develop a risk score to estimate the risk of this outcome according to patients' profile. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 severe pneumonia receiving standard of care + tocilizumab who were alive and free from mechanical ventilation at day 6 after treatment initiation were included in this retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify predictors of mechanical ventilation or death by day-28 from treatment initiation and ß-coefficients were used to develop a risk score. Secondary outcome was mortality. Patients with the same inclusion criteria as the derivation cohort from 3 independent hospitals were used as validation cohort. RESULTS: 266 patients treated with tocilizumab were included. By day 28 of hospital follow-up post treatment initiation, 40 (15%) underwent mechanical ventilation or died [26 (10%)]. At multivariable analysis, sex, day-4 PaO2/FiO2 ratio, platelets and CRP were independently associated with the risk of developing the study outcomes and were used to generate the proposed risk score. The accuracy of the score in AUC was 0.80 and 0.70 in internal validation and test for the composite endpoint and 0.92 and 0.69 for death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our score could assist clinicians in identifying, early after tocilizumab administration, patients who are likely to progress to mechanical ventilation or death, so that they could be selected for eventual rescue therapies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 184, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA seems to be associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. However, whether specific population can be at higher risk of viremia are to date unexplored. METHODS: This cross-sectional proof-of-concept study included 41 SARS-CoV-2-positive adult individuals (six affected by haematological malignancies) hospitalized at two major hospital in Milan, for those demographic, clinical and laboratory data were available. SARS-CoV-2 load was quantified by ddPCR in paired plasma and respiratory samples. To assess significant differences between patients with and patients without viremia, Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS: Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in 8 patients (19.5%), with a median (IQR) value of 694 (209-1023) copies/mL. Viremic patients were characterized by an higher mortality rate (50.0% vs 9.1%; p = 0.018) respect to patients without viremia. Viremic patients were more frequently affected by haematological malignancies (62.5% vs. 3.0%; p < 0.001), and had higher viral load in respiratory samples (9,404,000 [586,060-10,000,000] vs 1560 [312-25,160] copies/mL; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Even if based on a small sample population, this proof-of-concept study poses the basis for an early identification of patients at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 viremia, and therefore likely to develop severe COVID-19, and supports the need of a quantitative viral load determination in blood and respiratory samples of haematologic patients with COVID-19 in order to predict prognosis and consequently to help their further management.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Testes Sorológicos , Carga Viral , Viremia/virologia
16.
Eur J Neurosci ; 53(8): 2912-2922, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624380

RESUMO

SARS-CoV2 infection is a systemic disease that may involve multiple organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). Aims of our study are to describe prevalence and clinical features of neurological manifestations, mortality and hospital discharge in subjects hospitalized with COVID-19. All individuals admitted for to our hospital COVID-19 were retrospectively included. Patients were classified according to the symptoms at hospital entry in (1) isolated respiratory, (2) combined respiratory and neurologic, (3) isolated neurologic and (4) stroke manifestations. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests to compare the groups were calculated. Kaplan Meier probability curves and multivariable Cox regression models for survival and hospital discharge were applied. The analysis included 901 patients: 42.6% showed a severe or critical disease with an overall mortality of 21.2%. At least one neurological symptom or disease was observed in 30.2% of subjects ranging from dysgeusia/anosmia (9.1%) to postinfective diseases (0.8%). Patients with respiratory symptoms experienced a more severe disease and a higher in-hospital mortality compared to those who showed only neurologic symptoms. Kaplan Meier estimates displayed a statistically significant different survival among groups (p = 0.003): subjects with stroke had the worst. After adjusting for risk factors such as age, sex and comorbidity, individuals with isolated neurologic manifestations exhibited a better survival (aHR 0.398, 95% CI [0.206, 0.769], p = 0.006). Neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 are common but heterogeneous and mortality in subjects with isolated neurologic manifestations seems lower than in those with respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(5): 779-786, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600068

RESUMO

HCV infection has been hypothesized as a contributor of poor CD4+ recovery in patients living with HIV (PLWHIV). Aim of this study was to evaluate CD4+ , CD8+ cells and CD4/CD8 ratio trends before and after HCV treatment with direct acting agents (DAA) in PLWHIV. HIV/HCV patients enrolled in ICONA and HepaICONA cohorts with HIV-RNA≤50 copies/ml who achieved a sustained viral response after DAA treatment were studied. A linear regression model was used to investigate CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4/CD8 changes 12 months before and after DAA treatment. A total of 939 HIV/HCV patients were included, 225 (24.0%) female, median age: 53 years (IQR 50-56). At DAA initiation, CD4+ T cell count was <350 cells/mm3 in 164 patients (17.5%), and 246 patients (26.2%) had liver stiffness>12.5 kPa. Trends of CD4+ and CD4/CD8 ratio were similar before and after DAA in all study populations (CD4+ change +17.6 cells/mm3 (95%CI -33.5; 69.4, p = 0.494); CD4/CD8 change 0.013 (95%CI -0.061; 0.036, p = 0.611). However, patients treated with ribavirin (RBV)-free DAA showed a significant decrease in CD8+ cells (-204.3 cells/mm3 , 95%CI -375.0;-33.4, p = 0.019), while patients treated with RBV experienced CD8+ cell increase (+141.2 cells/mm3 , 95%CI 40.3; 242.1, p = 0.006). In conclusion, HCV eradication following DAA treatment does not seem to have an impact on CD4+ T cell recovery in PLWHIV. However, a fast decline of CD8+ T cells has been observed in patients treated without RBV, suggesting a favourable effect of HCV clearance on the general state of immune activation.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa566, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447635

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anti-HBc (HBcAb) positivity on the progression of liver fibrosis (Fibrosis-4 score >3.25) in the Italian cohort of HIV-infected individuals naïve to antiretroviral treatment (ICONA). Methods: All patients with FIB-4 <3.25 at baseline were evaluated prospectively: 6966 people with HIV (PWH) were screened and classified based on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology. Results: Patients who were HBcAb+/HCV-/HBs antigen (HBsAg)- and HCV+/HBcAb+/HBsAg- or HBsAg+/HBcAb+/HCV- had CD4+ cell counts below the nadir and significantly higher prevalence of AIDS diagnosis at baseline than the other groups (P < .0001). A Cox regression model adjusted for age, HIV transmission mode, country of birth, and alcohol consumption showed a higher relative risk (HR) of progression to FIB-4 >3.25 in HCV+/HBcAb+/HBsAg- patients (HR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3 8-13.64). Conclusions: HBcAb+ contributes to liver damage in HIV+/HCV+/HBcAb+/HBsAg- subjects. A careful monitoring for signs of previous HBV infection is needed in this kind of patients.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 434, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469026

RESUMO

From February to April 2020, Lombardy (Italy) reported the highest numbers of SARS-CoV-2 cases worldwide. By analyzing 346 whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes, we demonstrate the presence of seven viral lineages in Lombardy, frequently sustained by local transmission chains and at least two likely to have originated in Italy. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (five of them non-synonymous) characterized the SARS-CoV-2 sequences, none of them affecting N-glycosylation sites. The seven lineages, and the presence of local transmission clusters within three of them, revealed that sustained community transmission was underway before the first COVID-19 case had been detected in Lombardy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Genoma Viral/genética , Genômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
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