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1.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the frequency and management of short- and long-term complications related to oromandibular free flap reconstruction and identify potentially predictive factors of hardware complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: A retrospective database from chart review was formed consisting of 266 oromandibular free flap reconstructions performed at a single institution over a 15-year period. Data were collected on demographics, surgical treatment, complications, and management of complications. Subgroup univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare patients with hardware complications and those without. RESULTS: Eighty-one of 266 patients (30.5%) that underwent oromandibular reconstruction had an early complication (<4 weeks after surgery), and the most common complications were cervical wound dehiscence (11.3%) and fistulas (9.40%). Eighty of 266 patients (30.1%) had a long-term complication (>4 weeks after surgery) and the most common complication was plate exposure (26.7%). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no association between whether there was hardware extrusion and fibula versus scapula, smoking history, virtual surgical planning (VSP), and dental implantation (P > .05). Only early complications (OR, 3.59, 95% CI, 1.83-7.05, P < .01) and patients undergoing oromandibular reconstruction for osteoradionecrosis (OR, 2.26, 95% CI, 1.10-4.64, P = .03) were strongly and independently associated with subsequent hardware extrusion on univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Both short- and long-term complications are common after oromandibular reconstruction. The most important predictive factor for a late complication is an early complication and prior radiation. There was no difference of plate complications among the various free flap types. Dental implantation and use of VSP were not associated with hardware complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2021.

2.
Head Neck ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For human papilloma virus positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), management recommendations for patients with a single metastatic lymph node <6 cm in diameter remain nebulous, leading to treatment heterogeneity in this common subgroup of patients. METHODS: We utilized the National Cancer Database to perform survival and multivariable analyses of patients with HPV+ OPSCC with one positive lymph node <6 cm and negative surgical margins. RESULTS: We found that 5-year survival is comparable between patients who receive surgery and adjuvant radiation versus surgery alone. In multivariable analyses, we found no significant difference in the hazard ratio of overall survival after adjusting for various potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that patients with margin-negative HPV+ OPSCC with a single positive lymph node <6 cm have comparable survival with or without adjuvant radiation. Future studies exploring outcomes for this specific group in randomized-controlled trials will be critical for further evaluating these initial observations.

3.
Head Neck ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Race has been shown to have variable prognostic importance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, previous studies are limited by a lack of comprehensive treatment, epidemiologic, and comorbidity data. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2016. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for overall survival. RESULTS: A cohort of 9995 patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Race, insurance, comorbidity, treatment, stage, age, and histology were independent prognosticators. Among patients with keratinizing NPC, Asians and Hispanics had superior survival (aHR 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.69], aHR 0.76 [95% CI 0.61-0.96]) compared to white patients. Among patients with non-keratinizing differentiated NPC, Asians and black patients had improved survival (aHR 0.71 [95% CI 0.56-0.91], aHR 0.72 [95% CI 0.54-0.95]) compared to white patients. Race was not prognostic in non-keratinizing undifferentiated NPC. CONCLUSION: The prognostic significance of race varies across histological subtypes of NPC.

4.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To assess whether young patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) demonstrate worse oncologic outcomes than older patients after definitive therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A medical librarian composed a search strategy to identify relevant studies in Medline, Embase, Scopus, and other major databases (Prospero registration number CRD42019127974). Inclusion criteria were adults with histologically diagnosed OCSCC that underwent treatment, comparator groups with an age cutoff of 40 years old, and reported survival outcomes. Articles were excluded if they contained patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma or patients treated for palliative intent. Overall survival hazard ratios were analyzed with a meta-analysis. RESULTS: There were 23,382 patients with OCSCC that were treated with definitive therapy from 22 included studies. The pooled cohort contained 2,238 (10%) patients ≤40 years of age. Oral tongue was the most common subsite in both the younger (n = 1,961, 91%) and older (n = 18,047, 88%) cohorts. The majority of OCSCCs were either T1 or T2, representing 859 (80%) malignancies in younger patients and 8,126 (77%) malignancies in older patients. A meta-analysis of nine studies demonstrated that younger patients did not experience worse survival outcomes than older patients (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with OCSCC experienced similar oncologic outcomes as older patients with OCSCC after definitive treatment. Until compelling evidence demonstrates clinically relevant differences between these two cohorts, their approach to management should be similar. Future studies should consider comorbidities and using age 40 as a standard age cutoff to provide more uniform data moving forward. Laryngoscope, 2020.

