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1.
Cancer ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy for stage IV melanoma has dramatically changed the overall prognosis and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in systemic immunotherapy options have significantly altered surgical resection rates for patients with stage IV melanoma. METHODS: The National Cancer Database (2004-2015) was used to perform a difference-in-difference analysis to evaluate whether the rate of surgical resection of metastatic disease for stage IV melanoma differed with the use of immunotherapy in the checkpoint inhibitor era in comparison with the use of immunotherapy in the pre-checkpoint inhibitor era. An adjusted difference-in-difference analysis stratified by facility type was performed. An adjusted Poisson regression analysis evaluated predictors of surgical resection in patients with stage IV melanoma who received immunotherapy. RESULTS: There were 14,433 patients with stage IV melanoma (median age, 66 years [interquartile range, 56-76 years]; female, 31.7%), and of all patients in the checkpoint inhibitor era (n = 7,524), 25% (n = 1,879) received immunotherapy. Patients with stage IV disease who received immunotherapy in the checkpoint inhibitor era were more likely to be younger, be healthier, have private insurance, come from upper income quartiles, and be treated at academic programs. A difference-in-difference analysis revealed similar rates of surgical resection of metastatic disease with the use of immunotherapy in the checkpoint inhibitor era and the pre-checkpoint inhibitor era, regardless of facility type. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of immunotherapy was unequal among patients with stage IV melanoma. Across all facilities, the rates of surgical resection of metastatic disease for stage IV melanoma did not differ with the use of immunotherapy between the checkpoint inhibitor era and the pre-checkpoint inhibitor era.

2.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 40: 1-8, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213090

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is also is a tumor with a distinct ability to invade and grow within the hepatic vasculature. Approximately 20% of patients with HCC have macrovascular invasion (MVI) at the time of diagnosis. MVI is associated with dismal prognosis, with median survival ranging from 2 to 5 months. Current staging systems designate MVI as advanced disease. Recent advances in multimodal approaches, including systemic therapies, radiation therapy, liver-directed therapies, and surgical approaches, in the treatment of HCC with MVI have rendered this disease process more treatable with improved outcomes and are discussed here.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220831

RESUMO

This review highlights current treatments, limitations, and pitfalls in the management of pancreatic cancer and discusses current research in novel targets and drug development to overcome these clinical challenges. We begin with a review of the clinical landscape of pancreatic cancer, including genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as limitations in disease diagnosis and prevention. We next discuss current treatment paradigms for pancreatic cancer and the shortcomings of targeted therapy in this disease. Targeting major driver mutations in pancreatic cancer, such as dysregulation in the KRAS and TGF-ß signaling pathways, have failed to improve survival outcomes compared to non-targeted chemotherapy; thus, we describe new advances in therapy such as Ras binding pocket inhibitors. We then review next-generation approaches in nanomedicine and drug delivery, focusing on preclinical advancements in novel optical probes, antibodies, small molecule agents, and nucleic acids to improve surgical outcomes in resectable disease, augment current therapies, expand druggable targets, and minimize morbidity. We conclude by summarizing progress in current research, identifying areas for future exploration in drug development and nanotechnology, and discussing future prospects for management of this disease.

4.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the efficacy of adjuvant therapy (AT) in patients with invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN). This single center retrospective cohort study aims to assess the impact of AT on survival in these patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing surgery for invasive IPMN between 1993 and 2018 were included in the study. We compared the clinicopathologic features and evaluated overall survival (OS) using multivariate Cox regression adjusting for adjuvant therapy, age, T and N stage, perineural and lymphovascular invasion. We also assessed survival differences between surgery alone and AT in node negative (N0) and node positive (N+) subgroups. RESULTS: 103 patients were included in the study; 69 underwent surgery alone while 34 also received AT. Patients in the AT group were significantly younger, presented at higher T and N stages and had more perineural and lymphovascular invasion. Median OS in the surgery alone group was 134 months and 65 months in the AT group, p = 0.052. On multivariate analysis, AT was not associated with improved OS; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03 (0.52-2.05). In N0 patients, compared to surgery alone, AT was associated with a worse median OS (65 vs 167 months, p = 0.03), whereas in N+ patients there was a non-significant improvement (50.5 vs 20.4 months, p = 0.315). CONCLUSION: AT did not improve survival in the overall cohort even after multivariate analysis. N0 patients have excellent survival, and AT should probably be avoided in them, whereas it may be considered in patients with N+ disease.

