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1.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828851

RESUMO

Food fraud is a criminal intent motivated by economic gain to adulterate or misrepresent food ingredients and packaging. The development of a reliable food supply system is at great risk under globalization, but Food Business Operators (FBOs) have a legal obligation to implement and maintain food traceability and quality at all stages of food production, processing, and distribution. Incidents of food fraud have a strong negative impact on consumer confidence in the food industry. Therefore, local and international regulatory mechanisms are established to prevent or mitigate food fraud. This review brings new perspectives linking EU and US legislation, as well as new definitions and descriptions of the criminal aspect of food fraud incidents. It also describes certain new insights into the application of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that provide valuable tools for geographic, botanical, or other chemical markers of food authenticity. The review also provides an overview of the most common cases of food fraud worldwide from 2010 to 2020. Further research is needed to support the development of predictive models for innovative approaches to adulteration, especially when some valuable nutrients are replaced by toxic ingredients. A possible solution to minimize food fraud incidents is to increase the level of risk-based inspections, establish more productive monitoring and implementation of food protection systems in the supply chain, and implement better ingredient control and certification. National and international (e.g., regional) police offices for food fraud should be introduced, possessing knowledge and skills in food, food safety, food processing, and food products, as initial positive results have emerged in some countries.

2.
Foods ; 10(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206180

RESUMO

Functional nutrition has become one of the main directions for a healthy lifestyle and sustainable food production due to its promising positive influence on health and its association with the use of raw materials of natural origin [...].

3.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068025

RESUMO

Consumers are becoming more mindful of their well-being. Increasing awareness of the many beneficial properties of peppermint essential oil (EO) has significantly increased product sales in recent years. Hydrodistillation (HD), a proven conventional method, and a possible alternative in the form of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) have been used to isolate peppermint EO. Standard Soxhlet and alternatively supercritical fluid (SFE), microwave-assisted, and ultrasound-assisted extraction separated the lipid extracts. The distillations employed various power settings, and the EO yield varied from 0.15 to 0.80%. The estimated environmental impact in terms of electricity consumption and CO2 emissions suggested that MWHD is an energy efficient way to reduce CO2 emissions. Different extraction methods and solvent properties affected the lipid extract yield, which ranged from 2.55 to 5.36%. According to the corresponding values of statistical parameters, empiric mathematical models were successfully applied to model the kinetics of MWHD and SFE processes.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Destilação , Eletricidade , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão
4.
Foods ; 10(6)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071017

RESUMO

This study investigated the status of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamin C), changes in color performance, and microbiological quality in smoothies preserved by high-pressure processing (HP) and thermal pasteurization (P) during cold storage at 4 °C for 21 days. Chemometric tools were used to select relevant variables that represent the most useful information for the fast and accurate quality assessment of smoothies. HP was performed at 350 and 450 MPa for 5 and 15 min at room temperature, respectively, while P was performed at 85 °C for 7 min. Smoothies were prepared by blending juices of apple (50%, v/v), carrot (20%, v/v), chokeberry (5%, v/v), Indian banana puree (10%, w/v), and almond drink (15%, v/v). The results obtained indicated that lower pressures with a shorter duration of HP showed higher levels of bioactive compounds in the smoothies, compared to the control samples. Compared to P, the HP samples exhibited a greater stability of bioactive compounds during shelf life. HP was found to be highly effective in reducing the native microflora of the smoothies, without subsequent microbial activation during storage. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the chemometric approach in interpreting complex datasets for the effective quality assessment of smoothies treated with different preservation technologies.

5.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799855

RESUMO

The design of functional foods has grown recently as an answer to rising consumers' concerns and demands for natural, nutritional and healthy food products. Nanoencapsulation is a technique based on enclosing a bioactive compound (BAC) in liquid, solid or gaseous states within a matrix or inert material for preserving the coated substance (food or flavor molecules/ingredients). Nanoencapsulation can improve stability of BACs, improving the regulation of their release at physiologically active sites. Regarding materials for food and nutraceutical applications, the most used are carbohydrate-, protein- or lipid-based alternatives such as chitosan, peptide-chitosan and ß-lactoglobulin nanoparticles (NPs) or emulsion biopolymer complexes. On the other hand, the main BACs used in foods for health promoting, including antioxidants, antimicrobials, vitamins, probiotics and prebiotics and others (minerals, enzymes and flavoring compounds). Nanotechnology can also play notable role in the development of programmable food, an original futuristic concept promising the consumers to obtain high quality food of desired nutritive and sensory characteristics.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Minerais , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Vitaminas
6.
Foods ; 10(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810442

