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1.
Stem Cells ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778245

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones are regarded as the major controllers of metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in mammals. Although it has been demonstrated that thyroid hormone supplementation improves bovine embryo development in vitro, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects are so far unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of thyroid hormone in development of human preimplantation embryos. Embryos were cultured in the presence or absence of 10-7 M triiodothyronine (T3) till blastocyst stage. Inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) were separated mechanically and subjected to RNAseq or quantification of mitochondrial DNA copy number. Analyses were performed using DESeq (v1.16.0 on R v3.1.3), MeV4.9 and MitoMiner 4.0v2018 JUN platforms. We found that the exposure of human preimplantation embryos to T3 had a profound impact on nuclear gene transcription only in the cells of ICM (1178 regulated genes - 10.5% of 11 196 expressed genes) and almost no effect on cells of TE (38 regulated genes - 0.3% of expressed genes). The analyses suggest that T3 induces in ICM a shift in OXPHOS activity, as the upregulated genes are contributing to the composition and organization of the respiratory chain and associated co-factors involved in mitoribosome assembly and stability. Furthermore, a number of genes affecting the citric acid cycle energy production have reduced expression. Our findings might explain why thyroid disorders in women have been associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcome. Our data also raise a possibility that supplementation of culture media with T3 may improve outcomes for women undergoing in vitro fertilization. © AlphaMed Press 2019 SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Thyroid hormones are regarded as the major controllers of metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in mammals. Little is known about the effects of the thyroid hormones in the earliest stages of human development. Our results suggest that thyroid hormones affect mitochondrial function in human embryos: stimulate mitochondrial replication and energy production within mitochondria by switching metabolism from glycolytic pathway to more efficient oxidative phosphorylation. Our findings shed a light on metabolic switch in early embryo development and might explain why thyroid disorders in women have been associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcome. Our data also suggest that supplementation of culture media with T3 may improve outcomes for women undergoing IVF.

2.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339582

RESUMO

Transport And Golgi Organization protein 2 (TANGO2) deficiency has recently been identified as a rare metabolic disorder with a distinct clinical and biochemical phenotype of recurrent metabolic crises, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, arrhythmias, and encephalopathy with cognitive decline. We report nine subjects from seven independent families, and we studied muscle histology, respiratory chain enzyme activities in skeletal muscle and proteomic signature of fibroblasts. All nine subjects carried autosomal recessive TANGO2 mutations. Two carried the reported deletion of exons 3 to 9, one homozygous, one heterozygous with a 22q11.21 microdeletion inherited in trans. The other subjects carried three novel homozygous (c.262C>T/p.Arg88*; c.220A>C/p.Thr74Pro; c.380+1G>A), and two further novel heterozygous (c.6_9del/p.Phe6del); c.11-13delTCT/p.Phe5del mutations. Immunoblot analysis detected a significant decrease of TANGO2 protein. Muscle histology showed mild variation of fiber diameter, no ragged-red/cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers and a defect of multiple respiratory chain enzymes and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) in two cases, suggesting a possible secondary defect of oxidative phosphorylation. Proteomic analysis in fibroblasts revealed significant changes in components of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi network and secretory pathways. Clinical presentation of TANGO2 mutations is homogeneous and clinically recognizable. The hemizygous mutations in two patients suggest that some mutations leading to allele loss are difficult to detect. A combined defect of the respiratory chain enzymes and CoQ10 with altered levels of several membrane proteins provides molecular insights into the underlying pathophysiology and may guide rational new therapeutic interventions.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021000