5.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the reliability of AJCC clinical staging was in comparison to pathologic staging in surgically resected patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We used the National Cancer Database Pancreas from 2004 to 2016 and evaluated patients who underwent resection for PDAC with all documented components of clinical and pathologic stage. We first evaluated the distribution of overall clinical stage and pathologic stage and then evaluated for stage migration by assessing the number of patients who shifted from a clinical stage group to a respective pathologic stage group. To further characterize the migratory pattern, we assessed the distribution of clinical and pathologic T-stage and N-stage. RESULTS: In our cohort of 28,338 patients who underwent resection for PDAC, AJCC clinical staging did not reliably predict pathologic stage. Stage migration after resection was responsible for discrepancies between the distribution of overall clinical stage and pathologic stage. The predominant migration was from patients with clinical stage I disease to pathologic stage II disease. Most patients with clinical T1 and T2 disease were upstaged to pathologic T3 disease and over half of patients with clinical N0 disease were upstaged to pathologic N1 disease after resection. DISCUSSION: Clinical staging appears to overrepresent early T1, T2, and N0 disease, and underrepresent T3 and N1 disease.

6.
Histopathology ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031712

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the adjuvant setting, when compared to gemcitabine, patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) treated with FOLFIRINOX show superior survival. Herein, we quantitatively assess pathologic tumor response to chemoradiation in pancreatectomy specimen and reassess guidelines for tumor regression grading. METHODS: We evaluated 92 patients with borderline resectable/locally advanced PDAC following pancreatectomy and neoadjuvant treatment with FOLFIRINOX and radiation. Demographic data, CAP tumor regression grade (TRG), and overall survival (OS) was recorded. A quantitative analysis of residual tumor was performed on the slide with the highest tumor burden to derive a tumor to tumor bed ratio. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, only lymph node status (p=0.043), and CAP TRG (p=0.038) correlated with OS. Sixteen percent of patients showed complete pathologic response. The optimal tumor to tumor bed ratio cut point was 11.6% and on a multivariate model was the only pathologic parameter that correlated with OS (p=0.016) (Hazard Ratio 2.27). CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of patients with PDAC showing complete and near complete pathologic response supports the use of FOLFIRINOX and radiation in the neoadjuvant setting. Several traditional pathology parameters fail to predict OS in patients treated with chemoradiation while a quantitative tumor to tumor bed ratio is a powerful predictor of OS. The data supports a two-tiered approach to TRG based on tumor to tumor bed ratio and quantitative analysis merits further consideration.

7.
Ann Surg ; 271(4): e105-0, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097167
8.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that differences in resection rates of colorectal liver metastases exist based on socioeconomic status (SES) inequalities. METHODS: The NCDB was utilized to study patients of different median household income diagnosed with colon adenocarcinoma from 2010 to 2015. RESULTS: A total of 21,258 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 3,587 (16.9%) underwent metastasectomy. Patients of the highest income quartile were more likely to undergo metastasectomy compared to the lowest quartile (OR 1.20, CI 1.07-1.37, p = 0.003). Overall, patients in the highest income quartile had a median OS of 17.1 months compared with 13.0 months for the lowest quartile (HR 0.85, CI 0.81-0.90, p < 0.001). While metastasectomy was associated with improved OS across all groups, the disparity by income quartile widened (29.2 vs. 22.0 months, respectively; HR 0.51, CI 0.49-0.54, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Higher income patients were more likely to undergo metastasectomy compared with lower income patients and were associated with longer OS.

10.
Histopathology ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are increasingly treated with neoadjuvant therapy. However, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th Edition T staging based on tumor size does not reflect treatment effect, which often results in multiple, small foci of residual tumor in a background of mass-forming fibrosis. Thus, we evaluated the performance of AJCC 8th Edition T staging in predicting patient outcomes using a microscopic tumor size measurement method. METHODS AND RESULTS: 106 post-neoadjuvant therapy pancreatectomies were reviewed, and all individual tumor foci were measured. T stages based on gross size (GS) and the largest single microscopic focus size (MFS) were examined in association with clinicopathologic variables and patient outcomes. 63/106 (59%) were locally advanced; 78% received FOLFIRINOX treatment. Average GS and MFS were 2.5cm and 1.1cm, respectively; 9 cases each were classified as T0, 35 and 85 cases as T1, 42 and 12 cases as T2, and 20 and 0 cases as T3, based on the GS and MFS, respectively. Higher GS- and MFS-based T stages were significantly associated with higher tumor regression grade, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, and higher N stage. Furthermore, higher MFS-based T stage was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (p<0.001) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.002). GS was significantly associated with OS (p=0.046), but not with DFS. CONCLUSIONS: In post-neoadjuvant PDAC resections, MFS-based T staging is superior to GS-based T staging for predicting patient outcomes, suggesting that microscopic measurements have clinical utility beyond the conventional use of GS measurements alone.

