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1.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 32(2): 152-158, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895125

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosing and treating neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) remains challenging as the pathogenesis is still being debated. In this review, we discuss studies evaluating recent advances in diagnostic methods, pathogenic mediators and potential treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Screening tools used for neurodegenerative diseases were found to be both sensitive and moderately specific for cognitive dysfunction in NPSLE. Neuroimaging can be used to distinguish systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients from healthy controls, but further refinement is needed to differentiate between lupus patients with and without neuropsychiatric manifestations. Elevated levels of specific molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum, as well as the presence of certain autoantibodies, have been identified as potential biomarkers in attempts to facilitate a more accurate and objective diagnosis. Among such autoantibodies, anti-NR2 and anti-ribosomal P autoantibodies also have a pathogenic role, although newer studies demonstrate that blood-brain barrier damage may not always be required as previously believed. These and other observations, together with new evidence for disease attenuation after microglial modulation, suggest direct involvement of the central nervous system in NPSLE pathogenesis. SUMMARY: Neuropsychiatric involvement of SLE includes a variety of symptoms that impact quality of life and patient prognosis. There have been recent advances in improving the diagnosis of NPSLE as well as in dissecting the underlying pathogenesis. The attenuation of neuropsychiatric disease in mouse models demonstrates the potential for targeted therapies, which are based on a clearer understanding of the pathogenesis of NPSLE. Further assessment of these treatments is required in NPSLE patients, as well as the potential use of neuroimaging to distinguish between SLE patients with or without neuropsychiatric manifestations.

2.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(2): 233-242, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502417

RESUMO

The Accelerating Medicines Partnership (AMP) Lupus Network was established as a partnership between the National Institutes of Health, pharmaceutical companies, nonprofit stakeholders, and lupus investigators across multiple academic centers to apply high-throughput technologies to the analysis of renal tissue, urine, and blood from patients with lupus nephritis (LN). The AMP network provides publicly accessible data to the community with the goal of generating new scientific hypotheses and improving diagnostic and therapeutic tools so as to improve disease outcomes. We present here a description of the structure of the AMP Lupus Network and a summary of the preliminary results from the phase 1 studies. The successful completion of phase 1 sets the stage for analysis of a large cohort of LN samples in phase 2 and provides a model for establishing similar discovery cohorts.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(2): 292-302, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can develop in the absence of BAFF in an SLE-prone host. METHODS: Starting with C57BL/6 mice that express a human BCL2 transgene (Tg) in their B cells (thereby rendering B cell survival largely independent of BAFF-triggered signals), we introgressed this Tg into NZM 2328 mice genetically deficient in BAFF (NZM.Baff-/- ) to generate NZM.Baff-/- .Bcl2Tg mice. Expression of human Bcl-2 and lymphocyte profiles were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and serologic profiles were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunofluorescence and histologic analyses were performed to assess renal immunopathologic features in the mice, and clinical disease was assessed according to the outcomes of severe proteinuria and death. RESULTS: In comparison to their non-Tg NZM.Baff-/- littermates (n ≥ 7), NZM.Baff-/- .Bcl2Tg mice (n ≥ 8) overexpressed Bcl-2 in their B cells and developed significantly increased percentages and numbers of B cells and plasma cells, serum levels of IgG autoantibodies, glomerular deposition of IgG and C3, and severity of glomerular and tubulointerstitial inflammation, culminating in severe proteinuria and death (all P < 0.05 versus NZM.Baff-/- littermates). The time course for development of SLE-like features in NZM.Baff-/- .Bcl2Tg mice was more rapid than has been previously observed in NZM 2328 wild-type mice (median age at death 4.5 months versus 7.5 months). NZM.Baff-/- .Bcl2Tg mice remained responsive to BAFF, since reintroduction of the Baff gene into these mice further accelerated the course of disease (median age at death 3 months). CONCLUSION: The role of BAFF in the development of SLE-like disease may be dispensable as long as B cell survival is preserved via a BAFF-independent pathway. This may help explain the limited and variable clinical success with BAFF antagonists in human SLE. Thus, NZM.Baff-/- .Bcl2Tg mice may serve as a powerful murine model for the study of BAFF-independent SLE.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(1): 78-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) as a marker of complement activation in patients with suspected systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the usefulness of this biomarker as a predictor of the evolution of probable SLE into SLE as classified by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. METHODS: Patients in whom SLE was suspected by lupus experts and who fulfilled 3 ACR classification criteria for SLE (probable SLE) were enrolled, along with patients with established SLE as classified by both the ACR and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria, patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and patients with other rheumatic diseases. Individual CB-CAPs were measured by flow cytometry, and positivity rates were compared to those of commonly assessed biomarkers, including serum complement proteins (C3 and C4) and autoantibodies. The frequency of a positive multianalyte assay panel (MAP), which includes CB-CAPs, was also evaluated. Probable SLE cases were followed up prospectively. RESULTS: The 92 patients with probable SLE were diagnosed more recently than the 53 patients with established SLE, and their use of antirheumatic medications was lower. At the enrollment visit, more patients with probable SLE were positive for CB-CAPs (28%) or MAP (40%) than had low complement levels (9%) (P = 0.0001 for each). In probable SLE, MAP scores of >0.8 at enrollment predicted fulfillment of a fourth ACR criterion within 18 months (hazard ratio 3.11, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Complement activation occurs in some patients with probable SLE and can be detected with higher frequency by evaluating CB-CAPs and MAP than by assessing traditional serum complement protein levels. A MAP score above 0.8 predicts transition to classifiable SLE according to ACR criteria.