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disease is hugely diverse with respect to associated clinical presentations and underlying genetic causes, with pathogenic variants in over 300 disease genes currently described. Approximately half of these have been discovered in the last decade due to the increasingly widespread application of next generation sequencing technologies, in particular unbiased, whole exome-and latterly, whole genome sequencing. These technologies allow more genetic data to be collected from patients with mitochondrial disorders, continually improving the diagnostic success rate in a clinical setting. Despite these significant advances, some patients still remain without a definitive genetic diagnosis. Large datasets containing many variants of unknown significance have become a major challenge with next generation sequencing strategies and these require significant functional validation to confirm pathogenicity. This interface between diagnostics and research is critical in continuing to expand the list of known pathogenic variants and concomitantly enhance our knowledge of mitochondrial biology. The increasing use of whole exome sequencing, whole genome sequencing and other "omics" techniques such as transcriptomics and proteomics will generate even more data and allow further interrogation and validation of genetic causes, including those outside of coding regions. This will improve diagnostic yields still further and emphasizes the integral role that functional assessment of variant causality plays in this process-the overarching focus of this review.

4.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 6, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) exhibits interindividual and intercellular variation, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of directly assayed mtDNA CN exist. We undertook a GWAS of qPCR-assayed mtDNA CN in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the UK Blood Service (UKBS) cohort. After validating and harmonising data, 5461 ALSPAC mothers (16-43 years at mtDNA CN assay) and 1338 UKBS females (17-69 years) were included in a meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses restricted to females with white cell-extracted DNA and adjusted for estimated or assayed cell proportions. Associations were also explored in ALSPAC children and UKBS males. RESULTS: A neutrophil-associated locus approached genome-wide significance (rs709591 [MED24], ß (change in SD units of mtDNA CN per allele) [SE] - 0.084 [0.016], p = 1.54e-07) in the main meta-analysis of adult females. This association was concordant in magnitude and direction in UKBS males and ALSPAC neonates. SNPs in and around ABHD8 were associated with mtDNA CN in ALSPAC neonates (rs10424198, ß [SE] 0.262 [0.034], p = 1.40e-14), but not other study groups. In a meta-analysis of unrelated individuals (N = 11,253), we replicated a published association in TFAM (ß [SE] 0.046 [0.017], p = 0.006), with an effect size much smaller than that observed in the replication analysis of a previous in silico GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In a hypothesis-generating GWAS, we confirm an association between TFAM and mtDNA CN and present putative loci requiring replication in much larger samples. We discuss the limitations of our work, in terms of measurement error and cellular heterogeneity, and highlight the need for larger studies to better understand nuclear genomic control of mtDNA copy number.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Brain ; 142(1): 50-58, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576410

RESUMO

Physical stress, including high temperatures, may damage the central metabolic nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors [NAD(P)H], generating toxic derivatives [NAD(P)HX]. The highly conserved enzyme NAD(P)HX dehydratase (NAXD) is essential for intracellular repair of NAD(P)HX. Here we present a series of infants and children who suffered episodes of febrile illness-induced neurodegeneration or cardiac failure and early death. Whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing identified recessive NAXD variants in each case. Variants were predicted to be potentially deleterious through in silico analysis. Reverse-transcription PCR confirmed altered splicing in one case. Subject fibroblasts showed highly elevated concentrations of the damaged cofactors S-NADHX, R-NADHX and cyclic NADHX. NADHX accumulation was abrogated by lentiviral transduction of subject cells with wild-type NAXD. Subject fibroblasts and muscle biopsies showed impaired mitochondrial function, higher sensitivity to metabolic stress in media containing galactose and azide, but not glucose, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Recombinant NAXD protein harbouring two missense variants leading to the amino acid changes p.(Gly63Ser) and p.(Arg608Cys) were thermolabile and showed a decrease in Vmax and increase in KM for the ATP-dependent NADHX dehydratase activity. This is the first study to identify pathogenic variants in NAXD and to link deficient NADHX repair with mitochondrial dysfunction. The results show that NAXD deficiency can be classified as a metabolite repair disorder in which accumulation of damaged metabolites likely triggers devastating effects in tissues such as the brain and the heart, eventually leading to early childhood death.


