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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

2.
Environ Res ; 185: 109404, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence indicates aggravation of immune-mediated diseases due to physiological and psychological stress. Noise is a stressor, however, little is known about its effects on children's respiratory health. This study investigates the association between pre- or postnatal road traffic or occupational noise exposure and asthma as well as related symptoms from infancy to adolescence. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE, including over 4000 participants followed with repeated questionnaires and clinical tests until 16 years of age. Pre- and postnatal residential road traffic noise was assessed by estimating time-weighted average noise levels at the most exposed façade. Maternal occupational noise exposure during pregnancy was evaluated using a job-exposure-matrix. The associations between noise exposure and asthma-related outcomes were explored using logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: We observed non-significant associations for asthma ever up to 16 years with residential road traffic noise exposure in infancy ≥55 dBLden (adjusted OR = 1.22; 95% CI 0.90-1.65), as well as prenatal occupational noise exposure ≥80 dBLAeq,8h (1.18, 0.85-1.62). In longitudinal analyses, however, no clear associations between pre- or postnatal exposure to residential road traffic noise, or average exposure to noise since birth, were detected in relation to asthma or wheeze until 16 years. CONCLUSION: We did not find a clear overall association between exposure to noise during different time periods and asthma or wheeze up to adolescence.


Assuntos
Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 824-830, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with hypertension in adults but the evidence in adolescents is limited. We investigated long-term road traffic noise exposure, maternal occupational noise during pregnancy and other factors in relation to blood pressure and prehypertension at 16 years of age. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2597 adolescents from the Swedish BAMSE birth cohort. Levels of road traffic noise were estimated at home addresses during lifetime and for the mother during pregnancy as well as maternal occupational noise exposure during pregnancy. Exposure to NOx from local sources was also assessed. Associations between noise or NOx exposure and blood pressure or prehypertension were analysed using linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of prehypertension was higher among males and in those with overweight, low physical activity or overweight mothers. No strong or consistent associations were observed between pre- or postnatal exposure to road traffic noise and blood pressure at 16 years of age. However, inverse associations were suggested for systolic or diastolic blood pressure and prehypertension, which reached statistical significance among males (OR 0.80 per 10 dB Lden, 95% CI 0.65-0.99) and those with maternal occupational noise exposure ≥ 70 dB LAeq8h (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87). On the other hand, occupational noise exposure during pregnancy tended to increase systolic blood pressure and prehypertension risk in adolescence. No associations were seen for NOx exposure. CONCLUSION: No conclusive associations were observed between pre- or postnatal noise exposure and blood pressure or prehypertension in adolescents.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
4.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(4): 201-207, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence from longitudinal studies on transportation noise from different sources and development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. OBJECTIVES: This cohort study assessed associations between exposure to noise from road traffic, railway or aircraft and incidence of IHD and stroke. METHODS: In a cohort of 20 012 individuals from Stockholm County, we estimated long-term residential exposure to road traffic, railway and aircraft noise. National Patient and Cause-of-Death Registers were used to identify IHD and stroke events. Information on risk factors was obtained from questionnaires and registers. Adjusted HR for cardiovascular outcomes related to source-specific noise exposure were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: No clear or consistent associations were observed between transportation noise and incidence of IHD or stroke. However, noise exposure from road traffic and aircraft was related to IHD incidence in women, with HR of 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.22) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.44) per 10 dB Lden, respectively. For both sexes taken together, we observed a particularly high risk of IHD in those exposed to all three transportation noise sources at≥45 dB Lden, with a HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.32), and a similar tendency for stroke (HR 1.42; 95% CI 0.87 to 2.32). CONCLUSION: No overall associations were observed between transportation noise exposure and incidence of IHD or stroke. However, there appeared to be an increased risk of IHD in women exposed to road traffic or aircraft noise as well as in those exposed to multiple sources of transportation noise.


