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1.
Chemosphere ; : 134749, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490754

RESUMO

Groundwater is the second largest water source for daily consumption, only next to surface water resources. Groundwater has been extensively investigated for its pollution level in urban areas. The groundwater quality assessments in industrial areas associated with every urban landscape are still lacking. This study was carried out in two industrial areas including Okhla and Mohan cooperative in New Delhi, India. The six groundwater samples were obtained for water quality assessment for 2015 and 2018. The heavy metals investigated in water samples were Cu, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cr, and Mn. Water quality was assessed in the heavy metals index (MI) and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). From indexing approach, it was observed that pollution levels have increased in year 2018 as compared to the year 2015. MI < 1 for Cu in 2015 and 2018 in both industrial areas. In the case of remaining metals, MI ranged from 2.5 to 8.4. When the HPI indexing approach was adopted, water was unfit for drinking in both industrial areas in 2015 and 2018, with an HPI value > 100. Non-carcinogenic risk assessment (HI) ranged from 1.7 to 1.9 in 2015, increasing from 17.41 to 217 in 2018, indicating high risk in both years. Carcinogenic risk (CR) was within the acceptable range for 48% of each heavy metal analysed sample. When the Carcinogenic risk index was considered (CRI), all samples were beyond the acceptable range, and every person was prone to carcinogenic risk in 2015.

2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 340, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389091

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) pollution is an emerging global environmental concern. Considering the high fraction of time people spend indoors, the human population can be directly exposed to this contamination through indoor dust. This preliminary study evaluates MPs' abundance and human health risk assessment in the deposited indoor dust. A total of forty dust samples (n = 20) were collected from homes in two different cities (Pakistan) in steel mesh pouches using the vacuum cleaner. The identification and quantification of MPs were conducted with a stereo microscope, whereas the qualitative assessment was performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The US EPA parameters to calculate the human health risk assessment were used to determine MPs' risk per-day/month/year. Overall, microfibers were the dominant category, followed by microfilms, micro-fragments, and nurdles. The chemical categorization of MPs was revealed as polyester, polyethylene, copolymers of polypropylene, and polyurethane. In Lahore, an average abundance of 241.45 (items/m2) MPs were observed compared to Sahiwal, with 162.1 (items/m2). More than 90% of the identified MPs were microfibers, with higher detection frequency and abundance in Lahore than Sahiwal. The human health risk assessment revealed high exposure risk because of indoor MPs. Moreover, toddlers were more vulnerable as compared to adults at both low and high exposure risk scenarios. There is an imminent need to conduct in-depth risk assessment focusing on the respirable fraction of MPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Paquistão , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2121098119, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377803

RESUMO

Significance Current therapies for pulmonary fibrosis (PF) focus on slowing disease progression and reducing functional decline in patients by dampening the activation of fibroblasts and other implicated cells. There is a need for strategies that target the essential cells and signaling pathways involved in disease pathogenesis. Monocyte-derived macrophages (Mo-Macs) are known to express profibrotic genes and are involved in the pathogenesis of PF. Our results show that engineered mannosylated albumin nanoparticles specifically targeted disease-inducing Mo-Macs, and further, that nanoparticles efficiently delivered small-interfering RNA against profibrotic cytokine tumor growth factor ß1 to prevent bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.


Assuntos
Linfotoxina-alfa , Macrófagos Alveolares , Nanopartículas , Fibrose Pulmonar , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Animais , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Linfotoxina-alfa/genética , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
4.
Chemosphere ; 300: 134582, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427666