Assuntos
Hidroliases/deficiência , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Febre/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Hidroliases/genética , Lactente , Cinética , Lentivirus , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação , NAD/análogos & derivados , NAD/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285085

RESUMO

Recessively-inherited variants in AARS2 (NM_020745.2) encoding mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (mt-AlaRS) were first described in patients presenting with fatal infantile cardiomyopathy and multiple oxidative phosphorylation defects. To date, all described patients with AARS2-related fatal infantile cardiomyopathy are united by either a homozygous or compound heterozygous c.1774C>T (p.Arg592Trp) missense founder mutation that is absent in patients with other AARS2-related phenotypes. We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular investigations of two unrelated boys presenting with fatal infantile cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory failure. Oxidative histochemistry showed cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Biochemical studies showed markedly decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and IV with a mild decrease of complex III activity in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified a c.1738C>T (p.Arg580Trp) AARS2 variant shared by both patients that was in trans with a loss-of-function heterozygous AARS2 variant; a c.1008dupT (p.Asp337*) nonsense variant or an intragenic deletion encompassing AARS2 exons 5-7. Interestingly, our patients did not harbour the p.Arg592Trp AARS2 founder mutation. In silico modelling of the p.Arg580Trp substitution suggested a deleterious impact on protein stability and folding. We confirmed markedly decreased mt-AlaRS protein levels in patient fibroblasts, skeletal and cardiac muscle, although mitochondrial protein synthesis defects were confined to skeletal and cardiac muscle. In vitro data showed that the p.Arg580Trp variant had a minimal effect on activation, aminoacylation or misaminoacylation activities relative to wild-type mt-AlaRS, demonstrating that instability of mt-AlaRS is the biological mechanism underlying the fatal cardiomyopathy phenotype in our patients.

7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2217, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319656

RESUMO

In order to limit the adverse effects of excessive inflammation, anti-inflammatory responses are stimulated at an early stage of an infection, but during sepsis these can lead to deactivation of immune cells including monocytes. In addition, there is emerging evidence that the up-regulation of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms, including mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, is important during the recovery from sepsis and inflammation. We aimed to describe the relationship between the compensatory immune and mitochondrial responses that are triggered following exposure to an inflammatory stimulus in human monocytic cells. Incubation with lipopolysaccharide resulted in a change in the immune phenotype of THP-1 cells consistent with the induction of endotoxin tolerance, similar to that seen in deactivated septic monocytes. After exposure to LPS there was also early evidence of oxidative stress, which resolved in association with the induction of antioxidant defenses and the stimulation of mitochondrial degradation through mitophagy. This was compensated by a parallel up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis that resulted in an overall increase in mitochondrial respiratory activity. These observations improve our understanding of the normal homeostatic responses that limit the adverse cellular effects of unregulated inflammation, and which may become ineffective when an infection causes sepsis.

8.
Mitochondrion ; 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098422

RESUMO

Recent studies have linked cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) to neurodegeneration in both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, raising the possibility that the same phenomenon could be seen in other diseases which manifest a neurodegenerative component. Here, we assessed the role of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) in end-stage progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), where neurodegeneration is evident, contrasting both ventricular cerebral spinal fluid ccf-mtDNA abundance and integrity between PMS cases and controls, and correlating ccf-mtDNA levels to known protein markers of neurodegeneration and PMS. Our data indicate that reduced ccf-mtDNA is a component of PMS, concluding that it may indeed be a hallmark of broader neurodegeneration.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11682, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076399

RESUMO

Deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are an important cause of human disease and their accumulation has been implicated in the ageing process. As mtDNA is a high copy number genome, the coexistence of deleted and wild-type mtDNA molecules within a single cell defines heteroplasmy. When deleted mtDNA molecules, driven by intracellular clonal expansion, reach a sufficiently high level, a biochemical defect emerges, contributing to the appearance and progression of clinical pathology. Consequently, it is relevant to determine the heteroplasmy levels within individual cells to understand the mechanism of clonal expansion. Heteroplasmy is reflected in a mosaic distribution of cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient muscle fibers. We applied droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to single muscle fibers collected by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) from muscle biopsies of patients with different paradigms of mitochondrial disease, characterized by the accumulation of single or multiple mtDNA deletions. By combining these two sensitive approaches, ddPCR and LCM, we document different models of clonal expansion in patients with single and multiple mtDNA deletions, implicating different mechanisms and time points for the development of COX deficiency in these molecularly distinct mitochondrial cytopathies.

