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1.
Nutr Metab Insights ; 14: 11786388211060603, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898991

RESUMO

Introduction: Citrulline is regarded as a biomarker for celiac disease (CD). Its utility for assessment and evaluation of additive predictive value for latent, potential CD and first degree relatives (FDRs) needs exploration. Method: Consecutive 558 index cases diagnosed as per European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) 2012 guidelines and their 1565 FDRs were evaluated over five and half year period. Serology negative FDRs at initial visit and follow ups were served as controls. HLA typing for DQ2 and DQ8 genotypes, along with plasma and dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper citrulline were evaluated. Results: Median plasma citrulline values were 20.1 and 37.33 µMol/l in cases and controls (P < .001). Cut off values for Marsh grade 3a, 3b, and 3c were 35.0, 32.8, 25.26 µMol/l in CD patients and 36.51, 30.10, 25.26 µMol/l in biopsy proven FDR. Increasing trends of plasma citrulline levels with decreasing tTG-IgA levels were observed on follow up. Low plasma citrulline levels were observed with HLA DQ 2.5 genotype (P < .05). Agreement between DBS and plasma citrulline was 94.8%. Conclusion: Citrulline is a good surrogate biomarker for identification of histopathological grade of damage, extent of mucosal recovery and has negative correlation with tTG-IgA. It identifies the silent and latent phase of CD. DBS citrulline provides adequate information and can be used for monitoring CD patients at remote locations.

2.
JGH Open ; 4(2): 113-116, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280752

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Endoscopic biopsy is standard for the diagnosis of esophageal malignancy. However, few cases present with smooth stricture with repetitive negative biopsy results. We aimed to use linear endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis of biopsy-negative suspected malignant esophageal strictures. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from August 2017 to December 2018 of biopsy-negative esophageal strictures. All adult patients with twice-negative biopsies and with smooth overlying esophageal mucosa on endoscopy were included. Clinical, epidemiological, endoscopic, imaging, and EUS findings were noted and analyzed. Results: Eighteen patients underwent EUS for suspicion of malignant esophageal stricture. Seven were excluded as they were submucosal tumors. Eleven patients showed the presence of malignancy on EUS FNA samples. Nine were males. Computed tomography showed esophageal wall thickening in eight (16-38 mm) and esophageal mass in three patients. EUS showed loss of a normal five-layered wall structure of the esophagus in all patients. Fine-needle aspiration cytology demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4), adenocarcinoma (n = 4), poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 2), and neuroendocrine carcinoma (n = 1). There were no complications. Conclusion: EUS with FNA is effective and safe for the diagnosis of biopsy-negative malignant esophageal strictures.

3.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 38(5): 411-440, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802441

RESUMO

The Indian Society of Gastroenterology developed this evidence-based practice guideline for management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults. A modified Delphi process was used to develop this consensus containing 58 statements, which were generated by electronic voting iteration as well as face-to-face meeting and review of the supporting literature primarily from India. These statements include 10 on epidemiology, 8 on clinical presentation, 10 on investigations, 23 on treatment (including medical, endoscopic, and surgical modalities), and 7 on complications of GERD. When the proportion of those who voted either to accept completely or with minor reservation was 80% or higher, the statement was regarded as accepted. The prevalence of GERD in India ranges from 7.6% to 30%, being < 10% in most population studies, and higher in cohort studies. The dietary factors associated with GERD include use of spices and non-vegetarian food. Helicobacter pylori is thought to have a negative relation with GERD; H. pylori negative patients have higher grade of symptoms of GERD and esophagitis. Less than 10% of GERD patients in India have erosive esophagitis. In patients with occasional or mild symptoms, antacids and histamine H2 receptor blockers (H2RAs) may be used, and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) should be used in patients with frequent or severe symptoms. Prokinetics have limited proven role in management of GERD.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia/normas , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Esofagite/epidemiologia , Esofagite/etiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas
4.
Cureus ; 11(6): e5009, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497439