6.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has required triage and delays in surgical care throughout the world. The impact of these surgical delays on survival for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unknown. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 37 730 patients in the National Cancer Database with HNSCC who underwent primary surgical management from 2004 to 2016 was performed. Uni- and multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors of overall survival. Bootstrapping methods were used to identify optimal time-to-surgery (TTS) thresholds at which overall survival differences were greatest. Cox proportional hazard models with or without restricted cubic splines were used to determine the association between TTS and survival. RESULTS: The study identified TTS as an independent predictor of overall survival (OS). Bootstrapping the data to dichotomize the cohort identified the largest rise in hazard ratio (HR) at day 67, which was used as the optimal TTS cut-point in survival analysis. The patients who underwent surgical treatment longer than 67 days after diagnosis had a significantly increased risk of death (HR, 1.189; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.122-1.261; P < 0.0001). For every 30-day delay in TTS, the hazard of death increased by 4.6%. Subsite analysis showed that the oropharynx subsite was most affected by surgical delays, followed by the oral cavity. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing TTS is an independent predictor of survival for patients with HNSCC and should be performed within 67 days after diagnosis to achieve optimal survival outcomes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151273

RESUMO

Importance: Regional lymph node metastasis remains an important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Although survival among patients with regional metastasis in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC is more favorable compared with patients who are HPV negative, prognostic variables associated with failure in patients with single-node metastasis are not known. Objective: To evaluate recurrence and survival in patients with HPV-related OPSCC with single-lymph node metastasis treated with transoral surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 207 adults with newly diagnosed p16-positive OPSCC and pathology-confirmed single-node disease who underwent surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy at 2 tertiary academic medical centers from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Statistical analysis was performed from September 1, 2018, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Surgery alone (n = 59), surgery with adjuvant radiation (n = 75), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiation (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was regional recurrence. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, any recurrence, and identification of factors associated with regional recurrence and overall survival. Results: Among 207 patients, 178 (86%) were men, with a median age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years) at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 36.2 months (range, 7-127 months). Regional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5%). Of these, 1 patient (9%) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis, 1 (9%) was treated with palliative chemotherapy, and 9 (82%) were treated with curative intent. Ultimately, 7 patients received successful salvage treatment, and 3 died with disease. Overall, there were 21 patients (10%) with any recurrence, with 4 patients (19%) experiencing local recurrence, 11 (52%) experiencing regional recurrence, and 6 (29%) experiencing distant metastasis. The 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 89%-98%) for all patients. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), advanced T stage (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.9-14.0), and positive margins (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.8-67.5) were associated with increased regional recurrence. Extranodal extension (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.8), lymph node size greater than 3 cm (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and adjuvant therapy (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.4) were associated with decreased regional recurrence. Advanced comorbidities (hazard ratio, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.4-27.7), lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.0-21.2), and regional recurrence (hazard ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 3.1-82.0) were associated with worse overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that patients with HPV-related OPSCC and single-node disease undergoing surgical resection with or without adjuvant treatment have excellent survival. Adjuvant therapy appears to improve regional control. Among patients with regional recurrence of OPSCC, there is a high rate of successful salvage treatment.

8.
OTO Open ; 4(4): 2473974X20970181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210069

RESUMO

Objective: This investigation aims to review the known genetic mutations associated with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) in young adults with limited environmental risk factors (YLERs). Data Sources: A comprehensive search strategy was designed to identify studies in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), and Scopus from database inception to May 2017 that included adults ≤50 years of age with OCSCC and minimal tobacco use history (≤10 pack-years) who had their tumors genetically sequenced or mutational profiles analyzed. Review Methods: Identified articles were screened by 2 reviewers. Quality of evidence was graded by the MINORS criteria for case-control studies; other studies were graded by assigning a level of evidence for gene mutation literature. Results: Thirteen studies met our inclusion criteria, and 130 patients met our criteria for age and tobacco history. TP53 was the most commonly evaluated gene (10 of 13 studies) and the most frequently observed mutation. One study reported that nonsmokers had significantly fewer TP53 mutations, while 9 studies found no difference in the prevalence of TP53 mutations. No other mutations were found specific to this cohort. Conclusions: TP53 mutations may occur at a similar rate in YLERs with OCSCC as compared with older patients or those with risk factors. However, few studies have aimed to characterize the genetic landscape of oral cavity tumors in this population, often with small sample sizes. Future studies are needed to explore unidentified genetic alterations leading to tumor susceptibility or alternative mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

