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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of schizophrenia have implicated numerous risk loci including several copy number variants (CNVs) of large effect and hundreds of loci of small effect. In only a few cases has a specific gene been clearly identified. Rare CNVs affecting a single gene offer a potential avenue to discovering schizophrenia risk genes. METHODS: CNVs were generated from exome sequencing of 4913 schizophrenia cases and 6188 control subjects from Sweden. We integrated two CNV calling methods (XHMM and ExomeDepth) to expand our set of single-gene CNVs and leveraged two different approaches for validating these variants (quantitative polymerase chain reaction and NanoString). RESULTS: We found a significant excess of all rare CNVs (deletions: p = .0004, duplications: p = .0006) and single-gene CNVs (deletions: p = .04, duplications: p = .03) in schizophrenia cases compared with control subjects. An expanded set of CNVs generated from integrating multiple approaches showed a significant burden of deletions in 11 of 21 gene sets previously implicated in schizophrenia and across all genes in those sets (p = .008), although no tests survived correction. We performed an extensive validation of all deletions in the significant set of voltage-gated calcium channels among CNVs called from both exome sequencing and genotyping arrays. In total, 4 exonic, single-gene deletions were validated in schizophrenia cases and none in control subjects (p = .039), of which all were identified by exome sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: These results point to the potential contribution of single-gene CNVs to schizophrenia, indicate that the utility of exome sequencing for CNV calling has yet to be maximized, and note that single-gene CNVs should be included in gene-focused studies using other classes of variation.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591465

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a common, chronic and debilitating neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting tens of millions of individuals worldwide. While rare genetic variants play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, most of the currently explained liability is within common variation, suggesting that variation predating the human diaspora out of Africa harbors a large fraction of the common variant attributable heritability. However, common variant association studies in schizophrenia have concentrated mainly on cohorts of European descent. We describe genome-wide association studies of 6152 cases and 3918 controls of admixed African ancestry, and of 1234 cases and 3090 controls of Latino ancestry, representing the largest such study in these populations to date. Combining results from the samples with African ancestry with summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) study of schizophrenia yielded seven newly genome-wide significant loci, and we identified an additional eight loci by incorporating the results from samples with Latino ancestry. Leveraging population differences in patterns of linkage disequilibrium, we achieve improved fine-mapping resolution at 22 previously reported and 4 newly significant loci. Polygenic risk score profiling revealed improved prediction based on trans-ancestry meta-analysis results for admixed African (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.032; liability R2 = 0.017; P < 10-52), Latino (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.089; liability R2 = 0.021; P < 10-58), and European individuals (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.089; liability R2 = 0.037; P < 10-113), further highlighting the advantages of incorporating data from diverse human populations.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3503, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409809

RESUMO

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affects 10-20% of the population and is associated with substantial functional deficits. Here, we identify 42 loci for self-reported daytime sleepiness in GWAS of 452,071 individuals from the UK Biobank, with enrichment for genes expressed in brain tissues and in neuronal transmission pathways. We confirm the aggregate effect of a genetic risk score of 42 SNPs on daytime sleepiness in independent Scandinavian cohorts and on other sleep disorders (restless legs syndrome, insomnia) and sleep traits (duration, chronotype, accelerometer-derived sleep efficiency and daytime naps or inactivity). However, individual daytime sleepiness signals vary in their associations with objective short vs long sleep, and with markers of sleep continuity. The 42 sleepiness variants primarily cluster into two predominant composite biological subtypes - sleep propensity and sleep fragmentation. Shared genetic links are also seen with obesity, coronary heart disease, psychiatric diseases, cognitive traits and reproductive ageing.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1007739, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990817