11.
Pancreatology ; 20(1): 125-131, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly in those with new-onset DM. However, the impact of DM on outcomes following pancreatic surgery is not fully understood. We sought to explore the effects of DM on post-resection outcomes in patients undergoing either upfront resection or following neoadjuvant treatment (NAT). METHODS: Resections for PDAC between 2007 and 2016 were identified from a prospectively-maintained database. Data on demographics, pathology, and perioperative outcomes were compared between patients with or without DM. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted for confounders by a Cox-proportional hazards model. RESULTS: 662 patients were identified, of whom 277 (41.8%) had DM. Diabetics were more likely to be male, had higher BMI, and higher ASA-scores. At pathology, DM was associated with larger tumors (30 vs. 26 mm; p = 0.041), higher rates of lymph-node involvement (69% vs. 59%; p = 0.031) and perineural invasion (88% vs. 82%; p = 0.026). Despite having similar rates of complications, diabetics experienced higher 30-day mortality (3.2% vs. 0.8%; p = 0.019). Median overall survival was worse in diabetic patients (18 vs. 34 months; p < 0.001); this effect was more pronounced in patients with NAT (18 vs. 54 months; p < 0.001). At multivariate analysis, DM was confirmed as an independent predictor of post-resection survival. CONCLUSION: DM is a common comorbidity in PDAC and is associated with unfavorable pathology, as well as worse postoperative and oncologic outcomes. The blunted effect on survival is more pronounced in patients who undergo resection following NAT.

12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(3): 632-633, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701297
13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(4): 1122-1129, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) treated with hypofractionated proton or photon radiation therapy (HF-RT). METHODS: We retrospectively identified 66 patients with ICC who were treated with HF-RT from 2008 to 2018. Median age at RT was 76 years (range 30-92), including 27 patients (41%) aged ≥ 80 years. Median RT dose was 58.05 Gy (range 37.5-67.5), all delivered in 15 daily fractions. Thirty-two patients received proton RT and 34 patients received photon RT. RESULTS: Median follow-up times from diagnosis and RT start were 21 months and 14 months, respectively. In total, five patients (7.6%) developed local failure. The 2-year outcomes were 84% local control (LC) and 58% OS. Among the 51 patients treated with definitive intent, the 2-year LC rate was 93% and the OS rate was 62%. On multivariate analysis for LC, older age was associated with a lower risk of local failure [hazard ratio (HR) 0.91; p = 0.02], while prior surgery (HR 16.5; p = 0.04) and macrovascular invasion (HR 123.93; p = 0.02) were independently associated with an increased risk of local failure. On multivariate analysis for OS, female sex (HR 0.33; p = 0.001) and prior chemotherapy (HR 0.38; p = 0.003) remained significantly associated with OS. On multivariate analysis for OS, compared with photon RT, there was a trend towards improved survival with proton RT (HR 0.50; p = 0.05). The rate of overall grade 3 + toxicity was 11%. One patient developed radiation-induced liver disease and was treated with corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: HF-RT yields high rates of local control and is an effective modality to optimize biliary control for unresectable/locally recurrent ICC.