9.
Oral Oncol ; 112: 105093, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232879

RESUMO

Gender and race disparities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HSNCC) survival are independently well documented, but no prior studies have examined the joint effect of these factors on HSNCC outcomes. We aim to comprehensively estimate the effect of gender and race on overall survival in HNSCC. We constructed a retrospective cohort from the National Cancer Database for primary HNSCC of the larynx, hypopharynx, oral cavity, and oropharynx from 2010 to 2015. We used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regressions to calculate hazard ratios adjusting for treatment type, age, insurance, staging classifications, and comorbidities. Oral cavity cancer was significantly more common among Hispanic and White females compared to other sites. Female non-oropharyngeal HNSCC cases had better five-year overall survival than males (56.3% versus 54.4%, respectively), though Black females (52.8%) had poorer survival than both White (56.2%) and Hispanic (57.9%) males. There were significant differences in oropharyngeal cancer by HPV status. Notably, Black females with HPV-positive oropharyngeal OPSCC had far worse survival than any other race and gender group. These results persisted even when adjusting for potential mediating factors. Clearly gender is a significant prognosticator for HNSCC and has meaningful interactions with race. The distinct site distributions across gender and race reveal important insights into HNSCC among females. Taking into account these gender disparities while considering race is essential to providing appropriate care to head and neck patients and accurately counselling these individuals on prognosis and outcomes.

10.
Radiother Oncol ; 155: 246-253, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-third of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) present with locally advanced disease involving the regional lymph nodes, but indications for regional lymph node radiation therapy (rLN-RT) are not well established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 patients with locally advanced MCC were retrospectively reviewed. Regional lymph nodes were addressed with observation, lymph node dissection (LND) alone, definitive nodal radiotherapy (DnRT), or LND plus adjuvant nodal radiotherapy (AnRT). Cox regression was used to compare treatment modalities in terms of regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS), distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: rLN-RT, including both DnRT and AnRT, improved RRFS (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.40, p = 0.003), DRFS (HR: 0.28, CI: 0.11-0.76, p = 0.01), DFS (HR: 0.23, CI: 0.09-0.58, p = 0.002), and DSS (HR: 0.23, CI: 0.06-0.90, p = 0.03). AnRT improved DFS and DSS in high-risk subgroups (e.g., extranodal extension (ENE), ≥ 2 positive lymph nodes, or bulkier lymph nodes). The benefit of AnRT increased with higher disease burden. After controlling for these adverse factors, AnRT significantly improved RRFS (HR: 0.04, CI: 0.01-0.37, p = 0.004), DRFS (HR: 0.14, CI: 0.04-0.50, p = 0.003), DFS (HR: 0.09, CI: 0.02-0.33, p < 0.001), and DSS (HR: 0.21, CI: 0.05-0.89, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: rLN-RT, including both DnRT and AnRT, reduces relapse and death from MCC in patients with node-positive disease. AnRT is particularly beneficial for patients with ENE, multiple involved lymph nodes, or larger nodal foci of disease. These results argue for more liberal use of nodal RT for MCC patients who present with node-positive disease.

11.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1208-1218, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128048

RESUMO

Cultured cell lines are the workhorse of cancer research, but the extent to which they recapitulate the heterogeneity observed among malignant cells in tumors is unclear. Here we used multiplexed single-cell RNA-seq to profile 198 cancer cell lines from 22 cancer types. We identified 12 expression programs that are recurrently heterogeneous within multiple cancer cell lines. These programs are associated with diverse biological processes, including cell cycle, senescence, stress and interferon responses, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and protein metabolism. Most of these programs recapitulate those recently identified as heterogeneous within human tumors. We prioritized specific cell lines as models of cellular heterogeneity and used them to study subpopulations of senescence-related cells, demonstrating their dynamics, regulation and unique drug sensitivities, which were predictive of clinical response. Our work describes the landscape of heterogeneity within diverse cancer cell lines and identifies recurrent patterns of heterogeneity that are shared between tumors and specific cell lines.

