Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 57
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890020

RESUMO

Portal hypertensive bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension (PHT) with high morbidity and mortality. A lot of advances have been made in our understanding of screening, risk stratification, and management strategies for portal hypertensive bleeding including acute variceal bleeding leading to improved overall outcomes in patients with PHT. A number of guidelines on variceal bleeding have been published by various societies in the past few years. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) Task Force on Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB) felt that it was necessary to bring out a standard practice guidance document for the use of Indian health care providers especially physicians, gastroenterologists, and hepatologists. For this purpose, an expert group meeting was convened by the ISG Task Force to deliberate on this matter and write a consensus guidance document for Indian practice. The delegates including gastroenterologists, hepatologists, radiologists, and surgeons from different parts of the country participated in the consensus development meeting at Coorg in 2018. A core group was constituted which reviewed all published literature on portal hypertensive UGIB with special reference to the Indian scenario and prepared unambiguous statements on different aspects for voting and consensus in the whole group. This consensus was produced through a modified Delphi process and reflects our current understanding and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of portal hypertensive UGIB in Indians. Intended for use by the health care providers especially gastroenterologists and hepatologists, these consensus statements provide an evidence-based approach to risk stratification, diagnosis, and management of patients with portal hypertensive bleeding.

2.
Cureus ; 13(5): e15009, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131544

RESUMO

Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare tissue phenomenon that is usually associated with lympho-proliferative diseases. The disease is characterized by prominent collections of macrophages with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and fibrillary cytoplasmic inclusions. The inclusions appear as linear crystals within the macrophages which are usually kappa restricted. The disease usually involves lungs, lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus and spleen with rare involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a rare case of lambda-restricted CSH of the stomach. The diagnosis of CSH triggered further hematological evaluation. The patient was later diagnosed to have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving lymph nodes and bone marrow. He received chemotherapy for the same and is on regular follow up. The index case highlights the need to identify CSH of stomach prompting evaluation for hematological malignancies and to increase its awareness among clinicians and pathologists.

3.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 354-386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994718

RESUMO

Renal dysfunction is very common among patients with chronic liver disease, and concomitant liver disease can occur among patients with chronic kidney disease. The spectrum of clinical presentation and underlying etiology is wide when concomitant kidney and liver disease occur in the same patient. Management of these patients with dual onslaught is challenging and requires a team approach of hepatologists and nephrologists. No recent guidelines exist on algorithmic approach toward diagnosis and management of these challenging patients. The Indian National Association for Study of Liver (INASL) in association with Indian Society of Nephrology (ISN) endeavored to develop joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of patients who have simultaneous liver and kidney disease. For generating these guidelines, an INASL-ISN Taskforce was constituted, which had members from both the societies. The taskforce first identified contentious issues on various aspects of simultaneous liver and kidney diseases, which were allotted to individual members of the taskforce who reviewed them in detail. A round-table meeting of the Taskforce was held on 20-21 October 2018 at New Delhi to discuss, debate, and finalize the consensus statements. The evidence and recommendations in these guidelines have been graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system with minor modifications. The strength of recommendations (strong and weak) thus reflects the quality (grade) of underlying evidence (I, II, III). We present here the INASL-ISN Joint Position Statements on Management of Patients with Simultaneous Liver and Kidney Disease.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in a patient with cirrhosis has high short-term mortality. Midodrine has shown promising results in the treatment of AKI-hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-AKI). AIMS: To compare midodrine and albumin versus albumin alone for the secondary prophylaxis of HRS-AKI. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Open labeled, nonrandomized, pilot study. Patients with a diagnosis of HRS-AKI were recruited after complete recovery. Patients were given midodrine daily (15 mg) and injection albumin infusion 20 g weekly in group-A (Gp-A) and injection albumin 20 g weekly with no midodrine in group-B (Gp-B). The primary endpoint was the recurrence of AKI-HRS, and the secondary endpoint was ascites tap in 2-month period. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were enrolled in Gp-A, n = 22, and Gp-B, n = 20. There was no significant difference between the groups (Gp-A vs. Gp-B) in terms of age, model stage liver disease, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score and serum creatinine at inclusion (1.27 ± 0.1 vs. 1.22 ± 0.2 mg/dL). During follow up ten patients (50%) in Gp-B and four patients (18%) in Gp-A develop HRS-AKI (P = 0.04). The mean number of ascites tap was significantly higher in Gp-B compared to Gp-A (2.6 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5) in 2 months. There was a significant increase in mean arterial pressure in Gp-A compared to Gp-B on days 7, 15, 30, 45 and 60. There was a significant difference in mean arterial pressure at day 7 in patients who developed HRS-AKI versus those who did not develop HRS-AKI [(n = 14, 65.5 ± 5.5) vs. (n = 28,74.6 ± 9.2 mm Hg), P = 0.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Midodrine along with albumin infusion, is helpful in the secondary prophylaxis of HRS-AKI and reduces the number of ascites tap. However, a large randomized study is required for further validation.