5.
Lupus Sci Med ; 6(1): e000344, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798917

RESUMO

Objective: Epidemiological data for primary discoid lupus erythematosus (pDLE) remain limited, particularly for racial/ethnic populations in the USA. The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based retrospective registry of cases with SLE and related diseases including pDLE in Manhattan and was used to provide estimates of the prevalence and incidence of pDLE across major racial/ethnic populations. Methods: MLSP cases were identified from rheumatologists, hospitals and population databases. Two case definitions were used for pDLE: the primary case definition which was any physician diagnosis found in the chart and a secondary case definition which was limited to cases diagnosed by a rheumatologist and/or dermatologist. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-adjusted, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case under-ascertainment. Results: Based on the primary definition, age-adjusted overall prevalence and incidence rates of pDLE among Manhattan residents were 6.5 and 0.8 per 100 000 person-years, which increased to 9.0 and 1.3 after capture-recapture adjustment. Prevalence and incidence rates were approximately two and six times higher, respectively, among women compared with men (p<0.0001). Higher prevalence was also found among non-Latino blacks (23.5) and Latinos (8.2) compared with non-Latino whites (1.8) and non-Latino Asians (0.6) (p<0.0001). Incidence was highest among non-Latino blacks (2.4) compared with all other racial/ethnic groups. Similar relationships were observed for the secondary case definition. Conclusion: Data from the MLSP provide epidemiological estimates for pDLE among the major racial/ethnic populations in the USA and reveal disparities in pDLE prevalence and incidence by sex and race/ethnicity among Manhattan residents.

7.
JCI Insight ; 4(20)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536480

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pathologic T cell-B cell interactions and autoantibody production. Defining the T cell populations that drive B cell responses in SLE may enable design of therapies that specifically target pathologic cell subsets. Here, we evaluated the phenotypes of CD4+ T cells in the circulation of 52 SLE patients drawn from multiple cohorts and identified a highly expanded PD-1hiCXCR5-CD4+ T cell population. Cytometric, transcriptomic, and functional assays demonstrated that PD-1hiCXCR5-CD4+ T cells from SLE patients are T peripheral helper (Tph) cells, a CXCR5- T cell population that stimulates B cell responses via IL-21. The frequency of Tph cells, but not T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, correlated with both clinical disease activity and the frequency of CD11c+ B cells in SLE patients. PD-1hiCD4+ T cells were found within lupus nephritis kidneys and correlated with B cell numbers in the kidney. Both IL-21 neutralization and CRISPR-mediated deletion of MAF abrogated the ability of Tph cells to induce memory B cell differentiation into plasmablasts in vitro. These findings identify Tph cells as a highly expanded T cell population in SLE and suggest a key role for Tph cells in stimulating pathologic B cell responses.