RESUMO

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB)-related overnight hypoxemia is associated with cardiometabolic disease and other comorbidities. Understanding the genetic bases for variations in nocturnal hypoxemia may help understand mechanisms influencing oxygenation and SDB-related mortality. We conducted genome-wide association tests across 10 cohorts and 4 populations to identify genetic variants associated with three correlated measures of overnight oxyhemoglobin saturation: average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep and the percent of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation under 90%. The discovery sample consisted of 8,326 individuals. Variants with p < 1 × 10(-6) were analyzed in a replication group of 14,410 individuals. We identified 3 significantly associated regions, including 2 regions in multi-ethnic analyses (2q12, 10q22). SNPs in the 2q12 region associated with minimum SpO2 (rs78136548 p = 2.70 × 10(-10)). SNPs at 10q22 were associated with all three traits including average SpO2 (rs72805692 p = 4.58 × 10(-8)). SNPs in both regions were associated in over 20,000 individuals and are supported by prior associations or functional evidence. Four additional significant regions were detected in secondary sex-stratified and combined discovery and replication analyses, including a region overlapping Reelin, a known marker of respiratory complex neurons.These are the first genome-wide significant findings reported for oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep, a phenotype of high clinical interest. Our replicated associations with HK1 and IL18R1 suggest that variants in inflammatory pathways, such as the biologically-plausible NLRP3 inflammasome, may contribute to nocturnal hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Hexoquinase/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18/genética , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Oxigênio/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/sangue , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/genética , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1100, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846698

RESUMO

Sleep is an essential state of decreased activity and alertness but molecular factors regulating sleep duration remain unknown. Through genome-wide association analysis in 446,118 adults of European ancestry from the UK Biobank, we identify 78 loci for self-reported habitual sleep duration (p < 5 × 10-8; 43 loci at p < 6 × 10-9). Replication is observed for PAX8, VRK2, and FBXL12/UBL5/PIN1 loci in the CHARGE study (n = 47,180; p < 6.3 × 10-4), and 55 signals show sign-concordant effects. The 78 loci further associate with accelerometer-derived sleep duration, daytime inactivity, sleep efficiency and number of sleep bouts in secondary analysis (n = 85,499). Loci are enriched for pathways including striatum and subpallium development, mechanosensory response, dopamine binding, synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity, among others. Genetic correlation indicates shared links with anthropometric, cognitive, metabolic, and psychiatric traits and two-sample Mendelian randomization highlights a bidirectional causal link with schizophrenia. This work provides insights into the genetic basis for inter-individual variation in sleep duration implicating multiple biological pathways.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Sono/genética , Acelerometria , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato , Sono/fisiologia , Reino Unido
6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(2): 110-119, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) is conferred through many common alleles, while a role for rare copy number variants (CNVs) is less clear. Subtypes of BD including schizoaffective disorder bipolar type (SAB), bipolar I disorder (BD I), and bipolar II disorder (BD II) differ according to the prominence and timing of psychosis, mania, and depression. The genetic factors contributing to the combination of symptoms among these subtypes are poorly understood. METHODS: Rare large CNVs were analyzed in 6353 BD cases (3833 BD I [2676 with psychosis, 850 without psychosis, and 307 with unknown psychosis history], 1436 BD II, 579 SAB, and 505 BD not otherwise specified) and 8656 controls. CNV burden and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia were used to evaluate the relative contributions of rare and common variants to risk of BD, BD subtypes, and psychosis. RESULTS: CNV burden did not differ between BD and controls when treated as a single diagnostic entity. However, burden in SAB was increased relative to controls (p = .001), BD I (p = .0003), and BD II (p = .0007). Burden and schizophrenia PRSs were increased in SAB compared with BD I with psychosis (CNV p = .0007, PRS p = .004), and BD I without psychosis (CNV p = .0004, PRS p = 3.9 × 10-5). Within BD I, psychosis was associated with increased schizophrenia PRSs (p = .005) but not CNV burden. CONCLUSIONS: CNV burden in BD is limited to SAB. Rare and common genetic variants may contribute differently to risk for psychosis and perhaps other classes of psychiatric symptoms.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(4): 675-687, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403821

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Its prevalence and severity vary across ancestral background. Although OSA traits are heritable, few genetic associations have been identified. To identify genetic regions associated with OSA and improve statistical power, we applied admixture mapping on three primary OSA traits [the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), overnight average oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) and percentage time SaO2 < 90%] and a secondary trait (respiratory event duration) in a Hispanic/Latino American population study of 11 575 individuals with significant variation in ancestral background. Linear mixed models were performed using previously inferred African, European and Amerindian local genetic ancestry markers. Global African ancestry was associated with a lower AHI, higher SaO2 and shorter event duration. Admixture mapping analysis of the primary OSA traits identified local African ancestry at the chromosomal region 2q37 as genome-wide significantly associated with AHI (P < 5.7 × 10-5), and European and Amerindian ancestries at 18q21 suggestively associated with both AHI and percentage time SaO2 < 90% (P < 10-3). Follow-up joint ancestry-SNP association analyses identified novel variants in ferrochelatase (FECH), significantly associated with AHI and percentage time SaO2 < 90% after adjusting for multiple tests (P < 8 × 10-6). These signals contributed to the admixture mapping associations and were replicated in independent cohorts. In this first admixture mapping study of OSA, novel associations with variants in the iron/heme metabolism pathway suggest a role for iron in influencing respiratory traits underlying OSA.