5.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(1): 97-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679050

RESUMO

Malnutrition and sarcopenia are common in patients with chronic liver disease and are associated with increased risk of decompensation, infections, wait-list mortality and poorer outcomes after liver transplantation. Assessment of nutritional status and management of malnutrition are therefore essential to improve outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. This consensus statement of the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver provides a comprehensive review of nutrition in chronic liver disease and gives recommendations for nutritional screening and treatment in specific clinical scenarios of malnutrition in cirrhosis in adults as well as children with chronic liver disease and metabolic disorders.

7.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 10(5): 477-517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029057

RESUMO

Acute liver failure (ALF) is not an uncommon complication of a common disease such as acute hepatitis. Viral hepatitis followed by antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity are the commonest causes of ALF in India. Clinically, such patients present with appearance of jaundice, encephalopathy, and coagulopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and cerebral edema are central and most important clinical event in the course of ALF, followed by superadded infections, and determine the outcome in these patients. The pathogenesis of encephalopathy and cerebral edema in ALF is unique and multifactorial. Ammonia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis, and several therapies aim to correct this abnormality. The role of newer ammonia-lowering agents is still evolving. These patients are best managed at a tertiary care hospital with facility for liver transplantation (LT). Aggressive intensive medical management has been documented to salvage a substantial proportion of patients. In those with poor prognostic factors, LT is the only effective therapy that has been shown to improve survival. However, recognizing suitable patients with poor prognosis has remained a challenge. Close monitoring, early identification and treatment of complications, and couseling for transplant form the first-line approach to manage such patients. Recent research shows that use of dynamic prognostic models is better for selecting patients undergoing liver transplantation and timely transplant can save life of patients with ALF with poor prognostic factors.

8.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 10(4): 339-376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655238

RESUMO

Acute liver failure (ALF) is an infrequent, unpredictable, potentially fatal complication of acute liver injury (ALI) consequent to varied etiologies. Etiologies of ALF as reported in the literature have regional differences, which affects the clinical presentation and natural course. In this part of the consensus article designed to reflect the clinical practices in India, disease burden, epidemiology, clinical presentation, monitoring, and prognostication have been discussed. In India, viral hepatitis is the most frequent cause of ALF, with drug-induced hepatitis due to antituberculosis drugs being the second most frequent cause. The clinical presentation of ALF is characterized by jaundice, coagulopathy, and encephalopathy. It is important to differentiate ALF from other causes of liver failure, including acute on chronic liver failure, subacute liver failure, as well as certain tropical infections which can mimic this presentation. The disease often has a fulminant clinical course with high short-term mortality. Death is usually attributable to cerebral complications, infections, and resultant multiorgan failure. Timely liver transplantation (LT) can change the outcome, and hence, it is vital to provide intensive care to patients until LT can be arranged. It is equally important to assess prognosis to select patients who are suitable for LT. Several prognostic scores have been proposed, and their comparisons show that indigenously developed dynamic scores have an edge over scores described from the Western world. Management of ALF will be described in part 2 of this document.