Assuntos
Incidência , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Res ; 169: 362-367, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that traffic noise exposure is associated with adiposity among adults but data in children are limited. OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study examined whether pre- and postnatal noise exposure is associated with body mass index (BMI) between birth and adolescence or with adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: The study was conducted using data from the BAMSE birth cohort, which included 4089 children born in Stockholm County, Sweden. Data on BMI from birth to adolescence were collected via questionnaires, clinical examinations and health care records. A national register provided information on birth outcomes. Road traffic noise levels at the most exposed façade were estimated for all residences of the children during follow-up, as well as of their mothers during pregnancy, and time-weighted average exposure was calculated for different time windows. Maternal occupational noise exposure was obtained from a job-exposure-matrix. Logistic- and quantile regression models were used to estimate associations between noise exposure and health outcomes. RESULTS: We found residential road traffic noise exposure to be associated with increases in BMI from school age to adolescence, but not at earlier ages. In the age groups 8-11 years and 12-16 years the BMI increments were 0.11 kg/m2 per 10 dB Lden (95% CI 0.08-0.13) and 0.20 kg/m2 per 10 dB Lden (95% CI 0.17-0.22), respectively. Maternal noise exposure during pregnancy was generally unrelated to adverse birth outcomes and BMI from birth to adolescence in the children, however, traffic noise exposure was associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth CONCLUSION: Residential road traffic noise exposure was associated with BMI increases from school age to adolescence, but not at earlier ages. Maternal occupational noise exposure or exposure from road traffic during pregnancy were not consistently related to birth outcomes or BMI from birth to adolescence.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído dos Transportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Suécia
6.
Environ Int ; 120: 163-171, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults. METHODS: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m3 of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13;3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I2 = 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88;3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I2 = 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust. CONCLUSION: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5_S but not PM10_S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(8): 1133-1141, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence on exposure to transportation noise and development of hypertension is inconclusive, mostly because of a lack of high quality studies of longitudinal design. OBJECTIVES: This cohort study aimed at investigating the association between exposure to road traffic, railway or aircraft noise and incidence of hypertension. We also assessed effects of varying lengths of exposure as well as of multiple sources of exposure. METHODS: Based on the residential histories of a cohort of 4854 men and women from Stockholm County, we estimated the residential exposure to road traffic, railway and aircraft noise in 1, 5 and 10 year time-periods. Hypertension was assessed by blood pressure measurements, information from questionnaires and hospital diagnoses. Extensive information on potential confounders was available from repeated questionnaires and registers. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of hypertension related to noise exposure was computed from Cox regression models. RESULTS: We observed a positive association between aircraft noise exposure and incidence of hypertension with a HR of 1.16 (95% CI 1.08-1.24) per 10 dB Lden 5 years preceding the event. No clear differences in risk were indicated between the three exposure time windows. Road traffic and railway noise were not associated with incidence of hypertension during any of the exposure periods. There appeared to be a particularly high risk of hypertension among persons exposed to both aircraft and road traffic noise ≥45 dB Lden with an HR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.14-1.70). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to aircraft noise may result in increased risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Automóveis , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferrovias , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Cancer ; 143(7): 1632-1643, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696642

RESUMO

Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10 µm (PM10 ), below 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PMcoarse ), PM2.5 absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX ) as well as approximated by traffic indicators. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. During average follow-up of 14.1 years of 305,551 individuals, 744 incident cases of gastric cancer and 933 of UADT cancer occurred. The hazard ratio for an increase of 5 µg/m3 of PM2.5 was 1.38 (95% CI 0.99; 1.92) for gastric and 1.05 (95% CI 0.62; 1.77) for UADT cancers. No associations were found for any of the other exposures considered. Adjustment for additional confounders and restriction to study participants with stable addresses did not influence markedly the effect estimate for PM2.5 and gastric cancer. Higher estimated risks of gastric cancer associated with PM2.5 was found in men (HR 1.98 [1.30; 3.01]) as compared to women (HR 0.85 [0.5; 1.45]). This large multicentre cohort study shows an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and gastric cancer, but not UADT cancers, suggesting that air pollution may contribute to gastric cancer risk.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
9.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(3): 420-432, 2018 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016987