RESUMO

The Republic of Croatia has a long tradition of fruit growing due to its geographical location, climatic conditions, and high quality of fruit crops, especially apple fruits. Apples can be used for the formulation of functional foods either in processed form (e.g., juice), or as a by-product (e.g., apple pomace). However, there is a growing demand for functional foods derived from ancient and traditional plant sources as they are recognized as a very valuable source of health-promoting bioactive ingredients. Similarly, old apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) are characterized by good morphological and pomological properties, less need for chemicals during cultivation and the higher share of biologically active compounds (BACs) with better sensory acceptability compared to commercial cultivars. However, their nutritional and biological potential is underestimated, as is their ability to be processed into functional food. The importance in preserving old apple cultivars can also be seen in their significance for improving the nutritional composition of other apple cultivars through innovative cultivation strategies, and therefore old local apple cultivars could be of great importance in future breeding programs.

7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802626

RESUMO

This work is focused on the kinetics, mineralization, and toxicological assessments of the antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMI) in UV or solar illuminated aqueous suspensions of ZnO, TiO2 Degussa P25, and TiO2 Hombikat. ZnO was proven to be the most effective photocatalyst, and it was used for all further experiments under solar irradiation. The highest reaction rate was observed at 1.0 mg/mL of catalyst loading. In the investigated initial concentration range (0.0075-0.3000 mmol/L), the degradation rate of AMI increased with the increase of initial concentration in the investigated range. The effects of H2O2, (NH4)2S2O8, and KBrO3, acting as electron acceptors, along with molecular oxygen were also studied. By studying the effects of ethanol and NaI as a hydroxyl radical and hole scavenger, respectively, it was shown that the heterogeneous catalysis takes place mainly via free hydroxyl radicals. In the mineralization study, AMI photocatalytic degradation resulted in ~30% of total organic carbon (TOC) decrease after 240 min of irradiation; acetate and formate were produced as the organic intermediates; NH4+, NO3-, NO2- ions were detected as nitrogen byproducts. Toxicity assessment using different mammalian cell lines, showed that H-4-II-E was the most sensitive one.

8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921724

RESUMO

To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections, such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review focuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioavailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these reasons, a continuous systematic exploration of plant foods and their phytochemicals is necessary for the development of new antiviral agents capable of saving lives and improving their well-being.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467696

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and pesticides are emerging contaminants problematic in the aquatic environment because of their adverse effects on aquatic life and humans. In order to remove them from water, photocatalysis is one of the most modern technologies to be used. First, newly synthesized photocatalysts were successfully prepared using a sol-gel method and characterized by different techniques (XRD, FTIR, UV/Vis, BET and SEM/EDX). The photocatalytic properties of TiO2, ZnO and MgO nanoparticles were examined according to their removal from water for two antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone) and two herbicides (tembotrione and fluroxypyr) exposed to UV/simulated sunlight (SS). TiO2 proved to be the most efficient nanopowder under UV and SS. Addition of (NH4)2S2O8 led to the faster removal of both antibiotics and herbicide fluroxypyr. The main intermediates were separated and identified for the herbicides and antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Finally, the toxicity of each emerging pollutant mixture and formed intermediates was assessed on wheat germination and biomass production.

10.
Foods ; 10(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374399

RESUMO

Fruit juices contain a large number of phytochemicals that, in combination with certain drugs, can cause food-drug interactions that can be clinically significant and lead to adverse events. The mechanisms behind such interactions are in most cases related to phytochemical interference with the activity of cytochrome P450 metabolizing enzymes (CYPs) or drug transporters. Moreover, alterations in their activity can have a clinical relevance if systemic exposure to the drug is decreased or increased, meaning that the pharmacological drug effects are suboptimal, or the drug will cause toxicity. In general, the common pharmacokinetic parameters found to be altered in food-drug interactions regarding fruit juices are the area under the concentration-time curve, bioavailability, and maximum plasma concentration. In most cases, the results from the drug interaction studies with fruit juices provide only limited information due to the small number of subjects, which are also healthy volunteers. Moreover, drug interactions with fruit juices are challenging to predict due to the unknown amounts of the specific phytochemicals responsible for the interaction, as well as due to the inter-individual variability of drug metabolism, among others. Therefore, this work aims to raise awareness about possible pharmacological interactions with fruit juices.

11.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113877

RESUMO

Sous-vide is a technique of cooking foods in vacuum bags under strictly controlled temperature, offering improved taste, texture and nutritional values along with extended shelf life as compared to the traditional cooking methods. In addition to other constituents, vegetables and seafood represent important sources of phytochemicals. Thus, by applying sous-vide technology, preservation of such foods can be prolonged with almost full retention of native quality. In this way, sous-vide processing meets customers' growing demand for the production of safer and healthier foods. Considering the industrial points of view, sous-vide technology has proven to be an adequate substitute for traditional cooking methods. Therefore, its application in various aspects of food production has been increasingly researched. Although sous-vide cooking of meats and vegetables is well explored, the challenges remain with seafoods due to the large differences in structure and quality of marine organisms. Cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopus, etc.) are of particular interest, as the changes of their muscular physical structure during processing have to be carefully considered. Based on all the above, this study summarizes the literature review on the recent sous-vide application on vegetable and seafood products in view of production of high-quality and safe foodstuffs.