10.
Endosc Int Open ; 7(11): E1403-E1409, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673611

RESUMO

Background and study aims Although endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an established modality for pathological sampling of pancreatic and biliary lesions, limited data are available on the diagnostic value of EUS-FNA for evaluation of gallbladder mass lesions, a common cause of obstructive jaundice. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of EUS-FNA for diagnosis of gallbladder mass lesions presenting with biliary obstruction. Patients and methods This study was a retrospective analysis of data from patients who had undergone EUS-FNA for gallbladder mass lesions. FNA was performed on either a gallbladder mass, metastatic node or liver lesions. Outcome measures were diagnostic yield of EUS FNA and adverse events. Results From April 2011 to August 2018, 101 patients with gallbladder mass lesions with biliary obstruction underwent EUS-FNA. The final diagnosis was malignancy in 98, benign disease in one, and two patients were lost to follow-up. EUS-FNA confirmed the diagnosis in 89 of 98 patients with malignancy (sensitivity 90.81 %); was false negative in nine of 98 cases with malignancy; and was truly negative in the solitary patient with benign disease (specificity 100 %). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 100 %, 10 %, and 90.90 %, respectively. Two patients had self-limiting pain. Conclusion EUS-FNA is a sensitive tool for evaluation of gallbladder mass lesions presenting with obstructive jaundice. However, because of low NPV, lesions in which FNA is negative should be further evaluated.

11.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 9(5): 625-651, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695253

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 6th most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. There are currently no universally accepted practice guidelines for the diagnosis of HCC on imaging owing to the regional differences in epidemiology, target population, diagnostic imaging modalities, and staging and transplant eligibility. Currently available regional and national guidelines include those from the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD), the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, the Japan Society of Hepatology, the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group, Hong Kong, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network in the United States. India with its large population and a diverse health infrastructure faces challenges unique to its population in diagnosing HCC. Recently, American Association have introduced a Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LIRADS, version 2017, 2018) as an attempt to standardize the acquisition, interpretation, and reporting of liver lesions on imaging and hence improve the coherence between radiologists and clinicians and provide guidance for the management of HCC. The aim of the present consensus was to find a common ground in reporting and interpreting liver lesions pertaining to HCC on imaging keeping LIRADSv2018 in mind.

12.
Indian J Radiol Imaging ; 29(2): 111-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367083

RESUMO

The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) Task Force on Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Indian Radiological and Imaging Association (IRIA) developed combined ISG-IRIA evidence-based best-practice guidelines for imaging of the small intestine in patients suspected to have or having Crohn's disease. The 29 consensus statements, developed through a modified Delphi process, are intended to serve as reference for teaching, clinical practice, and research.

13.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 9(3): 383-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360030

RESUMO

Liver diseases occurring during pregnancy can be serious and can progress rapidly, affecting outcomes for both the mother and fetus. They are a common cause of concern to an obstetrician and an important reason for referral to a hepatologist, gastroenterologist, or physician. Liver diseases during pregnancy can be divided into disorders unique to pregnancy, those coincidental with pregnancy, and preexisting liver diseases exacerbated by pregnancy. A rapid differential diagnosis between liver diseases related or unrelated to pregnancy is required so that specialist and urgent management of these conditions can be carried out. Specific Indian guidelines for the management of these patients are lacking. The Indian National Association for the Study of the Liver (INASL) in association with the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI) had set up a taskforce for development of consensus guidelines for management of patients with liver diseases during pregnancy, relevant to India. For development of these guidelines, a two-day roundtable meeting was held on 26-27 May 2018 in New Delhi, to discuss, debate, and finalize the consensus statements. Only those statements that were unanimously approved by most members of the taskforce were accepted. The primary objective of this review is to present the consensus statements approved jointly by the INASL and FOGSI for diagnosing and managing pregnant women with liver diseases. This article provides an overview of liver diseases occurring in pregnancy, an update on the key mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis, and the recommended treatment options.

14.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 74(4): 365-370, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449923