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent. Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89-3.14 per 10-5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38-2.71 per 10-5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors. Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
10.
Eur Urol Focus ; 4(1): 113-120, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution contains low concentrations of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about whether exposure to air pollution influences BC in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and BC incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We obtained data from 15 population-based cohorts enrolled between 1985 and 2005 in eight European countries (N=303431; mean follow-up 14.1 yr). We estimated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameter <10µm (PM10), <2.5µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10µm (PM2.5-10), PM2.5absorbance (soot), elemental constituents of PM, organic carbon, and traffic density at baseline home addresses using standardized land-use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) for BC incidence. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During follow-up, 943 incident BC cases were diagnosed. In the meta-analysis, none of the exposures were associated with BC risk. The summary HRs associated with a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 and 5-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.08) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.18), respectively. Limitations include the lack of information about lifetime exposure. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of an association between exposure to outdoor air pollution levels at place of residence and risk of BC. PATIENT SUMMARY: We assessed the link between outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer using the largest study population to date and extensive assessment of exposure and comprehensive data on personal risk factors such as smoking. We found no association between the levels of outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer risk.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(2): 276-282, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The understanding of determinants for saliva cortisol levels in adolescents is limited. This study investigated the role of road traffic noise exposure, noise annoyance and various other factors for saliva cortisol levels. METHODS: We collected morning and evening saliva samples from 1751 adolescents from the BAMSE birth cohort based in Stockholm County. Façade noise levels from road traffic were estimated at the residences of the study subjects and repeated questionnaires and medical examinations provided extensive information on various exposures and conditions, including annoyance to noise from different sources. Cortisol was measured using radioimmunoassay. Associations between determinants and saliva cortisol levels were analysed using linear regression. RESULTS: Morning saliva cortisol levels were significantly higher in females than in males (geometric mean 42.4 and 35.0 nmol/l, respectively) as well as in subjects with allergy related diseases. Height and age were related to saliva cortisol levels as well as sampling season. Road traffic noise exposure was not associated with saliva cortisol, however, annoyance to noise tended to increase the levels. Saliva cortisol levels appeared particularly high among those who were highly annoyed and exposed to road traffic noise levels ≥ 55 dB Lden (50.5 nmol/l, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that individual perception of noise may be of importance for saliva cortisol levels. The results also point to the complexity of using saliva cortisol as a marker of noise exposure in adolescents.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Saliva/química , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Percepção Auditiva , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia
12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(11): 117005, 2017 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to transportation noise is widespread and has been associated with obesity in some studies. However, the evidence from longitudinal studies is limited and little is known about effects of combined exposure to different noise sources. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this longitudinal study was to estimate the association between exposure to noise from road traffic, railways, or aircraft and the development of obesity markers. METHODS: We assessed individual long-term exposure to road traffic, railway, and aircraft noise based on residential histories in a cohort of 5,184 men and women from Stockholm County. Noise levels were estimated at the most exposed façade of each dwelling. Waist circumference, weight, and height were measured at recruitment and after an average of 8.9 y of follow-up. Extensive information on potential confounders was available from repeated questionnaires and registers. RESULTS: Waist circumference increased 0.04 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) and 0.16 cm/y (95% CI: 0.14, 0.17) per 10 dB Lden in relation to road traffic and aircraft noise, respectively. No corresponding association was seen for railway noise. Weight gain was only related to aircraft noise exposure. A similar pattern occurred for incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of central obesity and overweight. The IRR of central obesity increased from 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.39) in those exposed to only one source of transportation noise to 2.26 (95% CI: 1.55, 3.29) among those exposed to all three sources. CONCLUSION: Our results link transportation noise exposure to development of obesity and suggest that combined exposure from different sources may be particularly harmful. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1910.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Aeronaves , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Suécia , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(10): 107005, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29033383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts ­ Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5µm, ≤10µm, and 2.5­10µm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 µg/m3}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 µg/m3], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 µg/m3], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 µg/m3], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 µg/m3, p=0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Int J Cancer ; 140(7): 1528-1537, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28006861

