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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613978

RESUMO

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher educational institutions worldwide switched to emergency distance learning in early 2020. The less structured environment of distance learning forced students to regulate their learning and motivation more independently. According to self-determination theory (SDT), satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and social relatedness affects intrinsic motivation, which in turn relates to more active or passive learning behavior. As the social context plays a major role for basic need satisfaction, distance learning may impair basic need satisfaction and thus intrinsic motivation and learning behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between basic need satisfaction and procrastination and persistence in the context of emergency distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in a cross-sectional study. We also investigated the mediating role of intrinsic motivation in this relationship. Furthermore, to test the universal importance of SDT for intrinsic motivation and learning behavior under these circumstances in different countries, we collected data in Europe, Asia and North America. A total of N = 15,462 participants from Albania, Austria, China, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Kosovo, Lithuania, Poland, Malta, North Macedonia, Romania, Sweden, and the US answered questions regarding perceived competence, autonomy, social relatedness, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, persistence, and sociodemographic background. Our results support SDT's claim of universality regarding the relation between basic psychological need fulfilment, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, and persistence. However, whereas perceived competence had the highest direct effect on procrastination and persistence, social relatedness was mainly influential via intrinsic motivation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Procrastinação , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Autonomia Pessoal , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979397

RESUMO

The sudden switch to distance education to contain the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally altered adolescents' lives around the globe. The present research aims to identify psychological characteristics that relate to adolescents' well-being in terms of positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation, and key characteristics of their learning behavior in a situation of unplanned, involuntary distance education. Following Self-Determination Theory, experienced competence, autonomy, and relatedness were assumed to relate to active learning behavior (i.e., engagement and persistence), and negatively relate to passive learning behavior (i.e., procrastination), mediated via positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation. Data were collected via online questionnaires in altogether eight countries from Europe, Asia, and North America (N = 25,305) and comparable results across countries were expected. Experienced competence was consistently found to relate to positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation, and, in turn, active learning behavior in terms of engagement and persistence. The study results further highlight the role of perceived relatedness for positive emotion. The high proportions of explained variance speak in favor of taking these central results into account when designing distance education in times of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , COVID-19/psicologia , Educação à Distância/tendências , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia , Educação à Distância/métodos , Emoções , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Motivação , América do Norte , Pandemias , Autonomia Pessoal , Satisfação Pessoal , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 354-363, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611803

RESUMO

Despite the efforts of recent decades to reduce gender inequality, sexism is still prevalent among adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the main socioeconomic characteristics, personal experiences, resources, and competencies associated with sexism in a sample of adolescents from different European countries. Baseline data from the Lights4Violence project included 1555 students ages 12-17 from secondary schools in six European countries (Spain, Italy, Romania, United Kingdom, Portugal, and Poland). Linear regression models were carried out, stratified by sex for benevolent (BS) and hostile (HS) dimensions of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The average age of the sample was 14.3 years (SD = 1.5), 59.3% were girls. Boys scored higher on the measure of sexism (mean BS = 29.7; HS = 29.1) than girls (BS = 27.5, HS = 23.0; p < .001). Girls whose mothers had a university degree reported lower BS (ß = -0.113; p = .023) (reference: lower education). Girls who had experienced dating violence reported higher HS (ß = .080; p = .010) than those who had never been in an intimate relationship. For both sexes, high aggressiveness was associated with high levels of HS, and high aggressiveness was related to high levels of BS in boys. High assertiveness was associated with high levels of BS in both sexes and with high levels of HS in boys. A high level of problem-solving ability was associated with lower HS in both sexes. The study reinforces the need to invest in school programs aimed at preventing dating violence and promoting positive youth development.


Assuntos
Sexismo , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Espanha , Reino Unido
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546373

RESUMO

Dating violence (DV) among adolescents is a public health issue because of its negative health consequences. In this study, we aimed to analyse the prevalence and the psychosocial and socioeconomic risk and protective factors associated DV among male and female adolescents in Europe. It was performed a cross-sectional study based on a non-probabilistic sample of 1555 students aged 13-16 years (2018-2019). The global prevalence of DV victimization was significantly greater among girls than boys (girls: 34.1%, boys: 26.7%; p = 0.012). The prevalence of DV in both girls and boys was greater for those over age 15 (girls: 48.5% p < 0.001; boys: 35.9%; p = 0.019). There was an increased likelihood of DV victimization among girls whose fathers did not have paid employment (p = 0.024), who suffered abuse in childhood, and reported higher Benevolent Sexism [PR (CI 95%): 1.01 (1.00-1.03)] and machismo [1.02 (1.00-1.05)]. In the case of boys, the likelihood of DV increased with abuse in childhood (p = 0.018), lower parental support [0.97 (0.96-0.99)], high hostile sexism scores (p = 0.019), lower acceptance of violence (p = 0.009) and high machismo (p < 0.001). Abuse in childhood was shown to be the main factor associated with being a victim of DV in both population groups, as well as sexism and machismo attitudes. These results may contribute to future DV prevention school programs for both, teenagers and children of elementary school ages.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271817