RESUMO

The constant exposure of toxic trace elements can elicit adverse health effects particularly in birds and species residing higher at the food web. The current study is designed to evaluate the tendency of toxic trace elements viz. Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, As and Hg to bioaccumulate in liver, kidney, blood, pelvic and pectoral muscles of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) collected from premises of a metropolitan city, Lahore, Pakistan. Further, the Trophic Transfer Potential of these elements was also estimated using prey/food samples of cattle egret. All of the selected toxic trace elements except Hg and As were detected with varying concentrations in different tissues of cattle egret. In general, toxic trace elements followed the pattern as Cu > Pb > Cd > Cr in tissues of cattle egret. The maximum mean (Min-max) concentrations (µg/g) of Cu 0.58 (0.11-0.93) and Pb 0.46 (0.40-0.54) in blood and Cd at 0.46 (0.40-0.54) were observed in liver. Similarly, the highest mean (min-max) concentration (µg/g) of Cr 0.17 (0.09-0.25) was recorded in pectoral muscle. In general, blood and liver were found as the most contaminated tissues followed by kidney, pectoral and pelvic muscles. Differences of trace elements were found non-significant (all P > 0.05) among tissues of cattle egret reflecting their homogenous distribution in body. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) corroborated lack of strong association between any of the trace elements and tissues. All the toxic trace elements except Cr showed higher tendency of trophic transfer potential through food chain in all the tissues of Cattle Egret (TTF >1). Although the current study revealed decreasing trends of toxic trace elements, yet their still presence in the local environment and greater likelihood of trophic transfer can undoubtedly cause some severe health effects to the already declining bird populations.

5.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to epidemiological data, a large percentage (80-90%) of adolescents suffer from acne vulgaris and approximately 30% of them need treatment. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in several ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. There are three levels of acne: mild, moderate, and severe. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. AIM: The aim of this review is phytoconstituents-loaded nanomedicines for the management of acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online literature assessment was steered for the acne, phytochemical composition, and nanomedicines, types of acne, types of nanotechnology. Appropriate information were taken from different electronic scientific databases such as Web of Science, Elsevier, Science Direct, Springer, PubMed, Google Scholar, etc., Additional data was summarized from textbooks, local prints, and scripts. RESULTS: Nanotechnology-based nanomedicines provide a great coincidence for the enhancement in the efficacy and safety of pharmaco-therapeutic agents for acne. DISCUSSION: In this review, we discuss the phytoconstituent that are natural compounds present in plants extensively used for the anti-acne activity. Phytochemicals target cytokine signaling pathways and thus exhibit their anti-acne activity. We further outline the advantages of loading phytoconstituents as a drug in nanocarriers such as emulsion, niosomes, SLN, and nanocrystal for better and improved topical treatment. CONCLUSION: This review is mainly focused on the usage of herbal nanomedicines in acne, nano delivery carriers used in the delivery of phytoconstituents with an improved therapeutic profile and reduced toxicity. In recent years, phytoconstituents showing their anti-acne potential, and phytoconstituents-loaded nanomedicines have high treatment potential in the management of acne.

6.
Polim Med ; 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196422

RESUMO

Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a climbing perennial plant in the Piperaceae family. Pepper has been known since antiquity for its use both as a medicine and a spice. It is particularly valued for its pungency attributed to its principal constituent - piperine. This review summarizes the information on the biological source of piperine, its extraction and isolation strategies, physicochemical properties, and pharmacological activity - analgesic, immunomodulatory, anti-depressive, anti-diarrheal, hepatoprotective, etc. The effect of piperine on biotransformation of co-administered drugs is also presented in this review, along with the mechanisms involved in its bioavailability-enhancing effect. Its important medicinal uses, including anti-hepatotoxic, anti-diarrheal, anti-depressive, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects, besides many other traditional uses, are compiled. Based on an exhaustive review of literature, it may be concluded that piperine is a very promising alkaloid found in members of the Piperaceae family.

7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(2): 247-249, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108802

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Saudi Arabia, which can present with variable clinical manifestations. It is a zoonotic disease transmitted from animals to humans. Brucellosis is a multisystemic disease that can present with any system involvement; and neurobrucellosis is a serious complication, sometimes leading to permanent neurological deficit, if treatment is not started promptly. Herein, we present a 6-year boy with neurobrucellosis, who developed demyelination of cerebral white matter and presented with fever and seizures. Key Words: Neurobrucellosis, Demyelination, White matter.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central , Doenças Desmielinizantes , Animais , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Zoonoses
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(25): 37129-37143, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032273