10.
Nat Cell Biol ; 20(8): 991, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674682

RESUMO

In the version of this Letter originally published, an author error led to the affiliations for Brendan Payne, Jonathan Coxhead and Gavin Hudson being incorrect. The correct affiliations are: Brendan Payne: 3Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. 6Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; this is a new affiliation 6 and subsequent existing affiliations have been renumbered. Jonathan Coxhead: 11Genomic Core Facility, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; this is a new affiliation 11 and subsequent existing affiliations have been renumbered. Gavin Hudson: 3Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. In addition, in Fig. 2d, the numbers on the x-axis of the left plot were incorrectly labelled as negative; they should have been positive. These errors have now been corrected in all online versions of the Letter.

11.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1224-1235, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the role of the mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate carrier (SLC25A21) in the development of spinal muscular atrophy-like disease. METHODS: We identified a novel pathogenic variant in a patient by whole-exome sequencing. The pathogenicity of the mutation was studied by transport assays, computer modeling, followed by targeted metabolic testing and in vitro studies in human fibroblasts and neurons. RESULTS: The patient carries a homozygous pathogenic variant c.695A>G; p.(Lys232Arg) in the SLC25A21 gene, encoding the mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate carrier, and developed spinal muscular atrophy and mitochondrial myopathy. Transport assays show that the mutation renders SLC25A21 dysfunctional and 2-oxoadipate cannot be imported into the mitochondrial matrix. Computer models of central metabolism predicted that impaired transport of oxodicarboxylate disrupts the pathways of lysine and tryptophan degradation, and causes accumulation of 2-oxoadipate, pipecolic acid, and quinolinic acid, which was confirmed in the patient's urine by targeted metabolomics. Exposure to 2-oxoadipate and quinolinic acid decreased the level of mitochondrial complexes in neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y) and induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate carrier deficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of oxoadipate and quinolinic acid, which in turn cause toxicity in spinal motor neurons leading to spinal muscular atrophy-like disease.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1743-1753, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518248

RESUMO

LonP1 is a mitochondrial matrix protease whose selective substrate specificity is essential for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Recessively inherited, pathogenic defects in LonP1 have been previously reported to underlie cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular and skeletal anomalies (CODAS) syndrome, a complex multisystemic and developmental disorder. Intriguingly, although classical mitochondrial disease presentations are well-known to exhibit marked clinical heterogeneity, the skeletal and dental features associated with CODAS syndrome are pathognomonic. We have applied whole exome sequencing to a patient with congenital lactic acidosis, muscle weakness, profound deficiencies in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation associated with loss of mtDNA copy number and MRI abnormalities consistent with Leigh syndrome, identifying biallelic variants in the LONP1 (NM_004793.3) gene; c.1693T > C predicting p.(Tyr565His) and c.2197G > A predicting p.(Glu733Lys); no evidence of the classical skeletal or dental defects observed in CODAS syndrome patients were noted in our patient. In vitro experiments confirmed the p.(Tyr565His) LonP1 mutant alone could not bind or degrade a substrate, consistent with the predicted function of Tyr565, whilst a second missense [p.(Glu733Lys)] variant had minimal effect. Mixtures of p.(Tyr565His) mutant and wild-type LonP1 retained partial protease activity but this was severely depleted when the p.(Tyr565His) mutant was mixed with the p.(Glu733Lys) mutant, data consistent with the compound heterozygosity detected in our patient. In summary, we conclude that pathogenic LONP1 variants can lead to a classical mitochondrial disease presentations associated with severe biochemical defects in oxidative phosphorylation in clinically relevant tissues.