Assuntos
Ferroquelatase/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/genética , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico por imagem , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(6): 539-550, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900581

RESUMO

In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), association between genotype and phenotype at autosomal loci is generally tested by regression models. However, X-chromosome data are often excluded from published analyses of autosomes because of the difference between males and females in number of X chromosomes. Failure to analyze X-chromosome data at all is obviously less than ideal, and can lead to missed discoveries. Even when X-chromosome data are included, they are often analyzed with suboptimal statistics. Several mathematically sensible statistics for X-chromosome association have been proposed. The optimality of these statistics, however, is based on very specific simple genetic models. In addition, while previous simulation studies of these statistics have been informative, they have focused on single-marker tests and have not considered the types of error that occur even under the null hypothesis when the entire X chromosome is scanned. In this study, we comprehensively tested several X-chromosome association statistics using simulation studies that include the entire chromosome. We also considered a wide range of trait models for sex differences and phenotypic effects of X inactivation. We found that models that do not incorporate a sex effect can have large type I error in some cases. We also found that many of the best statistics perform well even when there are modest deviations, such as trait variance differences between the sexes or small sex differences in allele frequencies, from assumptions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Regressão , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
9.
Sleep Med ; 47: 126-136, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803181

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We present an automated sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis pipeline that includes an automated artifact detection step, and we test the hypothesis that spectral power density estimates computed with this pipeline are comparable to those computed with a commercial method preceded by visual artifact detection by a sleep expert (standard approach). METHODS: EEG data were analyzed from the C3-A2 lead in a sample of polysomnograms from 161 older women participants in a community-based cohort study. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and Cohen's kappa measures from epoch-by-epoch comparisons of automated to visual-based artifact detection results; then we computed the average EEG spectral power densities in six commonly used EEG frequency bands and compared results from the two methods using correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Assessment of automated artifact detection showed high specificity [96.8%-99.4% in non-rapid eye movement (NREM), 96.9%-99.1% in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep] but low sensitivity (26.7%-38.1% in NREM, 9.1-27.4% in REM sleep). However, large artifacts (total power > 99th percentile) were removed with sensitivity up to 87.7% in NREM and 90.9% in REM, with specificities of 96.9% and 96.6%, respectively. Mean power densities computed with the two approaches for all EEG frequency bands showed very high correlation (≥0.99). The automated pipeline allowed for a 100-fold reduction in analysis time with regard to the standard approach. CONCLUSION: Despite low sensitivity for artifact rejection, the automated pipeline generated results comparable to those obtained with a standard method that included manual artifact detection. Automated pipelines can enable practical analyses of recordings from thousands of individuals, allowing for use in genetics and epidemiological research requiring large samples.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/normas , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Polissonografia/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sono REM/fisiologia
10.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 114, 2017 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrating rare variation from trio family and case-control studies has successfully implicated specific genes contributing to risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), developmental disorders (DDs), and epilepsy (EPI). For schizophrenia (SCZ), however, while sets of genes have been implicated through the study of rare variation, only two risk genes have been identified. METHODS: We used hierarchical Bayesian modeling of rare-variant genetic architecture to estimate mean effect sizes and risk-gene proportions, analyzing the largest available collection of whole exome sequence data for SCZ (1,077 trios, 6,699 cases, and 13,028 controls), and data for four NDDs (ASD, ID, DD, and EPI; total 10,792 trios, and 4,058 cases and controls). RESULTS: For SCZ, we estimate there are 1,551 risk genes. There are more risk genes and they have weaker effects than for NDDs. We provide power analyses to predict the number of risk-gene discoveries as more data become available. We confirm and augment prior risk gene and gene set enrichment results for SCZ and NDDs. In particular, we detected 98 new DD risk genes at FDR < 0.05. Correlations of risk-gene posterior probabilities are high across four NDDs (ρ>0.55), but low between SCZ and the NDDs (ρ<0.3). An in-depth analysis of 288 NDD genes shows there is highly significant protein-protein interaction (PPI) network connectivity, and functionally distinct PPI subnetworks based on pathway enrichment, single-cell RNA-seq cell types, and multi-region developmental brain RNA-seq. CONCLUSIONS: We have extended a pipeline used in ASD studies and applied it to infer rare genetic parameters for SCZ and four NDDs ( https://github.com/hoangtn/extTADA ). We find many new DD risk genes, supported by gene set enrichment and PPI network connectivity analyses. We find greater similarity among NDDs than between NDDs and SCZ. NDD gene subnetworks are implicated in postnatally expressed presynaptic and postsynaptic genes, and for transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation in prenatal neural progenitor and stem cells.