RESUMO

This study investigated the seasonal and temporal variations in the extent and source of physiochemical and toxic trace elements in the Lakhodair landfill site of Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, systematic composite samples were collected every month, consecutively for 1 year, and analyzed for different physiochemical parameters and trace elements. The results of TDS, TSS, COD, NH3-N, BOD5, sulfate, sulfides, phenolic compounds, and oil and grease were higher than the national environmental quality standard (NEQs). The concentrations of trace elements, especially Mn (1.7 mg/L) and Cd (0.05 mg/L), were above the MPL, while Fe (14 mg/L), Ni (1.6 mg/L), and Zn (6.7 mg/L) were also found higher than the NEQs in some samples. In Lakhodair leachates, the TDS, COD, NH3-N, BOD5, sulfides, and Cl- have high concentration coefficient (i.e., CC 3 to > 6), which falls in the category of considerable to high contamination and risk level, while the remaining parameters were in the category of low to moderate contamination (CC 1 to ≤ 3) and moderate risk. The lower BOD5/COD ratio (< 0.1) in spring and autumn seasons represents the active methanogenesis and anaerobic activities in the Lakhodair landfill site. The anaerobic and methanogenesis activities enhance the redox reaction as a result of CO2 emission, which increases the pH, TDS, COD, Cl-, BOD5, NH3-N, sulfides, and phenolic compounds in the leachate site. However, the lower concentrations of some trace elements in leachate may be because of an anaerobic process that may immobilize the trace elements. It is presumed that the trace elements in the Lakhodair landfill may be in a metastable state, which is difficult to leach out. It is hereby recommended that leachate produced in the Lakhodair landfill site should be handled carefully to limit the environmental and health implications.

9.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 60(4): 364-371, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080615

RESUMO

Borage oil that is extracted from (Borago officinalis Linn.) is a well-known medicinal plant having various medicinal benefits. In this work, an affordable, simple, reliable, rapid and easily accessible high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the estimation of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in borage oil. HPTLC method employs thin-layer chromatography (TLC) aluminum plates precoated with silica gel (G60F254) as the stationary phase, and the mixture of hexane:toulene:glacial acetic acid (3:7:1, v/v/v) was used as the mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of the TLC plates was carried out at 200 nm. The developed method showed well-resolved spots with retention factor (Rf) value of 0.53 ± 0.04 for GLA. Various experimental conditions like saturation time for chamber, solvent phase migration and width of the band were studied intensely for selecting the optimum conditions. The method validation was performed for parameters like linearity, accuracy, specificity and precision. The values of limit of detection and limit of quantification for GLA were found to be 0.221 and 0.737 µg/band, respectively. In nutshell, the developed HPTLC method was found to be highly sensitive for the estimation of GLA in the herbal oil samples and formulations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido gama-Linolênico , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Óleos Vegetais
10.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 12(3): 615-628, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013457

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a significant source of end-stage renal illness all over the world in both developed and developing countries. The aim of the study was to optimize rubiadin-loaded niosomes (RLN) using Box-Behnken design for the management of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced DN in Wistar rats. The RLN were formulated by a "thin-layer hydration technique." The optimization of RLN was done by Box-Behnken design; the independent variables were cholesterol (CHOL), Span 80, and methanol, while the dependent factors were the vesicle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The optimized formulation was characterized for various biochemical parameters including anti-diabetic activity in Wistar rats. The optimized RLN presented vesicle size of 238 nm, zeta potential -68 mV, and entrapment efficiency 85%. A noteworthy decreased in blood glucose level was detected in STZ-NA-induced DN rats when orally treated with RLN (100 mg/kg/week and 200 mg/kg/week). Oral administration of RLN formulation considerably decreased the levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine in DN rats. In addition, treatment of DN rats with RLN formulation considerably improves the level of TBARS, GSH, SOD, and CAT. The lipid profile of DN rats was also improved on treatment with RLN formulation. This study revealed that the prepared RLN formulation was successfully optimized by Box-Behnken design and found to be useful for the management of STZ-NA-induced DN in Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Animais , Antraquinonas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossomos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Niacinamida , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
11.
J AOAC Int ; 105(1): 267-271, 2022 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adhatoda vasica L. is a medicinal plant, known as Malabar nut in English, belonging to the family Acanthaceae. It has been used traditionally to treat respiratory disorders like severe coughs, colds, chronic bronchitis, asthma, tuberculosis, and other illnesses. The multifunctional range of bioactives found in it has piqued the interest of pharmaceutical companies, who are looking for more evidence-based ways to develop new formulations. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the A. vasica leaves by GC-MS technique and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. METHOD: Methanolic extract of A. vasica L. (MEAV) leaves was analyzed by GC-MS for identification and characterization of its bioactives and traditional therapeutic claims. A widely anticipated 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to determine the antioxidant activity of MEAV. RESULTS: The major compounds revealed in MEAV leaves are: 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (3.06%); 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (5.35%); 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (16.82%); 2-butylphenol (6.85%); 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-on (2.5%); 2(OR 3)-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methoxyphenol (3.52%); megastigmatrienone 3 (1.02%); tetradecanoic acid (1.52%); vomifoliol (0.58%); oxalic acid, cyclobutylhexyl ester (6.03%); hexadecanoic acid (6.06%); 4-ethyl-2-oxo-2,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[B]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (10.08%); phytol (2.01%); and vitamin E (3.18%). A significant reduction in free radicals against DPPH was observed, which revealed the antioxidant potential of MEAV. CONCLUSION: MEAV consists of both polar and nonpolar components. GC-MS analysis was used to identify these compounds. The current work validates that the antioxidant activity of MEAV is attributed to the presence of compounds such as vitamin E and terpenes. HIGHLIGHTS: This work validates the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of A. vasica attributed to the presence of compounds like vitamin E and terpenes.