13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(7): 1186-1195, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361167

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in cellular homeostasis and a variety of human diseases are linked to its dysregulated function. Here, we describe a 15-year-old boy with a novel disease caused by altered mitochondrial dynamics. The patient was the second child of consanguineous Jewish parents. He developed progressive muscle weakness and exercise intolerance at 6 years of age. His muscle biopsy revealed mitochondrial myopathy with numerous ragged red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) negative fibers and combined respiratory chain complex I and IV deficiency. MtDNA copy number was elevated and no deletions of the mtDNA were detected in muscle DNA. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.Q92*) in the MIEF2 gene encoding the mitochondrial dynamics protein of 49 kDa (MID49). Immunoblotting revealed increased levels of proteins promoting mitochondrial fusion (MFN2, OPA1) and decreased levels of the fission protein DRP1. Fibroblasts of the patient showed elongated mitochondria, and significantly higher frequency of fusion events, mtDNA abundance and aberrant mitochondrial cristae ultrastructure, compared with controls. Thus, our data suggest that mutations in MIEF2 result in imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics and a combined respiratory chain enzyme defect in skeletal muscle, leading to mitochondrial myopathy.

14.
Nat Cell Biol ; 20(2): 144-151, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335530

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause inherited diseases and are implicated in the pathogenesis of common late-onset disorders, but how they arise is not clear1,2. Here we show that mtDNA mutations are present in primordial germ cells (PGCs) within healthy female human embryos. Isolated PGCs have a profound reduction in mtDNA content, with discrete mitochondria containing ~5 mtDNA molecules. Single-cell deep mtDNA sequencing of in vivo human female PGCs showed rare variants reaching higher heteroplasmy levels in late PGCs, consistent with the observed genetic bottleneck. We also saw the signature of selection against non-synonymous protein-coding, tRNA gene and D-loop variants, concomitant with a progressive upregulation of genes involving mtDNA replication and transcription, and linked to a transition from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism. The associated metabolic shift would expose deleterious mutations to selection during early germ cell development, preventing the relentless accumulation of mtDNA mutations in the human population predicted by Muller's ratchet. Mutations escaping this mechanism will show shifts in heteroplasmy levels within one human generation, explaining the extreme phenotypic variation seen in human pedigrees with inherited mtDNA disorders.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 82(6): 1016-1021, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149768

RESUMO

In Parkinson disease (PD), mitochondrial dysfunction associates with nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Cholinergic neuronal loss co-occurs, particularly within a brainstem structure, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We isolated single cholinergic neurons from postmortem PPNs of aged controls and PD patients. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and mtDNA deletions were increased significantly in PD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, compared to controls the PD patients had significantly more PPN cholinergic neurons containing mtDNA deletion levels exceeding 60%, a level associated with deleterious effects on oxidative phosphorylation. The current results differ from studies reporting mtDNA depletion in nigral dopaminergic neurons of PD patients. Ann Neurol 2017;82:1016-1021.


Assuntos
Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Núcleo Tegmental Pedunculopontino/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Núcleo Tegmental Pedunculopontino/patologia
17.
Neurol Genet ; 3(5): e187, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28955726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic etiology of a young woman presenting an early-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with evidence of decreased mitochondrial complex I and IV activities in skeletal muscle suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder. METHODS: A case report including diagnostic workup, whole-exome sequencing of the affected patient, filtering, and prioritization of candidate variants assuming a suspected autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder and segregation studies. RESULTS: After excluding candidate variants for an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder, re-evaluation of rare and novel heterozygous variants identified a recently reported, recurrent pathogenic heterozygous CTBP1 missense change (c.991C>T, p.Arg331Trp), which was confirmed to have arisen de novo. CONCLUSIONS: We report the fifth known patient harboring a recurrent pathogenic de novo c.991C>T p.(Arg331Trp) CTBP1 variant, who was initially suspected to have an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder. Inheritance of suspected early-onset mitochondrial disease could wrongly be assumed to be autosomal recessive. Hence, this warrants continued re-evaluation of rare and novel heterozygous variants in patients with apparently unsolved suspected mitochondrial disease investigated using next-generation sequencing.