RESUMO

Introduction Peritoneal tuberculosis (PTB) is a paucibacillary disease with poor mycobacterial yield in ascitic fluid. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (Gene Xpert) is a new tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and has not yet been studied on peritoneal tissue. The present study aimed to investigate the yield of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay on peritoneal tissue obtained at peritoneoscopy. Methods This is a retrospective study and the data were collected from hospital records. The patients who underwent peritoneoscopy along with Xpert® MTB/RIF assay on peritoneal tissue were included in this study. Those with proven PTB were considered as cases while those with other diagnoses as controls. Using the reference standard of TB diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Xpert® MTB/RIF assay were calculated. Results Total of 36 patients was analyzed in this study: 28 as cases and eight as controls. Peritoneoscopy was carried out for diagnosis and biopsy. Histopathology in cases revealed caseating granulomas in 16 while 11 had non-caseating granulomas. Nine patients showed acid-fast bacillus positivity on peritoneal tissue. The most common finding on peritoneoscopy was tubercles with adhesions (n = 14, 50%), followed by tubercles only (n = 12, 42.9%). Xpert® MTB/RIF assay was positive in 17 (60.7%) patients with a sensitivity of 60.71%, specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 69.44%. Two patients expressed rifampicin resistance. Conclusion Xpert® MTB/RIF assay on peritoneal tissue has fair sensitivity and excellent specificity. The multidrug resistance and the ability to provide results rapidly make it clinically useful.

5.
Cytopathology ; 30(3): 309-313, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817052

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Giardia intestinalis is a flagellated protozoan, frequently documented as an agent for enteric illness worldwide. Laboratory procedures for diagnosis include stool examination, antigenic detection assays and, at times, mucosal biopsy. We hypothesised that the formalin fixative used as a preservative for mucosal biopsy can be a good diagnostic sample for detecting surface mucosal and luminal infective agents such as giardia. The aim of the study was to find out the utility of processing the remaining formalin fixative as a complementary diagnostic method for detecting giardia. METHODS: This study included 200 cases of duodenal biopsies sampled over 6 months. The biopsies were picked up using clean forceps and the remaining fixative was processed using standard cytospin protocol. The cytospin preparation and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were examined by two pathologists independently blinded to each others findings. RESULTS: On cytology, trophozoites of giardia were detected in 23 out of 200 cases (11.50%). The cytomorphology of pear-shaped organism with paired flagella and nuclei is very diagnostic. One case also showed presence of cryptosporidium spores. No other intestinal parasite was seen. Out of the 23 positive cytology samples, only 12 (6%) corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections showed presence of giardia. CONCLUSION: Concurrent examination of duodenal biopsy and the formalin fixative cytopreparation in cases with high index of clinical suspicion of giardiasis proved to be a useful adjunct to biopsy diagnosis of giardiasis, which was statistically significant (P < .0001). This approach adds negligible cost and effort but with good diagnostic yield. We recommend that the formalin cytopreparation be used as a complementary technique to biopsy for cases suspected of intestinal parasitic infection.


Assuntos
Duodeno/parasitologia , Fixadores/química , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Biópsia/métodos , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Formaldeído/química , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
6.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 8(4): 403-431, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568345

RESUMO

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving chemotherapy, biologicals, immunosupressants, or corticosteroids is emerging to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or prior exposure to HBV infection. These patients suffer a dual onslaught of illness: one from the primary disease for which they are receiving the culprit drug that led to HBV reactivation, and the other from HBV reactivation itself. The HBV reactivation not only leads to a compromised liver function, which may culminate into hepatic failure; it also adversely impacts the treatment outcome of the primary illness. Hence, identification of patients at risk of reactivation before starting these drugs, and starting treatment aimed at prevention of HBV reactivation is the best strategy of managing these patients. There are no Indian guidelines on management of HBV infection in patients receiving chemotherapy, biologicals, immunosupressants, or corticosteroids for the treatment of rheumatologic conditions, malignancies, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatologic conditions, or solid-organ or bone marrow transplantation. The Indian National Association for Study of the Liver (INASL) had set up a taskforce on HBV in 2016, with a mandate to develop consensus guidelines for management of various aspects of HBV infection, relevant to India. In 2017 the taskforce had published the first INASL guidelines on management of HBV infection in India. In the present guidelines, which are in continuation with the previous guidelines, the issues on management of HBV infection in patients receiving chemotherapy, biologicals, immunosupressants, or corticosteroids are addressed.