9.
JCI Insight ; 4(11)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167973

RESUMO

The central nervous system manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain poorly understood. Given the well-defined role of autoantibodies in other lupus manifestations, extensive work has gone into the identification of neuropathic autoantibodies. However, attempts to translate these findings to patients with SLE have yielded mixed results. We used the MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr mouse, a well-established, spontaneous model of SLE, to establish the immune effectors responsible for brain disease. Transcriptomic analysis of the MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr choroid plexus revealed an expression signature driving tertiary lymphoid structure formation, including chemokines related to stromal reorganization and lymphocyte compartmentalization. Additionally, transcriptional profiles indicated various stages of lymphocyte activation and germinal center formation. The extensive choroid plexus infiltrate present in MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr mice with overt neurobehavioral deficits included locally proliferating B and T cells, intercellular interactions between lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, as well as evidence for in situ somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. Furthermore, the choroid plexus was a site for trafficking lymphocytes into the brain. Finally, histological evaluation in human lupus patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations revealed increased leukocyte migration through the choroid plexus. These studies identify a potential new pathway underlying neuropsychiatric lupus and support tertiary lymphoid structure formation in the choroid plexus as a novel mechanism of brain-immune interfacing.

10.
Lupus Sci Med ; 6(1): e000313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168399

RESUMO

Background/objective: Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in oncology patients is increasing. Although ICIs trigger rheumatic immune-related adverse events, development of SLE features has been rare. Whether long-term treatment with ICIs would promote SLE features remains unknown. To begin to address this, we generated SLE-prone NZM 2328 mice with lifelong reduction in CTLA-4 expression. Methods: Since CTLA-4-deficient (Ctla4- /-) NZM mice developed a lethal lymphoproliferative disorder by 3-6 weeks of age, development of SLE in these mice could not be studied. Ctla4 haploinsufficient NZM.Ctla4+ / - mice were assessed in parallel with littermate female NZM.Ctla4+ / + mice. Evaluations included CTLA-4 expression and lymphocyte profiles, assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting; serological profiles, assessed by ELISA; renal immunopathology, assessed by histology and immunofluorescence; and clinical courses, assessed by mortality. Results: CTLA-4 expression was lower in NZM.Ctla4+ / - mice than in NZM.Ctla4+ / + mice. Spleen mononuclear cells, B cells, plasma cells, CD4+ cells, recently activated CD4+ cells and CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells were increased in NZM.Ctla4+ / - mice (p≤0.042). The serological profile, degree of renal immunopathology and mortality in NZM.Ctla4+ / - mice remained unaffected. Conclusion: Lifelong reduction in CTLA-4 expression in NZM mice neither accelerated nor aggravated SLE. Expansion in Treg cells may have played a protective role. Our observations raise the hope that long-term treatment of patients with SLE with an anti-CTLA-4 agent, should the need arise, would not adversely affect SLE disease activity.

11.
Lupus Sci Med ; 6(1): e000329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245017

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has recently undergone rapid advances in the development of this technology, leading to high throughput and accelerating discovery in many biological systems and diseases. The single-cell resolution of the technique allows for the investigation of heterogeneity in cell populations, and the pinpointing of pathological populations contributing to disease. Here we review the development of scRNA-seq technology and the analysis that has evolved with the ever-increasing throughput. Finally, we highlight recent applications of scRNA-seq to understand the molecular pathogenesis of lupus and lupus nephritis.