Assuntos
Justicia, Planta , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150745, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656602

RESUMO

The use of plastics is common across all aspects of human life owing to its durable and versatile nature. The generation and utilization of plastics are directly related to the anthropogenic activities. The extensive use of plastics and adoption of inappropriate waste-management frameworks has resulted in their release into the environment, where they may persist. Different environmental factors, such as, photochemical, thermo-oxidation, and biological degradation, can lead to the degradation of plastics into micro- (MPs) and nano-plastics (NPs). The behaviour and concentration of MPs in the terrestrial environment can depend on their size, density, and local atmospheric conditions. Microplastics and nanoplastics may enter the food web, carrying various organic pollutants, which bio-accumulate at different trophic levels, prompting organism health concerns. Microplastics being airborne identifies as new exposure route. Dietary and airborne exposure to MPs has led researchers to stress the importance of evaluating their toxicological potential. The primary goal of this paper is to explore the environmental fate of MPs from sources to sink in the terrestrial environment, as well as detail their potential impacts on human health. Additionally, this review article focuses on the presence of airborne microplastics, detailed sample pre-processing methods, and outlines analytical methods for their characterization.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19768, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950547

RESUMO

Background and aim For years, interferon-based treatment has been offered to patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; however, the complexity of the treatment, efficacy, and adverse effects were the primary concerns. All these concerns were addressed with the introduction of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) to treat chronic HCV. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir are second-generation DAAs used in combination for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. The aim of our study was to determine and compare the efficacy and safety profile of the sofosbuvir and velpatasvir combination in treating patients with chronic hepatitis C with or without cirrhosis. Materials and methods This descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from March 15th to September 15th, 2021 after approval from the Institution Research and Ethical Review Board (IREB). Diagnosis of HCV was based on the detection of hepatitis C ribonucleic acid (RNA) fragments by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Liver status was assessed with liver function tests and imaging. Sofosbuvir (400 mg) and velpatasvir (100 mg) were administered once daily for 12 weeks, followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HCV RNA after 12 weeks of completion of treatment for determination of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Patients with cirrhosis also received weight-based ribavirin. Adverse events experienced by the study participants during the course of treatment were recorded. Data were collected regarding patients' demographics, laboratory parameters, SVR12, and adverse events, and were then analyzed using SPSS, version 22 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY). Results A total of 58 patients with cirrhosis and 58 patients without cirrhosis with chronic HCV were enrolled. The rate of SVR12 in patients with cirrhosis was 89.7% (52 patients achieved SVR12), compared to 98.3% in patients without cirrhosis (57 patients achieved SVR12). Subgroup analysis of patients with cirrhosis revealed that patients who have failed to achieve SVR12 were mostly males, had prolonged disease duration, and low hemoglobin at baseline; however, the association of these factors with SVR12 was not significant. The incidence of adverse events among all study participants was 46.5%. Among the cirrhotic cohort, 37 (63.8%) patients experienced adverse events, while only 17 (29.3%) patients among the non-cirrhotic cohort had adverse events. A total of 24 patients with cirrhosis (41.37%) reported mild complaints. The most commonly reported adverse event was gastrointestinal (GI) upsets (46.2%), followed by fatigue (33.9%), while 19.9% developed miscellaneous adverse events such as headaches, rash, and insomnia. Conclusion The combination of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir is highly effective and safe in patients with HCV with or without cirrhosis. However, this combination's efficacy was slightly higher in non-cirrhotic patients (98.3%) than in cirrhotic patients (89.7%).