12.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823509

RESUMO

Nowadays, great focus is given to the contamination of surface and groundwater because of the extensive usage of pesticides in agriculture. The improvements of commercial catalyst TiO2 activity using different Au nanoparticles were investigated for mesotrione photocatalytic degradation under simulated sunlight. The selected system was 2.43 × 10-3% Au-S-CH2-CH2-OH/TiO2 (0.5 g/L) that was studied by transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. It was found that TiO2 particles size was ~20 nm and ~50 nm, respectively. The Au nanoparticles were below 10 nm and were well distributed within the framework of TiO2. For 2.43 × 10-3% Au-S-CH2-CH2-OH/TiO2 (0.5 g/L), band gap energy was 2.45 eV. In comparison to the pure TiO2, addition of Au nanoparticles generally enhanced photocatalytic removal of mesotrione. By examining the degree of mineralization, it was found that 2.43 × 10-3% Au-S-CH2-CH2-OH/TiO2 (0.5 g/L) system was the most efficient for the removal of the mesotrione and intermediates. The effect of tert-butanol, NaF and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt on the transformation rate suggested that the relative contribution of various reactive species changed in following order: h+ > ●OHads > ●OHbulk. Finally, several intermediates that were formed during the photocatalytic treatment of mesotrione were identified.

13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630185

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to valorize the oil recovery from red and white grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) that remains as by-product after the winemaking process. Oils were extracted by modern techniques, ultrasound assisted (UAE), microwave assisted (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and compared to the Soxhlet extraction (SE). Firstly, SFE was optimized at different operating conditions: pressure (250-350 bar), temperature (40-60 °C), CO2 flow rate (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kg h-1), and particle size (315-800 µm and >800 µm). The highest extraction yields were achieved by SFE at the optimal conditions: 350 bar, 60 °C, 0.4 kg h-1. Afterwards, SFE was compared to SE, UAE and MAE with respect to oil extraction yields, and analyzed for fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity. Considering the general classification of fatty acids, it was found that samples had high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of extraction technology. Tocopherol content was significantly influenced by all extraction methods, whereas UAE and MAE resulted in extracts richer with lipophilic antioxidants. In conclusion, modern extractions that are suited for industrial applications had better performance as compared to SE, as judging by the oil yield and quality.

14.
Foods ; 9(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708933

RESUMO

Over the last decade, fruit juice consumption has increased. Their rise in popularity can be attributed to the belief that they are a quick way to consuming a dietary portion of fruit. Probiotics added to fruit juices produce various bioactive compounds, thus probiotic fruit juices can be considered as a new type of functional foods. Such combinations could improve nutritional properties and provide health benefits of fruit juices, due to delivering positive health attributes from both sources (fruit juices and probiotics). However, this review discusses the other side of the same coin, i.e., the one that challenges general beliefs that probiotics are undoubtedly safe. This topic deserves more acknowledgments from the medical and nutritional literature, as it is highly important for health care professionals and nutritionists who must be aware of potential probiotic issues. Still, clinical trials have not adequately questioned the safety of probiotics, as they are generally considered safe. Therefore, this reviews aims to give an evidence-based perspective of probiotic safety, focusing on probiotic fruit beverages and nutraceuticals, by providing documented clinical case reports and studies. Finally, the paper deals with some additional insights from the pharmacological and toxicological point of views, such as pharmacological repercussions of probiotics on health.

15.
Foods ; 9(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492780

RESUMO

Functional nutrition, which includes the consumption of fruit juices, has become the field of interest for those seeking a healthy lifestyle. Functional nutrition is also of great interest to the food industry, with the aims of improving human health and providing economic prosperity in a sustainable manner. The functional food sector is the most profitable part of the food industry, with a fast-growing market resulting from new sociodemographic trends (e.g., longer life expectancy, higher standard of living, better health care), which often includes sustainable concepts of food production. Therefore, the demand for hurdle technology in the food industry is growing, along with the consumption of minimally processed foods, not only because this approach inactivates microorganisms in food, but because it can also prolong the shelf life of food products. To preserve food products such as fruit juices, the hurdle technology approach often uses non-thermal methods as alternatives to pasteurization, which can cause a decrease in the nutritional value and quality of the food. Non-thermal technologies are often combined with different hurdles, such as antimicrobial additives, thermal treatment, and ultraviolet or pulsed light, to achieve synergistic effects and overall quality improvements in (functional) juices. Hence, hurdle technology could be a promising approach for the preservation of fruit juices due to its efficiency and low impact on juice quality and characteristics, although all processing parameters still require optimization.