12.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 902-914, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209404

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease for which the current treatment is ineffective and often toxic. To develop mechanistic hypotheses of disease, we analyzed kidney samples from patients with lupus nephritis and from healthy control subjects using single-cell RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed 21 subsets of leukocytes active in disease, including multiple populations of myeloid cells, T cells, natural killer cells and B cells that demonstrated both pro-inflammatory responses and inflammation-resolving responses. We found evidence of local activation of B cells correlated with an age-associated B-cell signature and evidence of progressive stages of monocyte differentiation within the kidney. A clear interferon response was observed in most cells. Two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CX3CR1, were broadly expressed, implying a potentially central role in cell trafficking. Gene expression of immune cells in urine and kidney was highly correlated, which would suggest that urine might serve as a surrogate for kidney biopsies.


Assuntos
Rim/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferons/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
13.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 915-927, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110316

RESUMO

The molecular and cellular processes that lead to renal damage and to the heterogeneity of lupus nephritis (LN) are not well understood. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to renal biopsies from patients with LN and evaluated skin biopsies as a potential source of diagnostic and prognostic markers of renal disease. Type I interferon (IFN)-response signatures in tubular cells and keratinocytes distinguished patients with LN from healthy control subjects. Moreover, a high IFN-response signature and fibrotic signature in tubular cells were each associated with failure to respond to treatment. Analysis of tubular cells from patients with proliferative, membranous and mixed LN indicated pathways relevant to inflammation and fibrosis, which offer insight into their histologic differences. In summary, we applied scRNA-seq to LN to deconstruct its heterogeneity and identify novel targets for personalized approaches to therapy.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Biópsia , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
14.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 15(3): 137-152, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659245

RESUMO

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently show symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, termed neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). The CNS manifestations of SLE are diverse and have a broad spectrum of severity and prognostic implications. Patients with NPSLE typically present with nonspecific symptoms, such as headache and cognitive impairment, but might also experience devastating features, such as memory loss, seizures and stroke. Some features of NPSLE, in particular those related to coagulopathy, have been characterized and an evidence-based treatment algorithm is available. The cognitive and affective manifestations of NPSLE, however, remain poorly understood. Various immune effectors have been evaluated as contributors to its pathogenesis, including brain-reactive autoantibodies, cytokines and cell-mediated inflammation. Additional brain-intrinsic elements (such as resident microglia, the blood-brain barrier and other neurovascular interfaces) are important facilitators of NPSLE. As yet, however, no unifying model has been found to underlie the pathogenesis of NPSLE, suggesting that this disease has multiple contributors and perhaps several distinct aetiologies. This heterogeneity presents a challenge for clinicians who have traditionally relied on empirical judgement in choosing treatment modalities for patients with NPSLE. Improved understanding of this manifestation of SLE might yield further options for managing this disease.

15.
J Autoimmun ; 98: 33-43, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612857

RESUMO

Immune-mediated glomerulonephritis is a serious end organ pathology that commonly affects patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A classic murine model used to study lupus nephritis (LN) is nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTN), in which mice are passively transferred nephrotoxic antibodies. We have previously shown that macrophages are important in the pathogenesis of LN. To further investigate the mechanism by which macrophages contribute to the pathogenic process, and to determine if this contribution is mediated by NF-κB signaling, we created B6 mice which had RelA knocked out in myeloid cells, thus inhibiting classical NF-κB signaling in this cell lineage. We induced NTN in this strain to assess the importance of macrophage derived NF-κB signaling in contributing to disease progression. Myeloid cell RelA knock out (KO) mice injected with nephrotoxic serum had significantly attenuated proteinuria, lower BUN levels, and improved renal histopathology compared to control injected wildtype B6 mice (WT). Inhibiting myeloid NF-κB signaling also decreased inflammatory modulators within the kidneys. We found significant decreases of IL-1a, IFNg, and IL-6 in kidneys from KO mice, but higher IL-10 expression. Flow cytometry revealed decreased numbers of kidney infiltrating classically activated macrophages in KO mice as well. Our results indicate that macrophage NF-κB signaling is instrumental in the contribution of this cell type to the pathogenesis of NTN. While approaches which decrease macrophage numbers can be effective in immune mediated nephritis, more targeted treatments directed at modulating macrophage signaling and/or function could be beneficial, at least in the early stages of disease.