Assuntos
Éxons , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Esquizofrenia/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
11.
Cell Rep ; 21(3): 679-691, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045836

RESUMO

Arc is an activity-regulated neuronal protein, but little is known about its interactions, assembly into multiprotein complexes, and role in human disease and cognition. We applied an integrated proteomic and genetic strategy by targeting a tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag and Venus fluorescent protein into the endogenous Arc gene in mice. This allowed biochemical and proteomic characterization of native complexes in wild-type and knockout mice. We identified many Arc-interacting proteins, of which PSD95 was the most abundant. PSD95 was essential for Arc assembly into 1.5-MDa complexes and activity-dependent recruitment to excitatory synapses. Integrating human genetic data with proteomic data showed that Arc-PSD95 complexes are enriched in schizophrenia, intellectual disability, autism, and epilepsy mutations and normal variants in intelligence. We propose that Arc-PSD95 postsynaptic complexes potentially affect human cognitive function.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large/metabolismo , Inteligência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteômica
12.
Nat Genet ; 49(2): 274-281, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992416

RESUMO

Chronic sleep disturbances, associated with cardiometabolic diseases, psychiatric disorders and all-cause mortality, affect 25-30% of adults worldwide. Although environmental factors contribute substantially to self-reported habitual sleep duration and disruption, these traits are heritable and identification of the genes involved should improve understanding of sleep, mechanisms linking sleep to disease and development of new therapies. We report single- and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses of self-reported sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness in the UK Biobank (n = 112,586). We discover loci associated with insomnia symptoms (near MEIS1, TMEM132E, CYCL1 and TGFBI in females and WDR27 in males), excessive daytime sleepiness (near AR-OPHN1) and a composite sleep trait (near PATJ (INADL) and HCRTR2) and replicate a locus associated with sleep duration (at PAX8). We also observe genetic correlation between longer sleep duration and schizophrenia risk (rg = 0.29, P = 1.90 × 10-13) and between increased levels of excessive daytime sleepiness and increased measures for adiposity traits (body mass index (BMI): rg = 0.20, P = 3.12 × 10-9; waist circumference: rg = 0.20, P = 2.12 × 10-7).


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Sono/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Autorrelato , Circunferência da Cintura/genética
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(12): 1563-1565, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694993

RESUMO

Disruptive, damaging ultra-rare variants in highly constrained genes are enriched in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. In the general population, this class of variants was associated with a decrease in years of education (YOE). This effect was stronger among highly brain-expressed genes and explained more YOE variance than pathogenic copy number variation but less than common variants. Disruptive, damaging ultra-rare variants in highly constrained genes influence the determinants of YOE in the general population.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Educação , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
14.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(11): 1433-1441, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694994

RESUMO

By analyzing the exomes of 12,332 unrelated Swedish individuals, including 4,877 individuals affected with schizophrenia, in ways informed by exome sequences from 45,376 other individuals, we identified 244,246 coding-sequence and splice-site ultra-rare variants (URVs) that were unique to individual Swedes. We found that gene-disruptive and putatively protein-damaging URVs (but not synonymous URVs) were more abundant among individuals with schizophrenia than among controls (P = 1.3 × 10-10). This elevation of protein-compromising URVs was several times larger than an analogously elevated rate for de novo mutations, suggesting that most rare-variant effects on schizophrenia risk are inherited. Among individuals with schizophrenia, the elevated frequency of protein-compromising URVs was concentrated in brain-expressed genes, particularly in neuronally expressed genes; most of this elevation arose from large sets of genes whose RNAs have been found to interact with synaptically localized proteins. Our results suggest that synaptic dysfunction may mediate a large fraction of strong, individually rare genetic influences on schizophrenia risk.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Esquizofrenia/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Risco , Suécia
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(11): 1442-1453, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668389