12.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore lymphocyte infiltration as a potential mechanism behind CXCL14-mediated tumor growth suppression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: We analyzed single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data from OSCC to identify expression changes among malignant cells in lymph nodes (LN) versus primary tumors. CXCL14 expression in murine OSCC cell lines was quantified using qRT-PCR. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of CXCL14 was performed in mouse oral cavity (MOC)1 cells, and CXCL14 overexpression was performed in MOC2 cells. Cells in each condition were injected into C57BL/6 mice with and without T cell depletion, and tumor volume was measured. At 30 days, tumors were dissociated and analyzed by flow cytometry for CD45+CD3+ T cells. CXCL14 expression was correlated with gene expression signatures of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in scRNA-seq data, as well as TCGA tumors. RESULTS: scRNA-seq revealed CXCL14 as the most significantly downregulated gene among malignant cells in LNs relative to primary tumor, supporting a role in preventing invasion and/or metastasis. In a murine immunocompetent model, CXCL14 expression was higher in indolent MOC1 cells than in more aggressive MOC2 cells. Tumor growth in vivo was significantly increased by CXCL14 knockdown in MOC1 cells relative to control, with a corresponding decrease in TIL. In MOC2 cells, tumor growth was significantly reduced by CXCL14 overexpression relative to control and TIL were increased. Both effects were lost with T cell depletion. In a human tumor scRNA-seq cohort, we found that only malignant cell CXCL14, but not non-malignant cell or fibroblast CXCL14, was associated with TIL. Bulk CXCL14 from the TCGA cohort had no association with TIL. CONCLUSIONS: Higher CXCL14 expression by tumor cells is associated with reduced tumor growth and increased TIL, supporting immune-mediated suppression of tumor growth in OSCC. Given that CXCL14 is downregulated in LN metastases compared with primary tumors, our data raise the possibility that CXCL14-mediated immune infiltration may discourage invasion and metastasis. In human scRNA-seq data, only malignant cell-specific CXCL14 was associated with TIL, suggesting a critical context-dependent effect of CXCL14 expression.

13.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820951175, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature to determine the prevalence and clinical outcomes of second primary oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). DATA SOURCES: Search strategies created with a medical librarian were implemented using multiple databases in October 2019. REVIEW METHODS: The population of interest included adults age >18 years with a p16+ or human papillomavirus-positive OPSCC. The outcome was a synchronous or metachronous second primary OPSCC. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were designed to capture all study designs. In total, 685 records were identified by the search strategy. Two reviewers independently performed the review, extracted data, and performed a quality assessment. Primary Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. A random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2470 patients with 35 second primary OPSCCs from 15 studies were identified. The pooled prevalence of second primary OPSCC was 1.4% (range, 0%-14.3%). In the random-effects model, the prevalence was estimated at 1.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-2.3%; P = .51, I2 = 52%). Of the 30 patients with treatment information, 26 (86.7%) received surgical treatment, while 4 (13.3%) underwent nonsurgical therapy. Of the 29 patients with available survival information, 22 (75.9%) had no evidence of disease at last follow-up, 5 (17.2%) ultimately died of disease, and 2 (6.9%) were alive with disease. CONCLUSION: Overall, the rate of second primary OPSCC in patients with an index p16+ OPSCC is low, and most patients are successfully treated. Insufficient evidence currently exists to recommend routine elective tonsillectomy during surgical treatment of p16+ OPSCC.