16.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 48(4): 678-685, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared pre-emptive transplant rates between SLE and non-SLE end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS) and investigated the potential influence of frequency matching and primary ESRD causes in the non-SLE group. METHODS: 4830 adult SLE patients with incident ESRD from USRDS 2005-2009 were frequency matched by age, sex and race to 4830 patients with incident non-SLE ESRD. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of pre-emptive transplantation in SLE and non-SLE, and with the non-SLE subgroups by primary ESRD cause. RESULTS: The odds ratios (OR) of receiving a pre-emptive transplant were similar among non-SLE and SLE (referent group): OR = 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.50; p = 0.20). However, the ORs for receiving a pre-emptive transplant were 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.42) in type 2 diabetes ESRD, 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.75) for hypertension-associated ESRD, 1.67 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.54) in type 1 diabetes ESRD, and 2.06 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.73) for "other" ESRD. In contrast to non-SLE, younger SLE patients were less likely to receive a pre-emptive transplant than older SLE patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide compelling evidence that major improvements need to be made in optimizing access to pre-emptive transplantation in SLE by addressing sociodemographic disparities and the unique challenges faced by SLE patients. Applying careful matching and selecting appropriate comparison groups in future studies may facilitate the development of effective strategies to address these barriers and to increase the number of pre-emptive renal transplants among SLE patients.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/cirurgia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Autoimmun ; 96: 59-73, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174216

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric manifestations in lupus (NPSLE) affect ∼20-40% of patients. In the central nervous system, lipocalin-2 (LCN2) can promote injury through mechanisms directly linked to NPSLE, including brain barrier disruption, neurotoxicity, and glial activation. Since LCN2 is elevated in lupus and has been implicated in neuroinflammation, we investigated whether LCN2 is required for the pathogenesis of NPSLE. Here, we investigated the effects of LCN2 deficiency on the development of neurobehavioral deficits in the B6.Sle1.Sle3 (Sle1,3) mouse lupus model. Sle1,3 mice exhibited depression-like behavior and impaired spatial and recognition memory, and these deficits were attenuated in Sle1,3-LCN2KO mice. Whole-brain flow cytometry showed a significant increase in brain infiltrating leukocytes in Sle1,3 mice that was not reduced by LCN2 deficiency. RNA sequencing on sorted microglia revealed that several genes differentially expressed between B6 and Sle1,3 mice were regulated by LCN2, and that these genes are key mediators of the neuroinflammatory cascade. Importantly, LCN2 is upregulated in the cerebrospinal fluid of NPSLE patients across 2 different ethnicities. Our findings establish the Sle1,3 strain as an NPSLE model, demonstrate that LCN2 is a major regulator of the detrimental neuroimmune response in NPSLE, and identify CSF LCN2 as a novel biomarker for NPSLE.

18.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 71(7): 949-960, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extant epidemiologic data of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains limited, particularly for racial/ethnic populations in the US. The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based retrospective registry of cases of systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, including primary SS in Manhattan, New York. The MLSP was used to provide estimates of the incidence and prevalence of primary SS across major racial/ethnic populations. METHODS: MLSP cases were identified from hospitals, rheumatologists, and population databases. Three case definitions were used for primary SS, including physician diagnosis, rheumatologist diagnosis, and modified primary SS criteria. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-adjusted, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess underascertainment of cases. RESULTS: By physician diagnosis, age-adjusted overall incidence and prevalence rates of primary SS among adult Manhattan residents were 3.5 and 13.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Capture-recapture adjustment increased incidence and prevalence rates (4.1 and 14.2 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). Based on physician diagnosis, incidence and prevalence rates were approximately 6 times higher among women than men (P < 0.001). Incidence of primary SS was statistically higher among non-Latina Asian women (10.5) and non-Latina white women (6.2) compared with Latina women (3.2). Incidence was also higher among non-Latina Asian women compared with non-Latina black women (3.3). Prevalence of primary SS did not differ by race/ethnicity. Similar trends were observed when more restrictive case definitions were applied. CONCLUSION: Data from the MLSP revealed disparities among Manhattan residents in primary SS incidence and prevalence by sex and differences in primary SS incidence by race/ethnicity among women. These data also provided epidemiologic estimates for the major racial/ethnic populations in the US.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2189, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319641