14.
J Surg Res ; 245: 288-294, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although guidelines for clinical indications of cesarean sections (CS) exist, nonclinical factors may affect CS practices. We hypothesize that CS rates vary by day of the week. METHODS: An analysis of the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database for California from 2006 to 2010 was performed. All patients admitted to a teaching or nonteaching hospital for attempted vaginal delivery were included. Patients who died within 24 h of admission were excluded. Weekend days were defined as Saturday and Sunday, and weekdays were defined as Monday to Friday. The primary outcome was CS versus vaginal delivery. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusting for patient demographics, clinical factors, and system variables. RESULTS: A total of 1,855,675 women were included. The overall CS rate was 9.02%. On unadjusted analysis, CS rates were significantly lower on weekends versus weekdays (6.65% versus 9.58%, P < 0.001). On adjusted analysis, women were 27% less likely to have a CS on weekends than on weekdays (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.75, P < 0.001). In addition, Hispanic ethnicity and delivery in teaching hospitals were associated with a decreased likelihood of CS (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.96, P = 0.01; OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CS rates are significantly decreased on weekends relative to weekdays, even when controlling for patient, hospital, and system factors.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of consensus guidelines on the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and the subsequent changes in pathologic outcomes. BACKGROUND: Over time, multiple guidelines have been developed to identify high-risk IPMN. We hypothesized that the development and implementation of guidelines should have increased the percentage of resected IPMN with high-risk disease. METHODS: Memorial Sloan-Kettering (MSK), Johns Hopkins (JH), and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) databases were queried for resected IPMN (2000-2015). Patients were categorized into main-duct (MD-IPMN) versus branch-duct (BD-IPMN). Guideline-specific radiographic/endoscopic features were recorded. High-risk disease was defined as high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma. Fisher's exact test was used to detect differences between institutions. Logistic regression evaluated differences between time-points [preguidelines (pre-GL, before 2006), Sendai (SCG, 2006-2012), Fukuoka (FCG, after 2012)]. RESULTS: The study included 1210 patients. The percentage of BD-IPMN with ≥1 high-risk radiographic feature differed between centers (MSK 69%, JH 60%, MGH 45%; P < 0.001). In MD-IPMN cohort, the presence of radiographic features such as solid component and main pancreatic duct diameter ≥10 mm also differed (solid component: MSK 38%, JH 30%, MGH 18%; P < 0.001; duct ≥10 mm: MSK 49%, JH 32%, MGH 44%; P < 0.001). The percentage of high-risk disease on pathology, however, was similar between institutions (BD-IPMN: P = 0.36, MD-IPMN: P = 0.48). During the study period, the percentage of BD-IPMN resected with ≥1 high-risk feature increased (52% pre-GL vs 67% FCG; P = 0.005), whereas the percentage of high-risk disease decreased (pre-GL vs FCG: 30% vs 20%). For MD-IPMN, there was not a clear trend towards guideline adherence, and the rate of high-risk disease was similar over the time (pre-GL vs FCG: 69% vs 67%; P = 0.63). CONCLUSION: Surgical management of IPMN based on radiographic criteria is variable between institutions, with similar percentages of high-risk disease. Over the 15-year study period, the rate of BD-IPMN resected with high-risk radiographic features increased; however, the rate of high-risk disease decreased. Better predictors are needed.

16.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the ACOSOG and ALaCaRT trials found that laparoscopic resections for rectal cancer failed to demonstrate non-inferiority of pathologic outcomes when compared with open resections, the COLOR II and COREAN studies demonstrated non-inferiority of clinical outcomes, leading to uncertainty regarding the value of minimally invasive (MIS) techniques in rectal cancer surgery. We analyzed differences in pathologic and clinical outcomes between open versus MIS resections for rectal cancer. METHODS: We identified patients who underwent resection for stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma from the National Cancer Database (2010-2015). Surgical approach was categorized as open or MIS (laparoscopic or robotic). Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard analysis were used to assess differences in outcomes and survival. Analysis was performed in an intention-to-treat fashion. RESULTS: A total of 31,190 patients who underwent rectal adenocarcinoma resection were identified, of whom 52.8% underwent open resection and 47.2% underwent MIS resection (31.0% laparoscopic, 16.2% robotic). After adjustment for patient, tumor, and institutional characteristics, MIS approaches were associated with significantly decreased risk of positive circumferential resection margins (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94), increased likelihood of harvesting ≥ 12 lymph nodes (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21), shorter length of stay (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.53-0.62), and improved overall survival (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: MIS approaches to rectal cancer resection were associated with improved pathologic and clinical outcomes when compared to the open approach. In this nationwide, facility-based sample of cancer cases in the United States, our data suggest superiority of MIS techniques for rectal cancer treatment.