RESUMO

Background: Megaloblastic Anemia (MA) is a relatively common disease, yet the data on prevalence of MA remains scarce. This study was conducted to study the prevalence and clinico-hematological profile of MA. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 1150 adult anemic patients. All patients diagnosed to have MA were studied for clinico-hematological and etiological profile. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were done in all. Results: MA was present in 3.6% cases of anemia. Severe anemia was seen in 9.7% of anemic patients and 75% of MA cases (p < 0.05). Forty five percent of MA patients presented with pancytopenia. Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency were documented in 40% and 25% cases respectively while combined deficiency was noted in 35% of all MA cases. There was no co-relation between severity of anemia and deficiency of either of the vitamins (Fischer exact test: 0.530). Among MA patients, 35% were vegetarians while 65% consumed mixed diet. There was no association between vegetarian diet and Vit B12 deficiency (p = 0.3137). An additional etiology was more commonly found in patients on mixed diet [92%; 24/26] as compared to those on vegetarian diet [50%; 7/14] (p = 0.04). NCS was abnormal in 14 patients (35%). Overt clinical neuropathy was present in 12 cases of MA, while subclinical neuropathy was seen in 2 cases. Conclusion: MA is one of common causes of pancytopenia and severe anemia. Diet plays an important role in causation of MA in vegetarians. An alternative etiology is however, more likely to be found in patients on mixed diet. While overt neurological abnormalities are common in MA, subclinical neuropathy is uncommon.

15.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 74(3): 250-254, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093768

RESUMO

Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a commonly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder in adults. Very few studies on magnitude of GERD in student community have been done and there is none so far from India. Rigorous MBBS curriculum makes medical students prone for reflux symptoms. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of GERD in medical students and the potential risk factors associated with it. Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted on medical students in a premier medical college of India. All participants were interviewed for GERD symptoms using the validated questionnaire on frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD. Additional 11 questions include enquiries on medical history and lifestyle factors. Results: Of the 600 students, 150 (25%) had GERD symptoms. Of these, 88 (58.6%) had mild, 58 (38.6%) moderate, and 4 (2.7%) severe reflux symptoms. Fifty eight (38.6%) of students with GERD had associated dyspepsia. On univariate analysis higher BMI, final years of MBBS course, use of NSAID or alcohol, inadequate sleep, sleeping within one hour of taking dinner, missing breakfast regularly and quick eating were significantly associated with GERD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Prevalence of symptoms of GERD in medical students is 25%, majority had mild symptoms. Associated dyspeptic symptoms were present in 38.6%. Factors predisposing to GERD in them are higher BMI, final years of MBBS course, use of NSAID, inadequate sleep, sleeping within one hour of taking dinner, missing breakfast on regular basis and quick eating.

16.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 11(5): OC01-OC03, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658823

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thyrotoxicosis is a spectrum of disorder with a rather common clinical presentation with different aetiologies. The aetiological diagnosis is important as the management differs. It is essential to accurately diagnose the cause before starting treatment. Scintigraphy of thyroid helps in differentiating accurately the various causes. USG is routinely being advocated and T3/T4 ratio has also been used. AIM: This study aims to evaluate the scintigraphic profile of thyrotoxicosis patients and to correlate biochemical and USG findings with scintigraphy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis patients based on biochemical reports were included in the study. They underwent further evaluation with ultrasonography and 99mTc scintigraphy. RESULTS: Of 60 patients of thyrotoxicosis, 45 cases were of Grave's disease, 10 cases were of thyroiditis and five cases were of Toxic Multinodular Goiter (MNG). The clinical characteristics were helpful in establishing the diagnosis in only six (10%) patients who presented with classic features of Grave's disease with ophthalmopathy. T3/T4 ratio greater than 20 was seen only in 29 (66%) patients of Grave's disease and also in three (33.33%) of thyroiditis patients. USG had a sensitivity and specificity of 81.82% and 93.75% in diagnosing Graves' disease and 100% and 82.4% in diagnosing thyroiditis respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinical findings do not help in accurately delineating aetiological diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Serum T3/T4 ratio when used as a criterion has marked overlap between the various conditions causing thyrotoxicosis. USG has reasonable sensitivity however, misses many cases of early Grave's disease. Follow up scintigraphy helps in a small population with resolving thyroiditis or early Grave's disease where the initial scintiscan is normal or inconclusive.

