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1.
Arch Virol ; 162(2): 379-390, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27761744

RESUMO

Kemerovo Oblast (KO) has had the highest rate of HIV spread in Russia since 2011. The aim of this work was to study the genetic variation of HIV-1 in Kemerovo Oblast. Blood was sampled from a total of 91 HIV-positive antiretroviral-therapy-naïve individuals in 2013 (38) and 2015 (53). HIV-1 subtypes, pol gene drug resistance mutations, and viral tropism were analyzed. In 2013-2015, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A decreased in KO from 60.5 to 7.5 %. The samples collected in 2015 from the patients with newly diagnosed HIV demonstrate the current dominance of HIV-1 CRF63_02A1 (71.7 %) and HIV-1 URF63_A1 (20.8 %), their parental viruses being CRF63_02A1 and subtype A. The initially predominant genetic variant, HIV-1 subtype A, was replaced in KO. An unusually high incidence of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms is probably the result of HIV-1 CRF63_02A1 introduction in the group of injection drug users with the initial HIV-1 subtype A infection and the practice of risky behavior that promotes reinfection. HIV-1 CRF63_02A1, which recently emerged in Siberia, and its recombinant forms have an ever-increasing impact on the current HIV epidemic in Russia, making urgent the need for in-depth study of this HIV-1 genetic variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Recombinação Genética , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mutação , Filogeografia , Prevalência , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Assunção de Riscos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sibéria/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/virologia
2.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 101: 130-136, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27865382

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) transplantation is an actively studied therapeutic approach used in regenerative medicine and in the field of control of immunoinflammatory response. Conditioning of MSC in culture can form their predominantly pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes. We demonstrated that poly(A:U)-conditioning of bone marrow-derived mouse MSC induced predominantly pro-inflammatory phenotype. The effects of administration of naïve MSC (nMSC) or conditioned MSC (cMSC) on the course of mycobacterial infection were studied. BALB/c mice infected i.p. with 5 × 106 M. bovis BCG were successively injected i.v. with 0.75 × 106 of nMSC or cMSC in 11 and 12.5 weeks after infection and sacrificed at the week 14. Histological and bacteriological examination of BCG-infected animals revealed low bacterial loads in liver, lungs and spleen; the bacterial load in spleen was higher than in other organs. Treatment with nMSC induced 3-fold increase of the number of bacteria in spleen granulomas, while cMSC decreased significantly the number of bacteria in BCG-positive granulomas. Analysis of preparations of organ homogenates by luminescent microscopy, MGIT cultures and CFU count on Lowenstein-Jensen medium revealed that nMSC promoted mycobacterial growth whereas cMSC suppressed mycobacterial growth significantly. We concluded that MSC therapy can be effective in mycobacterial infection, but only in a case of appropriate conditioning of the cells.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Citocinas/biossíntese , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Polirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
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