14.
Polim Med ; 51(2): 69-75, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial pathogens, mainly bacteria, are a major cause of food spoilage resulting in several foodborne diseases. Food spoilage can be prevented by the application of chemical preservatives in the food industry but such process has harmful effects on human health and causes the introduction of chemicals in several food chains, leading to toxicity and long-term complications. Due to such adverse effects, the need to find natural preservatives that are safer to use, effective and less complicated is increasing. OBJECTIVES: This study is based on plant extracts that play a major role in microbicidal action (the use of natural preservatives is preferred over chemical ones). Antimicrobial action of different plant extracts was assessed using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as experimental bacterial strains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ethanolic extracts of different plants like Punica granatum, Acacia catechu and Phyllanthus emblica were highly effective against the both analyzed bacterial strains at a dosage of 10 mg/mL, while the extracts of Ocimum bacilicum and Quercus infectoria were effective only against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. RESULTS: Punica granatum and Phyllanthus emblica extracts were found to be the most effective and exhibited bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against the highly infectious strains of pathogenic bacteria causing food spoilage, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 5 mg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The plant extracts used in the study were highly effective in reducing bacterial contamination and can be used as an alternative to chemical preservatives to avoid and control foodborne diseases and for preservation of food with no health-related hazards caused by chemicals.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Gels ; 7(4)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842674

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have been used since ancient times for their various therapeutic activities and are safer compared to modern medicines, especially when properly identifying and preparing them and choosing an adequate dose administration. The phytochemical compounds present in plants are progressively yielding evidence in modern drug delivery systems by treating various diseases like cancers, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, inflammation, microbial, viral and parasitic infections, psychotic diseases, spasmodic conditions, ulcers, etc. The phytochemical requires a rational approach to deliver the compounds to enhance the efficacy and to improve patients' compatibility. Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the most promising strategies in disease control. Nano-formulations could target certain parts of the body and control drug release. Different studies report that phytochemical-loaded nano-formulations have been tested successfully both in vitro and in vivo for healing of skin wounds. The use of nano systems as drug carriers may reduce the toxicity and enhance the bioavailability of the incorporated drug. In this review, we focus on various nano-phytomedicines that have been used in treating skin burn wounds, and how both nanotechnology and phytochemicals are effective for treating skin burns.

16.
iScience ; 24(11): 103348, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816102

RESUMO

The apoptosis inducing receptor CD95/Fas has multiple tumorigenic activities. In different genetically engineered mouse models tumor-expressed CD95 was shown to be critical for cell growth. Using a combination of immune-deficient and immune-competent mouse models, we now establish that loss of CD95 in metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells prevents tumor growth by modulating the immune landscape. CD95-deficient, but not wild-type, tumors barely grow in an immune-competent environment and show an increase in immune infiltrates into the tumor. This growth reduction is caused by infiltrating NK cells and does not involve T cells or macrophages. In contrast, in immune compromised mice CD95 k.o. cells are not growth inhibited, but they fail to form metastases. In summary, we demonstrate that in addition to its tumor and metastasis promoting activities, CD95 expression by tumor cells can exert immune suppressive activities on NK cells, providing a new target for immune therapy.

17.
3 Biotech ; 11(11): 456, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631355

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize karanjin-loaded ethosomes-based gel formulation for enhanced topical delivery and effective therapy of skin acne. Karanjin-loaded ethosomes (K-ETH) presented a nanometric size of 140.87 ± 2.35 nm, entrapment of 71.41 ± 2.74% and enhanced permeation with 1.9 times increase in the flux and 2.4 times higher skin deposition compared to the hydro-ethanolic solution of karanjin. The DSC analysis confirmed successful entrapment of the karanjin within the ethosomes. The developed ethosomes were incorporated in the carbopol gel for adequate application on the skin surface. The ethosomal gel (K-EGF) also exhibited greater penetration in the rat skin as revealed by CLSM. The optimized K-EGF formulation was non-irritant to the skin as evident by Draize score test and histopathological examination. The highest zone of inhibition, 30.0 ± 1.52 mm and 36.22 ± 0.57 mm was produced by the K-EGF against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively, indicating substantial antibacterial properties of the K-EGF. DPPH assay indicated its potent antioxidant effects. Substantial anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw were evident with inhibition of rat paw edema by 66.66% and 70.37% upon application of K-EGF and standard anti-inflammatory agent, respectively. Anti-acne effects were also evident with K-EGF treatment with significant decrease in number and size of sebaceous gland units in dermis. Overall, the above findings vouch for a therapeutic opportunity to improve topical delivery of karanjin in acne treatment employing ethosomal gels as the promising carrier system. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02978-3.