RESUMO

Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10-5 m-1 PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gasolina , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Fatores de Risco , Emissões de Veículos
15.
Occup Environ Med ; 72(8): 594-601, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26009579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited evidence suggests adverse effects of traffic noise exposure on the metabolic system. This study investigates the association between road traffic noise and obesity markers as well as the role of combined exposure to multiple sources of traffic noise. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study performed in 2002-2006, we assessed exposure to noise from road traffic, railways and aircraft at the residences of 5075 Swedish men and women, primarily from suburban and semirural areas of Stockholm County. A detailed questionnaire and medical examination provided information on markers of obesity and potential confounders. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between traffic noise and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio using WHO definitions of obesity. RESULTS: Road traffic noise was significantly related to waist circumference with a 0.21 cm (95% CI 0.01 to 0.41) increase per 5 dB(A) rise in L(den). The OR for central obesity among those exposed to road traffic noise ≥ 45 dB(A) was 1.18 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.34) in comparison to those exposed below this level. Similar results were seen for waist-hip ratio (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.45) but not for BMI (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.04). Central obesity was also associated with exposure to railway and aircraft noise, and a particularly high risk was seen for combined exposure to all three sources of traffic noise (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.24 to 3.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that traffic noise exposure can increase the risk of central obesity. Combined exposure to different sources of traffic noise may convey a particularly high risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Transportes , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto , Aeronaves , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Razão de Chances , Ferrovias
16.
Environ Res ; 138: 144-53, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25710788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise has been found to be associated with endocrine changes and cardiovascular disease. Increased cortisol levels and chronic sleep problems due to noise may increase the risk of obesity. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between road traffic noise and obesity markers. Furthermore, we explored the modifying role of noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: We used data from a population-based study, HUBRO (N=15,085), and its follow-up study HELMILO (N=8410) conducted in Oslo, Norway. Measurements were used to define body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and these binary outcomes: BMI≥30kg/m(2), WC≥102cm (men)/88cm (women), and WHR≥0.90 (men)/0.85 (women). Modelled levels of road traffic noise (Lden) were assigned to each participant's home address. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. RESULTS: The results indicated no significant associations between road traffic noise and obesity markers in the total populations. However, in highly noise sensitive women (n=1106) a 10dB increase in noise level was associated with a slope (=beta) of 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03) for BMI, 1.01 (CI: 1.00, 1.02) for WC, and an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 (CI: 1.01, 1.53) for WHR ≥0.85. The associations appeared weaker in highly noise sensitive men. We found no effect modification of noise annoyance or sleep disturbances. In a sub-population with bedroom facing a road, the associations increased in men (e.g. an OR of 1.25 (CI: 0.88, 1.78) for BMI ≥30kg/m(2)), but not in women. Among long-term residents the associations increased for BMI ≥30kg/m(2) (OR of 1.07 (CI: 0.93, 1.24) in men and 1.10 (CI: 0.97, 1.26) in women), but not for the other outcomes. CONCLUSION: In an adult urban Scandinavian population, road traffic noise was positively associated with obesity markers among highly noise sensitive women. The associations appeared stronger among men with bedroom facing a street, representing a population with more accurately assigned exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 122(7): 687-94, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24800763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. METHODS: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 122(9): 919-25, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24835336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collected, and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual air pollution exposures were predicted from land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). The exposures were: PM2.5 [particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter], coarse PM (PM between 2.5 and 10 µm), PM10 (PM ≤ 10 µm), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Random-effects meta-analysis was used for pooled effect estimation. RESULTS: A total of 99,446 study participants were included, 3,086 of whom developed stroke. A 5-µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 exposure was associated with 19% increased risk of incident stroke [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.62]. Similar findings were obtained for PM10. The results were robust to adjustment for an extensive list of cardiovascular risk factors and noise coexposure. The association with PM2.5 was apparent among those ≥ 60 years of age (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.87), among never-smokers (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.88), and among participants with PM2.5 exposure < 25 µg/m3 (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.77). CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ruído dos Transportes , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
19.
Epidemiology ; 25(3): 368-78, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24589872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure at the residential address was characterized as annual average concentrations of the following: nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); particles with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), less than 10 µm (PM10), and 10 µm to 2.5 µm (PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance estimated by land-use regression models; and traffic indicators. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazards models using a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled effect estimates. RESULTS: The total study population consisted of 367,383 participants, with 9994 deaths from CVD (including 4,992 from ischemic heart disease, 2264 from myocardial infarction, and 2484 from cerebrovascular disease). All hazard ratios were approximately 1.0, except for particle mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality; for PM2.5, the hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.69) per 5 µg/m and for PM10, 1.22 (0.91-1.63) per 10 µg/m. CONCLUSION: In a joint analysis of data from 22 European cohorts, most hazard ratios for the association of air pollutants with mortality from overall CVD and with specific CVDs were approximately 1.0, with the exception of particulate mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality for which there was suggestive evidence for an association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMJ ; 348: f7412, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24452269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). DESIGN: Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. SETTING: Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. PARTICIPANTS: 100 166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), 2.5-10 µm (PMcoarse), and <10 µm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. RESULTS: 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 µg/m(3) increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 µg/m(3) increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 µg/m(3) for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5) and below 40 µg/m(3) for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Angina Instável/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
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