19.
Brain ; 140(6): 1561-1578, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459997

RESUMO

Despite extensive efforts, half of patients with rare movement disorders such as hereditary spastic paraplegias and cerebellar ataxias remain genetically unexplained, implicating novel genes and unrecognized mutations in known genes. Non-coding DNA variants are suspected to account for a substantial part of undiscovered causes of rare diseases. Here we identified mutations located deep in introns of POLR3A to be a frequent cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia and cerebellar ataxia. First, whole-exome sequencing findings in a recessive spastic ataxia family turned our attention to intronic variants in POLR3A, a gene previously associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy type 7. Next, we screened a cohort of hereditary spastic paraplegia and cerebellar ataxia cases (n = 618) for mutations in POLR3A and identified compound heterozygous POLR3A mutations in ∼3.1% of index cases. Interestingly, >80% of POLR3A mutation carriers presented the same deep-intronic mutation (c.1909+22G>A), which activates a cryptic splice site in a tissue and stage of development-specific manner and leads to a novel distinct and uniform phenotype. The phenotype is characterized by adolescent-onset progressive spastic ataxia with frequent occurrence of tremor, involvement of the central sensory tracts and dental problems (hypodontia, early onset of severe and aggressive periodontal disease). Instead of the typical hypomyelination magnetic resonance imaging pattern associated with classical POLR3A mutations, cases carrying c.1909+22G>A demonstrated hyperintensities along the superior cerebellar peduncles. These hyperintensities may represent the structural correlate to the cerebellar symptoms observed in these patients. The associated c.1909+22G>A variant was significantly enriched in 1139 cases with spastic ataxia-related phenotypes as compared to unrelated neurological and non-neurological phenotypes and healthy controls (P = 1.3 × 10-4). In this study we demonstrate that (i) autosomal-recessive mutations in POLR3A are a frequent cause of hereditary spastic ataxias, accounting for about 3% of hitherto genetically unclassified autosomal recessive and sporadic cases; and (ii) hypomyelination is frequently absent in POLR3A-related syndromes, especially when intronic mutations are present, and thus can no longer be considered as the unifying feature of POLR3A disease. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that substantial progress in revealing the causes of Mendelian diseases can be made by exploring the non-coding sequences of the human genome.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , RNA Polimerase III/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Idoso , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Atrofia Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia Óptica/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/diagnóstico por imagem , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/fisiopatologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia
20.
Mov Disord ; 32(6): 927-932, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment is important to enable prompt treatment and improve patient welfare, yet no standard diagnostic test is available. Metabolomics is a powerful tool used to elucidate disease mechanisms and identify potential biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to use metabolic profiling to understand the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease and to identify potential disease biomarkers. METHODS: This study compared the serological metabolomic profiles of early-stage Parkinson's patients (diagnosed < 12 months) to asymptomatic matched controls using an established array based detection system (DiscoveryHD4™, Metabolon, UK), correlating metabolite levels to clinical measurements of cognitive impairment. RESULTS: A total of 1434 serological metabolites were assessed in early-stage Parkinson's disease cases (n = 41) and asymptomatic matched controls (n = 40). Post-quality control, statistical analysis identified n = 20 metabolites, predominantly metabolites of the fatty acid oxidation pathway, associated with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Receiver operator curve assessment confirmed that the nine fatty acid oxidation metabolites had good predictive accuracy (area under curve = 0.857) for early-stage Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment (area under curve = 0.759). CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that fatty acid oxidation may be an important component in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and may have potential as a diagnostic biomarker for disease onset and mild cognitive impairment. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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