RESUMO

The aim of the article is to show the role of school social support and school social climate in dating violence victimization prevention among adolescents in Europe. Study participants were students from secondary schools (age 13-16) in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concern student with dating experience (n = 993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). School social support was measured by School Social Climate, Factor 1 Scale (CECSCE) and by Student Social Support Scale (CASSS), subscales teachers and classmates. The association between school social support and different types of dating victimization (physical and/or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear) was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemographic variables. The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when school social support increased [PR (CI 95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when school social climate increased [PR (CI 95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)].There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of being victim of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence building a supportive climate at schools and building/using the support of peers and teachers is important.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Polônia , Portugal , Romênia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 27(3): 506-11, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24820031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The presented study explored health beliefs and experiences as well as health education needs of low-educated employees (LEEs) (incomplete primary, primary, lower secondary and basic vocational education) in comparison to those with higher education (secondary and tertiary education) in four European countries: Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain. The main aim was to identify a specificity of low-educated employees (LEEs) by capturing their opinions, experiences, attitudes and needs concerning health education. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 1691 individuals with the status of an employee (approximately 400 respondents in each of 4 countries participating in the project). The respondents were aged 25-54 (both the control group and the target group consisted in 1/3 of the following age groups: 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54). The respondents were interviewed during the years 2009 and 2010 with a structured questionnaire concerning their health, health behaviours as well as educational needs concerning health education. RESULTS: The study revealed substantial differences in the attitudes of people from this group concerning methodology of health education. LEEs prefer more competitions and campaigns and less written educational materials in comparison to those with higher education. Additionally, they more often perceive a fee, longer time, necessity to take part in a knowledge test and a concern that their health will be checked as factors that can discourage them from taking part in a health training. On the other hand, LEEs can by encouraged to take part in such a training by a media broadcast concerning the event, snacks or lottery during the training, or financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study proved the need for specific health education guidelines to conduct health education for low-educated employees. These guidelines should take in account the sources of health education preferred by LEEs as well as the factors that can encourage/discourage their participation in trainings concerning health.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Atitude , Escolaridade , Europa Oriental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Med Pr ; 65(4): 535-42, 2014.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25643491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, ("Mobbing, dreczenie, molestowanie" - "Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment") by Moscicka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódz (Poland), and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS). RESULTS: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers' abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
8.
Med Pr ; 59(3): 229-35, 2008.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18846994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article presents the results obtained using a new tool for measuring psychosocial burdens in teaching profession--the Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT). In its first theoretical part, some typologies of stressors in teaching, developed in other countries, are presented and the need to construct a new tool in Poland is discussed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this part, the construction process of the new tool and its three scales comprising: Conflict Situations, Organizational Burdens and Lack of Work Sense are described. The psychometric features of the new questionnaire (e.g., Cronbach a = 0.63-0.84) are also given. The results are based on a large random sample of teachers from the Lódz voivodeship. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results did not show significant differences in the level of occupational burdens between men and women. Generally, neither are seniority and age related to the level of burdens. One exception are Organizational burdens that slightly more affect older teachers. The study also showed the need to incorporate the activities at the organizational level into programs on occupational stress.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Psicologia , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Med Pr ; 59(4): 307-13, 2008.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19143222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the paper psychosocial burdens in the teaching profession, resulting from the misbehavior of students, are presented. They are analyzed in a broader context, taking account of occupational stress and its health consequences teachers are exposed to. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The given data present the outcome of the syrvey conducted on a representative sample of teachers (n = 429) from the Lódz voivodeship. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results show that student misbehavior (in milder forms) is quite frequent in teacher's workplace. Severe misbehavior, e.g., vulgar language, verbal aggression toward teachers or other students, was rather rare Younger and male teachers were more frequently exposed to student misbehavior. In addition, it correlated positively with social support received from teacher's colleagues. The results of the survey emphasize the need to identify student misbehavior problems in terms of teacher's occupational stress. The need to assure social support for teachers should also be taken into account in their workplace health promotion programs.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Comportamento Social , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 18(3): 241-9, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16411562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: According to the current Polish legislation on occupational health services, occupational medicine physicians should perform workplace health promotion (WHP) activities as a part of their professional work. The concept of workplace health promotion or health promotion programs, however, has not been defined in this legislation in any way. Therefore, two essential questions arise. First, what is the physicians' attitude towards workplace health issues and second, what is actually carried out under the label of health promotion? The main objective of the research described in this paper was to answer these questions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was carried out by the National Center for Workplace Health Promotion in 2002. A questionnaire prepared by the Center for the purpose of this survey was sent to a random sample of occupational medicine physicians. RESULTS: The results of the survey showed that 53% of occupational medicine physicians consider WHP just as a new name for prophylactics. On the other hand almost all of the respondents (94%) agree that occupational medicine physicians should perform WHP activities and find them useful in improving patients' health (78%). The main obstacle for the development of this activity in the perception of physicians is the lack of interest in workplace health promotion among employers (86%). CONCLUSIONS: In the modern understanding of workplace health promotion concept this type of intervention includes not only safety measures and health education, but also a profound organizational change that allows employers, employees and social partners to improve wellbeing of people at work. Each of such projects should facilitate changes necessary to create a health promoting workplace. It also needs a skilled leader--well trained and aware of a multidisciplinary dimension of WHP interventions. Occupational medicine specialists should become natural partners of employers and employees. The majority of the occupational medicine physicians, however, are not sufficiently prepared to carry out workplace health promotion programs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Medicina do Trabalho , Médicos/psicologia , Local de Trabalho , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Polônia
11.
Med Pr ; 55(3): 227-32, 2004.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15493497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors address the issue of workplace health promotion (WHP) activities among occupational medicine physicians in Poland. In the analysis performed the provisions of the Occupational Health Services Act as well as the conclusions inferred from the most recent WHP survey were taken into account. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data presented in this paper result from the 2002 survey carried out by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion on a random sample of 325 occupational medicine physicians. RESULTS: The survey revealed that occupational medicine physicians mostly prefer individual-oriented activities such as health education of individual patients during medical examinations (86%), typically medical interventions like vaccinations (71%), or comprehensive medical checkups (53%). A modern concept of the WHP-related activities is not so popular. For example, health education for large groups of employees is undertaken by 16% of physicians, comprehensive health-related behavior-modification programs by 7%, and projects with the participation of local communities by only 3%. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of occupational medicine physicians do not implement the workplace health promotion in line with the modern concept of activities in this domain. They focus more on health education and medical prophylactics. There is a need to provide this group of physicians with a comprehensive training to develop their skills to initiate and coordinate setting-oriented projects and thus advance their activities in this field.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Medicina do Trabalho/normas , Papel do Médico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
12.
Wiad Lek ; 55 Suppl 1: 412-7, 2002.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15002276