17.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that complete, tumor-free resection at the pancreatic neck, achieved either en-bloc or non-en-bloc (ie, revision based on intraoperative frozen section [FS] analysis), is associated with improved survival as compared with incomplete resection (IR) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Given the likely systemic nature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the oncologic benefit of achieving a histologically complete local resection, particularly through revision of a positive intraoperative FS at the pancreatic neck, remains controversial. METHODS: Clinicopathologic and treatment data were reviewed for 986 consecutive patients with ductal adenocarcinoma at the head, neck, or uncinate process of the pancreas who underwent open pancreatectomy as well as intraoperative FS analysis between 1998 and 2012 at Massachusetts General Hospital and between 1998 and 2013 at the University of Verona. Overall survival (OS) and perioperative morbidity and mortality were compared across 3 groups: complete resection achieved en-bloc (CR-EB), complete resection achieved non-en-bloc (CR-NEB), and IR. RESULTS: The CR-EB cohort comprised 749 (76%) patients, CR-NEB 159 patients (16%), and IR 78 patients (8%). Other than a higher incidence of vascular resection among CR-NEB and IR patients, no demographic, pathologic (eg, tumor grade, lymph node positivity, superior mesenteric artery involvement), or treatment factors (eg, neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy use) differed between the groups. Median OS was significantly higher in patients with CR-EB (28 mo, P = 0.01) and CR-NEB resections (24 mo, P = 0.02) as compared with patients with IR resections (19 mo). After adjusting for clinicopathologic and treatment characteristics, CR-EB and CR-NEB margin status were found to be independent predictors of improved OS (relative to IR, CR-EB hazard ratio [HR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.86; CR-NEB HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.96). There were no intergroup differences in perioperative morbidity and mortality, including rates of pancreatic fistula. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with ductal adenocarcinoma at the head, neck, or uncinate process of the pancreas undergoing pancreatectomy, complete tumor extirpation via either en-bloc or non-en-bloc complete resection based on FS analysis is associated with improved OS, without an associated increased perioperative morbidity or mortality.

18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer induces parenchymal atrophy and duct dilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these radiologic modifications are associated with outcomes. METHODS: Upfront pancreaticoduodenectomy patients with available preoperative contrast enhanced CT scan imaging were retrospectively analyzed. Thickness of the pancreas, size of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), and distance of the tumor from the ampulla were assessed. A training cohort was selected, including short- (3-12 months following surgery) and long-term (≥ 36 months) survivors. Identified survival determinants were validated in the overall cohort. RESULTS: Two-hundred-sixteen patients were analyzed. In the training cohort (N = 118), 68 patients (57.6%) were in the short-term and 50 (42.4%) in the long-term survival group. The short-term survival group had significantly higher CA 19-9 levels (p = 0.027), larger tumors (32.6 ± 12.1 mm vs. 26.5 ± 11.6 mm, p = 0.007), poorer differentiation (p = 0.003), higher rate of R < 1 mm resections (54% vs. 32%, p = 0.008), and reduced receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.020). The MPD-to-pancreatic thickness ratio was significantly lower in the short-term survivors (3.6 ± 6.2 vs. 8.2 ± 12.0, p = 0.016). In the entire cohort, an MPD-to-pancreatic thickness ratio ≥ 3.5 was associated with improved OS [median 33.0 months IQR (19.7-48.1) versus 17 months IQR (14.8-19.2), p = 0.004], and confirmed by a Cox-proportional hazards model independently associated with OS (HR = 0.58; p = 0.009), together with tumor size (HR = 1.02; p =0.012), R1/R2 status (HR = 1.53; p = 0.029), and receipt of adjuvant treatment (HR = 0.61; p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: High MPD-to-pancreatic thickness ratio was associated with improved long-term survival in pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer. Whether these features are related to tumor chronicity, indolent biology, or local growth over metastasis remains to be determined.

19.
J Palliat Med ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718398

RESUMO

The addition of a do-not-operate (DNO) section to current medical orders for life-sustaining treatment (MOLST) and physician orders for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) medical order forms would more completely document patients' wishes for invasive interventions at the end of life. We propose a modification of the MOLST and POLST forms, in addition to hospital and electronic medical records, to include a DNO section, in addition to preexisting do-not-resuscitate (DNR) and do-not-intubate (DNI) orders, with the goal of reducing suffering from nonbeneficial surgical interventions in patients with severe illness at the end of life.

20.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be reduced by preoperative administration of prophylactic heparin is unknown. We hypothesized that timing of heparin administration does not significantly alter the incidence of VTE in pancreatic surgery. METHODS: An analysis was conducted using data from Massachusetts General Hospital's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2012 to 2017. All patients admitted for elective pancreatic resection were included. The primary outcome was development of VTE. Multivariable regression was performed, adjusting for patient demographics and various clinical factors. RESULTS: In total, 1448 patients were analyzed, of whom 1062 received preoperative heparin (73.3%). Overall, 36 (2.5%) patients developed VTE. On unadjusted analysis, there was no statistically significant difference between patients who received preoperative heparin compared with those who did not (2.6% vs. 1.3%, respectively; p = 0.079). On adjusted analysis, there was an association with increased VTE rates among patients who received preoperative heparin (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.10-7.81; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: There was an association between preoperative heparin administration and increased incidence of VTE on adjusted analysis, possibly reflecting appropriate surgical judgment in patient selection for prophylaxis. These data question the inclusion of preoperative VTE pharmacologic prophylaxis as a reliable quality indicator.

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