7.
JGH Open ; 2(2): 34-38, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483561

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Esophageal involvement in tuberculosis (TB) is rare and is usually secondary. Data on esophageal TB are scarce. We aimed to analyze clinical and endoscopic features and outcomes of treatment in esophageal TB. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with esophageal TB from January 2014 to December 2016 at GB Pant Hospital. Well-defined granuloma with or without caseation and/or acid-fast bacilli on staining either from esophageal biopsy or the adjacent mediastinal lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimen, along with clinical features and response to antitubercular therapy (ATT), were collectively considered to diagnose definite TB. Treatment received and response to therapy were documented and analyzed. Results: A total of 19 patients had definite esophageal TB, and the median age of patients was 39 years (14-65 years) and 10 (52.6%) patients were female. The most common presenting symptom was dysphagia (n = 16, 84%) followed by odynophagia (n = 8, 42%). On endoscopy, the mid-esophagus was the most common site of involvement, and findings included ulcers (n = 17), elevated lesions (n = 9), and fistulae (n = 4) in patients. The mediastinal lymphadenopathy was present in all patients, with parenchymal lesions seen in three patients. The endoscopic mucosal biopsies were diagnostic in 11 patients, and in the remaining 8 patients, endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNAC from the mediastinal lymph nodes was diagnostic. A total of 18 patients completely responded to ATT, and 1 patient had partial response with persistent fistulae requiring additional treatment. Conclusion: Esophagus involvement is rare in TB; endoscopic mucosal biopsy and EUS-guided FNAC is diagnostic, and the response to ATT is excellent.

8.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 61(3): 345-349, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004052

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Liver biopsy may be considered in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to assess the severity of liver injury and stage of fibrosis, thereby guiding therapeutic decisions. In addition, advanced stage also necessitates surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess whether transaminase (alanine transaminase [ALT]) levels and RNA titers correlate with the histological activity index (HAI) and fibrosis (F) stage in asymptomatic patients with incidentally detected HCV (IDHCV). Patients and Methods: Retrospective evaluation of liver biopsies was done in 113 patients with IDHCV, diagnosed during routine screening. Decision of liver biopsy was made on the basis of age, genotype, acceptable clinical, hematological, and biochemical profiles, and willingness of the patients to undergo treatment. Serum ALT levels, HCV RNA titers, and genotypes were correlated with HAI and F stage. Results: Genotyping was done in 77 of the 113 patients, of which genotype 3 was seen in 43 and genotype 1 in 25 patients. A higher fibrosis stage (Ishak's >F2) was noted in 23.8% of the biopsies. Serum ALT showed a significant correlation with the HAI score on liver biopsy (P = 0.01) but not with the stage of fibrosis (P = 0.52). HCV RNA titers did not reveal any correlation with HAI score or fibrosis stage. Conclusion: Serum transaminases and HCV RNA titers are poor predictors of disease severity and fibrosis. Since HCV shows a slow disease progression, higher stage may predict a worse prognosis irrespective of the low viral RNA load. Liver biopsy may help guide therapeutic decisions in IDHCV infection.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Biópsia , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/classificação , Hepatite C/patologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/classificação , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Intest Res ; 16(1): 4-16, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422793