RESUMO

Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia-associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of people with schizophrenia (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resource, ∼20% of schizophrenia loci have variants that could contribute to altered gene expression and liability. In five loci, only a single gene was involved: FURIN, TSNARE1, CNTN4, CLCN3 or SNAP91. Altering expression of FURIN, TSNARE1 or CNTN4 changed neurodevelopment in zebrafish; knockdown of FURIN in human neural progenitor cells yielded abnormal migration. Of 693 genes showing significant case-versus-control differential expression, their fold changes were ≤ 1.33, and an independent cohort yielded similar results. Gene co-expression implicates a network relevant for schizophrenia. Our findings show that schizophrenia is polygenic and highlight the utility of this resource for mechanistic interpretations of genetic liability for brain diseases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
16.
Nat Genet ; 48(10): 1107-11, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27533299

RESUMO

Copy number variation (CNV) affecting protein-coding genes contributes substantially to human diversity and disease. Here we characterized the rates and properties of rare genic CNVs (<0.5% frequency) in exome sequencing data from nearly 60,000 individuals in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. On average, individuals possessed 0.81 deleted and 1.75 duplicated genes, and most (70%) carried at least one rare genic CNV. For every gene, we empirically estimated an index of relative intolerance to CNVs that demonstrated moderate correlation with measures of genic constraint based on single-nucleotide variation (SNV) and was independently correlated with measures of evolutionary conservation. For individuals with schizophrenia, genes affected by CNVs were more intolerant than in controls. The ExAC CNV data constitute a critical component of an integrated database spanning the spectrum of human genetic variation, aiding in the interpretation of personal genomes as well as population-based disease studies. These data are freely available for download and visualization online.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Criança , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética
17.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(6): 590-7, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27120077

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD), likely result from the influence of both common and rare susceptibility alleles. While common variation has been widely studied, rare variant discovery has only recently become feasible with next-generation sequencing. OBJECTIVE: To utilize a combined family-based and case-control approach to exome sequencing in BD using multiplex families as an initial discovery strategy, followed by association testing in a large case-control meta-analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed exome sequencing of 36 affected members with BD from 8 multiplex families and tested rare, segregating variants in 3 independent case-control samples consisting of 3541 BD cases and 4774 controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We used penalized logistic regression and 1-sided gene-burden analyses to test for association of rare, segregating damaging variants with BD. Permutation-based analyses were performed to test for overall enrichment with previously identified gene sets. RESULTS: We found 84 rare (frequency <1%), segregating variants that were bioinformatically predicted to be damaging. These variants were found in 82 genes that were enriched for gene sets previously identified in de novo studies of autism (19 observed vs. 10.9 expected, P = .0066) and schizophrenia (11 observed vs. 5.1 expected, P = .0062) and for targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) pathway (10 observed vs. 4.4 expected, P = .0076). The case-control meta-analyses yielded 19 genes that were nominally associated with BD based either on individual variants or a gene-burden approach. Although no gene was individually significant after correction for multiple testing, this group of genes continued to show evidence for significant enrichment of de novo autism genes (6 observed vs 2.6 expected, P = .028). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our results are consistent with the presence of prominent locus and allelic heterogeneity in BD and suggest that very large samples will be required to definitively identify individual rare variants or genes conferring risk for this disorder. However, we also identify significant associations with gene sets composed of previously discovered de novo variants in autism and schizophrenia, as well as targets of the FRMP pathway, providing preliminary support for the overlap of potential autism and schizophrenia risk genes with rare, segregating variants in families with BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Exoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Alelos , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(4): 571-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974950