16.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 11: 93-118, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905019

RESUMO

Functional foods is a very popular term in the social and scientific media; consequently, food producers have invested resources in the development of processed foods that may provide added functional benefits to consumers' well-being. Because of intrinsic regulation and end-of-use purposes in different countries, worldwide meanings and definitions of this term are still unclear. Hence, here we standardize this definition and propose a guideline to attest that some ingredients or foods truly deserve this special designation. Furthermore, focus is directed at the most recent studies and practical guidelines that can be used to develop and test the efficacy of potentially functional foods and ingredients. The most widespread functional ingredients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), probiotics/prebiotics/synbiotics, and antioxidants, and their technological means of delivery in food products are described. The review discusses the steps that food companies should take to ensure that their developed food product is truly functional.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimento Funcional/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
17.
Foods ; 8(12)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795393

RESUMO

This study evaluates the quality of chilled squid Loligo vulgaris by non-destructive measurements of bioelectrical impedance from the first post-mortem day under controlled conditions. Squid samples were stored at 4.5 °C and 55% of relative humidity for 11 days. Impedance magnitude (|Z|) and phase (φ) at 200 frequencies (100Hz to 100MHz) were measured using an Agilent 4294A Precision Impedance Analyzer with needle-type multi-electrode array on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 11 of storage. The changes in color, sensory properties, total volatile nitrogen, pH, and water holding capacity were also determined. The obtained results indicated that the samples could be classified into five to six distinctive groups by measuring the electrical parameters at frequencies close to 5MHz. In general, φ is less dependent on temperature and measurement setup than |Z|, while records at 5MHz correlate well with the days of storage (R2 = 0.968). The data imply that it is only possible to estimate the length of storage for the samples with measurements of phase angle, which can be useful for the development of new analytical instruments. Biosensors have a practical industrial application, as it is demonstrated that bioelectrical impedance data correlates well with the days of chilled storage.

18.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731548

RESUMO

The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, which is worth around US$1 trillion or even $2.6 trillion when social and economic costs are included. In the fruit and vegetable sector, 45% of the total produced amount is lost in the production (post-harvest, processing, and distribution) and consumption chains. Therefore, it is necessary to find new technological and environmentally friendly solutions to utilize fruit wastes as new raw materials to develop and scale up the production of high value-added products and ingredients. Considering that the production and consumption of fruits has increased in the last years and following the need to find the sustainable use of different fruit side streams, this work aimed to describe the chemical composition and bioactivity of different fruit seeds consumed worldwide. A comprehensive focus is given on the extraction techniques of water-soluble and lipophilic compounds and in vitro/in vivo functionalities, and the link between chemical composition and observed activity is holistically explained.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/economia
19.
Foods ; 8(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374833

RESUMO

This paper gives an overview of scientific challenges that occur when performing life-cycle assessment (LCA) in the food supply chain. In order to evaluate these risks, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis tool has been used. Challenges related to setting the goal and scope of LCA revealed four hot spots: system boundaries of LCA; used functional units; type and quality of data categories, and main assumptions and limitations of the study. Within the inventory analysis, challenging issues are associated with allocation of material and energy flows and waste streams released to the environment. Impact assessment brings uncertainties in choosing appropriate environmental impacts. Finally, in order to interpret results, a scientifically sound sensitivity analysis should be performed to check how stable calculations and results are. Identified challenges pave the way for improving LCA of food supply chains in order to enable comparison of results.

20.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) as a green technology, in order to establish the effectiveness of phenolic extraction from olive leaves against conventional extraction (CE). HVED parameters included different green solvents (water, ethanol), treatment times (3 and 9 min), gases (nitrogen, argon), and voltages (15, 20, 25 kV). METHODS: Phenolic compounds were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS), while antioxidant potency (total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity) were monitored spectrophotometrically. Data for Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) spectroscopy, colorimetry, zeta potential, particle size, and conductivity were also reported. RESULTS: The highest yield of phenolic compounds was obtained for the sample treated with argon/9 min/20 kV/50% (3.2 times higher as compared to CE). Obtained results suggested the usage of HVED technology in simultaneous extraction and nanoformulation, and production of stable emulsion systems. Antioxidant capacity (AOC) of obtained extracts showed no significant difference upon the HVED treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Ethanol with HVED destroys the linkage between phenolic compounds and components of the plant material to which they are bound. All extracts were compliant with legal requirements regarding content of contaminants, pesticide residues and toxic metals. In conclusion, HVED presents an excellent potential for phenolic compounds extraction for further use in functional food manufacturing.

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