14.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820949223, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mandibular reconstruction for segmental defects is a well-studied topic. However, there are conflicting data on the risks of delayed plate-related complications. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess long-term plate-related complications following reconstruction of the mandible with soft tissue and a plate as compared with immediate vascularized bony reconstruction. DATA SOURCES: A medical librarian created search strategies with a combination of keywords and controlled vocabulary in Ovid Medline (1946-), Embase (1947-), Scopus (1960-), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Clinicaltrials.gov. REVIEW METHODS: Candidate articles were independently reviewed by 2 authors. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were uniformly applied. Articles were considered eligible if they included adequate reporting of plate extrusion and/or fracture and had follow-up ≥12 months. RESULTS: A total of 2379 patients were included. The risk of plate fracture was low in cases of soft tissue with a plate (5%; 95% CI, 0.03-0.08) and osseous reconstruction (1%). The risk of extrusion following soft tissue and plate reconstruction was 20% (95% CI, 0.15-0.27). In the osseous reconstruction group, the risk of extrusion was 10% (95% CI, 0.06-0.18). Revision surgery was performed twice as often following soft tissue with a plate as compared with vascularized bony reconstruction (32% [95% CI, 0.25-0.40] vs 14% [95% CI, 0.09-0.21], respectively). CONCLUSION: Delayed plate-related complications remain a significant problem following segmental defect reconstruction. Soft tissue and plate reconstruction techniques may increase the risk of plate removal and revision surgery.

15.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the definition of a clear margin and the use of frozen section (FS) among practicing head and neck surgeons in oral cancer management. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We designed a survey that was sent to American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) members via an email link. RESULTS: A total of 185 (13% of 1,392) AHNS members completed our survey. Most surgeons surveyed (96.8%) use FS to supplement oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma resections. Fifty-five percent prefer a specimen-based approach. The majority of respondents believe FS is efficacious in guiding re-resection of positive margins, with 81% considering the new margin to be negative. More than half of respondents defined a distance of >5 mm on microscopic examination as a negative margin. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid oral cancer resections that result in positive margins on final analysis, and thus the need for additional therapy, most surgeons surveyed use FS. A majority of surveyed surgeons now prefer a specimen-based approach to margin assessment. Although there is a debate on what constitutes a negative margin, most surgeons surveyed believe it to be >5 mm on microscopic examination. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2020.

16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(6): 1218-1225, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guideline recommendations for the treatment of early-stage glottic cancer are limited to single-modality therapy with surgery or radiation alone. We sought to investigate the clinicopathologic and treatment factors associated with the use of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) following laser excision for patients with T1-T2N0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of the National Cancer Database. SETTING: National Cancer Database review from 2004 to 2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1338 patients with primary cT1-T2N0M0 glottic SCC undergoing primary laser excision were included. Hospitals were divided into quartiles based on yearly volume of laryngeal laser cases performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of PORT. RESULTS: The overall rate of PORT was 30.0%. Predictors of PORT included treatment at lower-volume hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for quartiles 2-4, 1.32-4.84), positive margins (aOR, 3.83 [95% CI, 2.54-5.78]), and T2 tumors (aOR, 3.58 [95% CI, 2.24-5.74]). PORT utilization demonstrated a strong inverse correlation with hospital volume. Among top-quartile hospitals, the rate of PORT was 11.2%, while rates of PORT at second-, third-, and fourth-quartile institutions were 19.2%, 32.2%, and 37.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of PORT in multivariable analysis included treatment at lower-volume facilities, positive margins, and T2 disease. This study highlights the importance of treating early-stage glottic carcinoma at high-volume institutions. In addition, there is a need to reevaluate the use of PORT and reduce the rate of dual-modality therapy for patients with early-stage glottic SCC.

17.
Oral Oncol ; 110: 104893, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702629

RESUMO

Complete tumor extirpation with clear surgical margins remains a central tenet of oncologic head and neck surgery. Rates of locoregional recurrence and survival are both significantly worse when clear margins are unable to be obtained. Current clinical practice relies on the use of frozen sections intra-operatively, followed by traditional histopathologic analysis post-operatively to assess the surgical margin. However, with improved understanding of tumor biology and advances in technology, new techniques have emerged to analyze margins at a molecular level. Such molecular margin analysis interrogates tissue for genetic, epigenetic, or proteomic changes that may belie tumor presence or aggressive features not captured by standard histopathologic techniques. Intra-operatively, this information may be used to guide resection, while post-operatively, it may help to stratify patients for adjuvant treatment. In this review, we summarize the current state of molecular margin analysis and describe directions for future research.