RESUMO

Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 1 of the statements comprised 2 parts: risk of TB infection Recommendaduring anti-TNF therapy, and screening for TB infection prior to commencing anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

10.
Intest Res ; 16(1): 17-25, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422794

RESUMO

Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 2 of the statements comprised 3 parts: management of latent TB in preparation for anti-TNF therapy, monitoring during anti-TNF therapy, and management of an active TB infection after anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

11.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1): 20-29, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023903

RESUMO

Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection, and prevention of latent TB infection and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from nine Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 1 of the statements comprised two parts: (i) risk of TB infection during anti-TNF therapy and (ii) screening for TB infection prior to commencing anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Tuberculose/etiologia , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/fisiologia
12.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1): 30-36, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024102

RESUMO

Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from nine Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 2 of the statements comprised three parts: (3) management of latent TB in preparation for anti-TNF therapy, (4) monitoring during anti-TNF therapy, and (5) management of an active TB infection after anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Antibióticos Antituberculose/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/etiologia , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
13.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(6): 1191-1194, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27893931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tuberculosis (TB) is a well-recognized iatrogenic adverse event following administration of biologic therapy given for a variety of clinical indications. There is paucity of data on the development of TB following the use of biologics from countries with a high prevalence of TB. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of development of TB following biological therapy in a country, which is highly endemic for TB. METHODS: The article retrospectively analyse data from three referral inflammatory bowel disease centers to evaluate the risk of development of TB following biological therapy for patients with ulcerative colitis. RESULTS: Of the 79 patients with ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab, seven (8.8%) developed TB at a median interval of 8 weeks after the first exposure despite screening for latent TB. Three of the seven (42%) patients developed disseminated disease, whereas pulmonary disease was documented in four patients (57%). All patients were successfully treated with anti-tuberculous drugs for a period of 6-13 months. In contrast to data from the West, none of the patients in our study had a fatal outcome. None of the patients required a colectomy after a median follow up of 2 years following cessation of the infliximab therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that despite the significantly higher prevalence, the outcome of TB after infliximab therapy is quite sanguine in the Indian subcontinent.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 22(6): 461-464, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976643

RESUMO

Regression of hepatic fibrosis is increasingly becoming a reality, both in clinical as well as experimental models. Reversal or near-total regression of marked liver steatohepatitis and fibrosis, however, remains a rare event. We report the case of a 20-year-old female presenting with diarrhea due to celiac disease and biopsy proven cirrhosis with portal hypertension who had a remarkable clinical improvement in response to a gluten free diet (GFD). A follow-up liver biopsy 9 months after the initiation of GFD revealed a remarkable regression of both fibrosis as well as steatosis. Villous atrophy, as seen in patients with celiac disease, could lead to a deprivation of trophic factors leading to liver injury and subsequent cirrhosis. A gluten-free dietary regimen can produce a reversal of fibrosis leading to the amelioration of symptoms associated even with advanced liver disease.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten/métodos , Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Cirrose Hepática/dietoterapia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Diarreia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Intest Res ; 14(2): 183-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27175120

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors are now considered as standard therapy for patients with severe inflammatory bowel disease who do not respond to corticosteroids, but they carry a definite risk of reactivation of tuberculosis. We present a case in which a patient with inflammatory bowel disease developed a de novo tuberculosis infection after the start of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α treatment despite showing negative results in tuberculosis screening. Although there are many case reports of pleural, lymph nodal and disseminated tuberculosis following infliximab therapy, we present the first case report of rectal tuberculosis following infliximab therapy.