17.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 73(1): 12-17, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both antitubercular therapy (ATT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) can cause drug induced liver injury (DILI) in tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The aim of this research was to study ATT-induced liver function test (LFT) abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB were evaluated with baseline LFT and CD4 counts. ATT regimen was modified if baseline LFT was significantly abnormal. Patients on protease inhibitors were given rifabutin instead of rifampicin. In patients on nevirapine-based ART, efavirenz was substituted for nevirapine. In ART-naive patients, the timing of introduction of ART was according to CD4 cell counts. LFT were repeated fortnightly or as clinically indicated for 10 weeks. RESULTS: We studied 100 patients with HIV ([M - 67, F - 23], mean age: 40.05 ± 10.75 years, mean CD4 cell count: 239.157 ± 228.49 cells/dL). Sixty-one patients were on ART prior to diagnosis of TB. Baseline LFT abnormalities (n = 40) were similar in ART and non-ART group (28/61 vs 12/39, p = 0.13). After starting ATT, derangement of LFT was observed in majority of patients (99/100). However, liver sparing ATT was required only in 15 patients. Bilirubin >2.5 mg/dL was seen only in 9 patients. Significant rise in transaminases was commoner in patients on concurrent ART and ATT (p = 0.044) and with baseline LFT abnormalities (p = 0.00016). There was no case of acute liver failure or mortality. CONCLUSION: Mild LFT abnormalities are common in HIV-infected individuals on ATT. Concomitant use of ATT and ART and baseline LFT abnormalities increase the risk of significant DILI. However, with closer follow-up, serious liver injury can be prevented.

18.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 73(1): 23-28, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Derangement of liver function tests (LFTs) is common in people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLHA). The cause is multifactorial. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the commonest cause and others being alcohol abuse and concomitant viral hepatitis. The aim of the research was to study the prevalence of LFT abnormalities in PLHA. METHODS: The study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Evaluation included a detailed history, thorough clinical examination and investigations including a haemogram, serum biochemistry, serology for hepatitis, and CD4 cell count. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients were evaluated. Of these, 212 (85.82%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 111 (44.93%) were on anti-tubercular therapy (ATT), and 94 (38.05%) were on concurrent ATT-ART. Abnormal LFTs were seen in 128/247 (51.82%) PLHA. In the majority (88.28%), the LFT abnormalities were mild. LFT abnormalities were seen in 109/212 (51.4%) patients on ART, in 56/111 (50.5%) patients on ATT, 46/94 (48.93%) patients on concurrent ART-ATT. There was no difference in LFT abnormalities among the three groups nor was there any significant association with alcohol consumption. There was a statistically significant co-relation between albumin/globulin ratio and CD4 count (p = 0.0002). Counter-intuitively, LFT abnormalities were commoner in patients not receiving nevirapine (p = 0.043), but severe abnormalities (grade III/grade IV) were commoner in those receiving nevirapine (p = 0.005) and in those on concurrent ART-ATT (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: LFT abnormalities in PLHA are common; but usually mild. There is a strong association between severe abnormalities and nevirapine-based therapy (p = 0.02) and concurrent ATT-ART (p = 0.008).

19.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 36(6): 487-508, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307029

RESUMO

The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) Task Force on Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Indian Radiological and Imaging Association (IRIA) developed combined ISG-IRIA evidence-based best-practice guidelines for imaging of the small intestine in patients with suspected or known Crohn's disease. These 29 position statements, developed through a modified Delphi process, are intended to serve as reference for teaching, clinical practice, and research.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radiologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 6(3): 224-232, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746619

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent pathogen and is a major cause of healthcare burden in India. HCV poses a significant problem in the state of Punjab, India owing to the higher prevalence of risk factors like unsafe medical practices (including unsafe injections and dental procedures) and intravenous drug use. The reported prevalence of HCV in this part of the country was 5.2% in 2012, while a recent study has shown the prevalence to be 3.2% in 2016. Similar to the other geographic belts in India, genotype 3 predominates in the state of Punjab. Control of HCV infection in Punjab requires focusing on several strategies. There is a need to formulate a health educational curriculum targeting not only the high-risk population but also the general population regarding the transmission of HCV. Training of family physicians who form the first link to patients in the community is imperative in the success of healthcare programmes. Adopting the dual approach of treating the old cases (decreasing the reservoir pool of HCV) and decreasing the incidence of new ones would help curtail the disease and decrease liver related mortality. A commendable initiative has been launched by the Punjab state government to eliminate HCV from Punjab. However, besides the initiative by the government, a concerted effort by all other stakeholders in managing the HCV burden in India, namely the doctors, the drug companies and the non-government organizations is required for control of HCV.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...