RESUMO

About 40% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus experience diffuse neuropsychiatric manifestations, including impaired cognition and depression. Although the pathogenesis of diffuse neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) is not fully understood, loss of brain barrier integrity, autoreactive antibodies, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are major contributors to disease development. Fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, prevents lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs through functional antagonism of S1P receptors. In addition to reducing the circulation of autoreactive lymphocytes, fingolimod has direct neuroprotective effects such as preserving brain barrier integrity and decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by astrocytes and microglia. Given these effects, we hypothesized that fingolimod would attenuate neurobehavioral deficits in MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice, a validated neuropsychiatric lupus model. Fingolimod treatment was initiated after the onset of disease, and mice were assessed for alterations in cognitive function and emotionality. We found that fingolimod significantly attenuated spatial memory deficits and depression-like behavior in MRL/lpr mice. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated a dramatic lessening of brain T cell and macrophage infiltration, and a significant reduction in cortical leakage of serum albumin, in fingolimod treated mice. Astrocytes and endothelial cells from treated mice exhibited reduced expression of inflammatory genes, while microglia showed differential regulation of key immune pathways. Notably, cytokine levels within the cortex and hippocampus were not appreciably decreased with fingolimod despite the improved neurobehavioral profile. Furthermore, despite a reduction in splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and circulating autoantibody titers, IgG deposition within the brain was unaffected by treatment. These findings suggest that fingolimod mediates attenuation of NPSLE through a mechanism that is not dependent on reduction of autoantibodies or cytokines, and highlight modulation of the S1P signaling pathway as a novel therapeutic target in lupus involving the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Depressão/imunologia , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/psicologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Feminino , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/imunologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Esfingosina/imunologia , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Immunol ; 197: 205-218, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339790

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis is a common disease manifestation of SLE, in which immune complex deposition and macrophage activation are important contributors to disease pathogenesis. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays an important role in both B cell and FcgammaR mediated myeloid cell activation. In the current study, we examined the efficacy of BI-BTK-1, a recently described irreversible BTK inhibitor, in the classical NZB × NZW F1 (NZB/W) and MRL/lpr spontaneous mouse models of SLE. NZB/W mice were randomly assigned to a treatment (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) or control group and began treatment at 22 weeks of age. The experimental setup was similar in MRL/lpr mice, but with a single treated (10 mg/kg, beginning at 8-9 weeks of age) and control group. A separate experiment was performed in the MRL/lpr strain to assess the ability of BI-BTK-1 to reverse established kidney disease. Early treatment with BI-BTK-1 significantly protected NZB/W and MRL/lpr mice from the development of proteinuria, correlating with significant renal histological protection, decreased anti-DNA titers, and increased survival in both strains. BI-BTK-1 treated mice displayed a significant decrease in nephritis-associated inflammatory mediators (e.g. LCN2 and IL-6) in the kidney, combined with a significant inhibition of immune cell infiltration and accumulation. Importantly, BI-BTK-1 treatment resulted in the reversal of established kidney disease. BTK inhibition significantly reduced total B cell numbers and all B cell subsets (immature, transitional, follicular, marginal zone, and class switched) in the spleen of NZB/W mice. Overall, the significant efficacy of BI-BTK-1 in ameliorating multiple pathological endpoints associated with kidney disease in two distinct murine models of spontaneous lupus nephritis provides a strong rationale for BTK inhibition as a promising treatment approach for lupus nephritis.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , DNA/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Lipocalina-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipocalina-2/imunologia , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Camundongos Endogâmicos NZB , Proteinúria/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço/citologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos
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