17.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 4(2): 275-80, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progression of potential celiac disease (PCD) to overt celiac disease (CD) has been described in some studies from the Western Hemisphere. There are no Asian data on this aspect of CD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the short-term histological course of PCD in Indian patients. METHODS: Patients with PCD were prospectively identified by screening relatives of patients with CD, the diarrheal subtype of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Patients with serology that was positive for immunoglobulin A antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (IgA anti-tTG) were subjected to endoscopy with duodenal biopsy. PCD was defined as a Marsh-0 to Marsh-II lesion on duodenal biopsy, along with positive IgA tTG serology. Retesting for serology and histology was done at 6-month intervals, for 12 months. RESULTS: We diagnosed 57 patients (23 male) of mean age 28.7 years (range: 4-73 yrs) as having PCD. Of these 57 patients, 28 were identified by screening 192 first-degree relatives of 55 index cases of CD, while the remaining 29 had either IBS-D or IDA. Duodenal biopsy showed Marsh-0, Marsh-I and Marsh-II changes in 28, 27 and 2 patients, respectively. At 6 months, 12 patients became seronegative. The remaining 45 patients continued to be seropositive at the 12-month time point. Histological progression to Marsh-III occurred in only four patients, while progression from Marsh-0 to either Marsh-I or Marsh-II occurred in six patients and one patient, respectively; but 14 patients with Marsh-I did show regression to Marsh-0. Of the two patients who were initially Marsh-II, one remained so upon follow up and one showed regression to Marsh-0. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that despite the fact that nearly 80% of the patients diagnosed to have PCD continue to remain seropositive for tTG 12 months later, histological progression to Marsh-III occurred in only 7% of patients over the same time period. These observations do not justify starting a gluten-free diet in all patients with PCD, in India.

18.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 5(3): 221-38, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26628840

RESUMO

Overall prevalence of HCV infection in India has been estimated to be approximately 1.3% in the general population. Recent introduction of sofosbuvir in India at a relatively affordable price has led to great optimism about prospects of cure for these patients. This drug is likely to form the backbone of current and future treatment regimes for HCV infection, displacing pegylated interferon. Availability of directly acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) has necessitated revision of INASL guidelines for the treatment of HCV published in 2014, as has happened across the world. Current considerations for the treatment of HCV in India include the poorer response of genotype 3, nonavailability of many of the DAAs recommended by other guidelines and the cost of therapy. Since only one DAA, sofosbuvir, is available in India, only two sofosbuvir-based regimes are possible: either dual drug therapy in combination with ribavirin alone for 6 months or triple drug therapy in combination with ribavirin and pegylated interferon for 3 months. The utility of these regimes in various situations has been discussed. Availability of a few other newer DAAs, expected in 2016, is expected to lead to more widespread use of these agents. Current guidance will be updated once newer DAAs, newer evidence with DAAs and 'real-life experience' with use of DAAs accumulate in India.

19.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 34(1): 3-22, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25772856

RESUMO

In 2012, the Indian Society of Gastroenterology's Task Force on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases undertook an exercise to produce consensus statements on Crohn's disease (CD). This consensus, produced through a modified Delphi process, reflects our current recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CD in India. The consensus statements are intended to serve as a reference point for teaching, clinical practice, and research in India.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Administração Oftálmica , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Índia , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Mesalamina/administração & dosagem , Indução de Remissão
20.
Hepatol Res ; 43(3): 311-4, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23437911

RESUMO

Jaundice in patients with AIDS can be a result of diverse conditions ranging from opportunistic infections to drug-related hepatotoxicity. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the prevalence of AIDS cholangiopathy as a cause of jaundice has decreased; on the other hand, ART-related hepatotoxicity has become one of the commonest causes of jaundice in these patients. AIDS cholangiopathy is a rare condition of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in patients with advanced HIV infection, usually due to opportunistic infections. Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is an acquired disorder characterized by progressive destruction and loss of interlobular bile ducts causing intrahepatic cholestasis. Herein, we report co-occurrence of fatal cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced VBDS along with papillary stenosis, as a component of AIDS cholangiopathy, which to the best of our knowledge has not been documented earlier. This is perhaps the third case of VBDS in a patient with AIDS, and the second in association with CMV infection. VBDS in AIDS has a poor outcome, and liver transplantation may be considered only in a suitable candidate.

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