18.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104819, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays in radiation are multifactorial, frequent, and associated with poor outcomes. This study investigates the effect of both primary and adjuvant radiation therapy duration and their interaction with other measures of treatment delay on survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: We built a retrospective cohort using the National Cancer Database, consisting of primary oral cavity, hypopharynx, larynx and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastasis and with at least six weeks of radiation. The primary exposure was the duration of radiation therapy (DRT), and the primary outcome was death. We estimated the association between DRT and 5-year overall survival (OS) using Kaplan-Meier curves and hazard ratios (HRs) with Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: In both primary (definitive) and adjuvant (post-surgical) radiation settings, increased DRT results in decreased survival. In the primary radiation cohort, 5-year OS was 59.7% [59.1%-60.3%] among those with 47-53 days DRT, which decreased significantly with each subsequent week to completion (81+ days: 38.4% [36.2%-40.7%]). In the surgical cohort, survival decreased 16.5% when DRT extended beyond 75 days (40-46 days: 68.2% [67.3%-69.1%] vs. 75+ days: 53.3% [50.1%-56.7%]). Multivariate analyses showed increased hazard of death with increased DRT (primary radiation: 81+ days HR: 1.69 [1.58-1.81]); surgical: 75+ days HR: 1.61 [1.37-1.88]), with effects intensifying when restricting to those receiving full-dose radiation. CONCLUSION: A prolonged DRT was associated with worse OS in head and neck cancer. Radiation treatment delays of even a week lead to a significant survival disadvantage. DRT had a stronger association with survival than time to initiation of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

19.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 5(3): 461-467, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596488

RESUMO

Objective: Understanding factors that affect postoperative length of stay (LOS) may improve patient recovery, hasten postoperative discharge, and minimize institutional costs. This study sought to (a) describe LOS among head and neck patients undergoing free flap reconstruction and (b) identify factors that predict increased LOS. Methods: A retrospective cohort was performed of 282 head and neck patients with free flap reconstruction for oncologic resection between 2011 and 2013 at a tertiary academic medical center. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and surgical and infectious complications were characterized. Multivariable regression identified predictors of increased LOS. Results: A total of 282 patients were included. Mean age was 64.7 years (SD = 12.2) and 40% were female. Most tumors were located in the oral cavity (53.9% of patients), and most patients underwent radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction (RFFF-73.8%, anterolateral thigh flap-11.3%, and fibula free flap-14.9%). Intraoperative complications were rare. The most common postoperative complications included nonwound infection (pneumonia [PNA] or urinary tract infection [UTI]) (15.6%) and wound breakdown/fistula (15.2%). Mean and median LOS were 13 days (SD = 7.7) and 10 days (interquartile range = 7), respectively. Statistically significant predictors of increased LOS included flap take back (Beta coefficient [C] = +4.26, P < .0001), in-hospital PNA or UTI (C = +2.52, P = .037), wound breakdown or fistula (C = +5.0, P < .0001), surgical site infection (C = +3.54, P = .017), and prior radiation therapy (C = +2.59, P = .004). Conclusion: Several perioperative factors are associated with increased LOS. These findings may help with perioperative planning, including the need for vigilant wound care, optimization of antibiotics prophylaxis, and institution-level protocols for postoperative care and disposition of free flap patients. Level of Evidence: 2b; retrospective cohort.

20.
Head Neck ; 42(6): 1218-1226, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications and infections frequently affect patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Common characteristics can predispose these patients to the development of severe respiratory illness, which may be particularly relevant during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A scoping review was performed to assess the impact of pulmonary comorbidities and adverse respiratory outcomes in HNSCC patients. RESULTS: Advanced age, history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, and cardiopulmonary comorbidities are significant risk factors for the development of adverse respiratory outcomes. Treatment toxicities from radiation or chemoradiation therapy significantly increase these risks. CONCLUSION: Respiratory complications are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality among HNSCC patients, and the COVID-19 pandemic may disproportionately affect this population. Interventions designed to decrease smoking and alcohol use, improve oral hygiene, and aggressively manage medical comorbidities are important to the long-term management and health of these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
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