RESUMO

Psychosocial stressors are common problem affecting social functioning and health in many social groups. A great variety of stressors affect people working in auxiliary professions. Those stressors may induce professional burnout. The article outlines differences and similarities between Maslach burnout construct and a few concepts of stress. It also gives the literature review concerning job stressors in teachers. A wider view on teaching profession from the perspective of social sciences aims at deepened diagnosis and therapy in the context of psychiatric disturbances and constitutes the basis for planing and implementing environmental programmes of health promotion for this profession. Such perspective is consistent with the latest decisions of European Union.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Docentes , Prevenção Primária , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Polônia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
13.
Med Pr ; 53(6): 495-9, 2002.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12701542

RESUMO

Psychosocial factors present in the workplace of people performing helping professions may cause burnout. Many studies have shown that burnout variables are related to demographic variables, as well as to health and health behavior measured in different ways. In this study the focus was put on the burnout in teachers employed in correctional institutions. Contrary to the results of many studies, burnout has not been related to gender or duration of employment. There were positive correlations between emotional exhaustion, frequency (r = 0.29) and intensity (r = 0.19) of somatic complaints. Negative health behaviors and psychosomatic diseases diagnosed by physicians were not related to burnout variables. The results imply that there is a need to incorporate new variables (e.g. personality and temperament) into the research on burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Docentes , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Prisioneiros/educação , Prisões , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
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