18.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 71: 102898, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659743

RESUMO

This systematic review summarizes the evidence on patients diagnosed with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) secondary to COVID-19. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar from its inception till June 2021. From an initial 55 publications, 10 studies provided specific information on COVID-19 patients with CRVO. Studies described 10 patients, 60% were male and the mean age was 39.3 ±â€¯11.6 years. Blurred vision (40%) and decreased vision (50%) were the most common presenting complain. Symptom onset ranged from 5 days to 6 weeks after initial complaint of fever. Laboratory results showed elevated inflammatory markers and D-dimers in 60% of patients included in our review. Common treatment options were intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, steroids, and anticoagulants. Traditional co-morbidities like diabetes mellites, hypertension, and morbid obesity (hyperlipidemia) were observed in only 3/10 patients. The prognosis was excellent as all patients saw improvement in their condition. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying CRVO as an important complication of COVID-19 infection. Thus, physicians should not overlook the likelihood of CRVO in patients with COVID-19 infection and offer prompt treatment.

19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14828, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the awareness of osteoporosis and related risk factors in elderly Asian patients who present with distal radius fractures. The distal radius fracture is one of the most frequent fractures in the elderly cohort, owing to osteoporosis, and maybe a harbinger for further fractures, however, data is scarce regarding awareness of this condition among these patients. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients aged 45 and above that presented in the emergency department with low-energy distal radial fractures in Karachi from January-December 2018. Data were collected via a self-designed questionnaire, assessing the demographic information, knowledge about osteoporosis and its risk factors. The data was analysed using SPSS 20 for statistical significance. RESULTS: From a total of 550 patients with a mean age of 70.5 ± 32.82 years, there were 442 (80.36%) females and 108 (19.63%) males. On educational consideration, 243 (44.18%) patients could not read or write and only 110 (20%) of the patients received secondary school education. Only 123 (22.36%) were well informed about osteoporosis, the predominant source of information being their physician. There were 427 (77.63%) patients who were unaware of osteoporosis, 16% of which were smokers, 26% indicated they exercised at least 30 minutes daily, and 2% reported drinking alcohol occasionally. On dietary supplements, 24.27% of patients reported calcium and 17.81% reported vitamin D supplement consumption on regular basis. CONCLUSION: We found a positive correlation between a patient's education status and osteoporosis awareness We believe that the role of the physician could be crucial in preventing further fractures in such patients via physician lead educational campaigns to target modifiable risk factors.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Fraturas do Rádio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fraturas do Rádio/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Skin is the largest organ of the human body protecting the underlying organs and tissues from any foreign attack. Any damage caused in the skin may sometimes result in serious consequences within the internal body tissues. Burn is one such issue that damage the layers of skin and thereby makingthe skin vulnerableand pronefor any foreign matter to enter and cause serious diseases. METHODS: An online literature assessment was steered for the lipid nanoparticles, burn wound treatments, and different types of nanoformulation. Appropriate information was taken from different electronic scientific databases such as Web of Science, Elsevier, Science Direct, Springer, PubMed, Google Scholar etc.,Additional data was summarized from textbooks, local prints and scripts. RESULTS: Recent innovations and developments in nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems has shown promising results in minimizing the drawbacks associated with conventional therapies. Lipid based nanoparticles possess capabilities to deliver active agents to their target site without the possibility of degradation. Conventional therapy of burn wound is costly and the treatment is long lasting, making the patient uncomfortable. Moreover, italso doesn't yield satisfactory results or narrow effects.Encapsulation of bioactives inside the lipid core protects the active entity from pH and enzymatic degradations. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the drawbacks associated with the conventional dosage forms. A lot of consideration is focused on the advancement of nanomaterials using innovative methods in wound care for treating burn wounds with the faster healing effect.This review article highlights recent developments in lipid based nanoformulations for treatment of burn wound injury.

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