RESUMO

By analyzing the whole-exome sequences of 4,264 schizophrenia cases, 9,343 controls and 1,077 trios, we identified a genome-wide significant association between rare loss-of-function (LoF) variants in SETD1A and risk for schizophrenia (P = 3.3 × 10(-9)). We found only two heterozygous LoF variants in 45,376 exomes from individuals without a neuropsychiatric diagnosis, indicating that SETD1A is substantially depleted of LoF variants in the general population. Seven of the ten individuals with schizophrenia carrying SETD1A LoF variants also had learning difficulties. We further identified four SETD1A LoF carriers among 4,281 children with severe developmental disorders and two more carriers in an independent sample of 5,720 Finnish exomes, both with notable neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Together, our observations indicate that LoF variants in SETD1A cause a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia. Combining these data with previous common variant evidence, we suggest that epigenetic dysregulation, specifically in the histone H3K4 methylation pathway, is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
19.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 3(4): 350-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic treatments for schizophrenia do not alleviate symptoms for all patients and efficacy is limited by common, often severe, side-effects. Genetic studies of disease can identify novel drug targets, and drugs for which the mechanism has direct genetic support have increased likelihood of clinical success. Large-scale genetic studies of schizophrenia have increased the number of genes and gene sets associated with risk. We aimed to examine the overlap between schizophrenia risk loci and gene targets of a comprehensive set of medications to potentially inform and improve treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: We defined schizophrenia risk loci as genomic regions reaching genome-wide significance in the latest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36 989 cases and 113 075 controls and loss of function variants observed only once among 5079 individuals in an exome-sequencing study of 2536 schizophrenia cases and 2543 controls (Swedish Schizophrenia Study). Using two large and orthogonally created databases, we collated drug targets into 167 gene sets targeted by pharmacologically similar drugs and examined enrichment of schizophrenia risk loci in these sets. We further linked the exome-sequenced data with a national drug registry (the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register) to assess the contribution of rare variants to treatment response, using clozapine prescription as a proxy for treatment resistance. FINDINGS: We combined results from testing rare and common variation and, after correction for multiple testing, two gene sets were associated with schizophrenia risk: agents against amoebiasis and other protozoal diseases (106 genes, p=0·00046, pcorrected =0·024) and antipsychotics (347 genes, p=0·00078, pcorrected=0·046). Further analysis pointed to antipsychotics as having independent enrichment after removing genes that overlapped these two target sets. We noted significant enrichment both in known targets of antipsychotics (70 genes, p=0·0078) and novel predicted targets (277 genes, p=0·019). Patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia had an excess of rare disruptive variants in gene targets of antipsychotics (347 genes, p=0·0067) and in genes with evidence for a role in antipsychotic efficacy (91 genes, p=0·0029). INTERPRETATION: Our results support genetic overlap between schizophrenia pathogenesis and antipsychotic mechanism of action. This finding is consistent with treatment efficacy being polygenic and suggests that single-target therapeutics might be insufficient. We provide evidence of a role for rare functional variants in antipsychotic treatment response, pointing to a subset of patients where their genetic information could inform treatment. Finally, we present a novel framework for identifying treatments from genetic data and improving our understanding of therapeutic mechanism. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 21(9): 1290-7, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26503763

RESUMO

Lithium is the mainstay prophylactic treatment for bipolar disorder (BD), but treatment response varies considerably across individuals. Patients who respond well to lithium treatment might represent a relatively homogeneous subtype of this genetically and phenotypically diverse disorder. Here, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify (i) specific genetic variations influencing lithium response and (ii) genetic variants associated with risk for lithium-responsive BD. Patients with BD and controls were recruited from Sweden and the United Kingdom. GWAS were performed on 2698 patients with subjectively defined (self-reported) lithium response and 1176 patients with objectively defined (clinically documented) lithium response. We next conducted GWAS comparing lithium responders with healthy controls (1639 subjective responders and 8899 controls; 323 objective responders and 6684 controls). Meta-analyses of Swedish and UK results revealed no significant associations with lithium response within the bipolar subjects. However, when comparing lithium-responsive patients with controls, two imputed markers attained genome-wide significant associations, among which one was validated in confirmatory genotyping (rs116323614, P=2.74 × 10(-8)). It is an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 2q31.2 in the gene SEC14 and spectrin domains 1 (SESTD1), which encodes a protein involved in regulation of phospholipids. Phospholipids have been strongly implicated as lithium treatment targets. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of variance for lithium-responsive BD explained by common variants ('SNP heritability') as 0.25 and 0.29 using two definitions of lithium response. Our results revealed a genetic variant in SESTD1 associated with risk for lithium-responsive BD, suggesting that the understanding of BD etiology could be furthered by focusing on this subtype of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Adulto , Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lítio/metabolismo , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Suécia , Reino Unido
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