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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11337-11348, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960246

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is widely used in agricultural production as an insecticide and fungicide, which can also lead to tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in poultry. TD is characterized by leg disorders and growth performance retardation, and no targeted drugs have been found to treat TD until now. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the ameliorative effect of traditional Chinese medicine naringin on thiram-induced TD chickens. A total of 180 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 60): control group (standard diet), thiram-induced group (thiram 50 mg/kg from day 3 to day 7), and naringin-treated group (naringin 30 mg/kg from day 8 to day 18). During the 18-day experiment, the growth performance, tibial bone parameters, antioxidant property of liver, serum biochemical changes and clinical symptoms were recorded to evaluate the protective effect of naringin in thiram-induced TD broiler chickens. Additionally, mRNA expressions and protein levels of Ihh and PTHrP genes were determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Administration of naringin showed significant results by alleviating lameness, increased growth performance, recuperated growth plate (GP) width, and improved functions and antioxidant enzyme level of liver in broilers affected by TD. Moreover, naringin treatment restored the development of damaged tibia bone via downregulating Ihh and upregulating PTHrP mRNA and protein expressions. In conclusion, our study determines naringin could be used as an effective medicine to treat TD.

2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110126, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918251

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is a dithiocarbamate pesticide used for crop protection and storage. But, it's widespread utilization is associated with deleterious growth plate cartilage disorder in broilers termed as avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). TD results in non-mineralized and less vascularized proximal tibial growth plate cartilage causing lameness and poor growth performance. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of puerarin against thiram toxicity in TD affected chickens. One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were alienated into three equal groups i.e. control, TD and puerarin (n = 80) and were offered standard feed. Additionally, TD and puerarin groups were offered thiram at 50 mg/kg of feed from 4 to 7 days for TD induction followed by puerarin therapy at 120 mg/kg to puerarin group only from 8 to 18 days for TD treatment. Thiram feeding to TD and puerarin group chickens caused lameness, mortality, and increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and growth plate (GP) size and upregulated HIF-1α expression. Besides, the production parameters, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels and the expressions of TIMP-3 and BCL-2 were decreased (p < 0.05). Puerarin alleviated lameness, enhanced angiogenesis and growth performance and serum and antioxidant enzymes, decreased apoptosis and recuperated GP width by significantly downregulating HIF-1α and upregulating the TIMP-3 and BCL-2 mRNA and protein expressions in puerarin group chickens (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the toxic effects associated with thiram can be mitigated using puerarin.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tiram/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo
3.
Biomolecules ; 9(12)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779199

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) negatively affects broilers all over the world, in which the accretion of the growth plate (GP) develops into tibial proximal metaphysis. Plastrum testudinis extract (PTE) is renowned as a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bone healing agent. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PTE for the treatment of thiram-induced TD chickens. Broilers (day old; n = 300) were raised for 3 days with normal feed. On the 4th day, three groups (n = 100 each) were sorted, namely, the control (normal diet), TD, and PTE groups (normal diet+ thiram 50 mg/kg). On the 7th day, thiram was stopped in the TD and PTE group, and the PTE group received a normal diet and PTE (30 mg/kg/day). Plastrum testudinis extract significantly restored (p < 0.05) the liver antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, serum biochemicals, GP width, and tibia weight as compared to the TD group. The PTE administration significantly increased (p < 0.05) growth performance, vascularization, AKT (serine/threonine-protein kinase), and PI3K expressions and the number of hepatocytes and chondrocytes with intact nuclei were enhanced. In conclusion, PTE has the potential to heal TD lesions and act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug in chickens exposed to thiram via the upregulation of AKT and PI3K expressions.

4.
Microb Pathog ; 136: 103671, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437575

RESUMO

Yaks are an aboriginal breed of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (3000 m), which are highly adaptable to cold and hypoxic environments. It is noticed that hypoxia and hypothermia can induce changes in intestinal microbial structure in animals. Increasing evidences suggested that probiotics supplementation can improve the balance of gut microbiota of animals. However, so far, very few studies have emphasized on the probiotics isolated from yaks in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Therefore, a potential probiotic strain Bacillus velezensis was isolated from yaks. In the present study, a total of 18 Kunming mice (15-18 g) were equally distributed into two groups; control and probiotic treated groups (1 × 109 CFU/day). During the experimental period, all the mice from both groups were given standard normal diet ad libitum. At the end of the experiment, mice were euthanized and the intestines (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum) were removed for high-throughput sequencing. The results demonstrated that Bacillus velezensis supplementation showed beneficial effects on the gut microbiota of mice. Specifically, Bacillus velezensis supplementation increased the population of Lactobacillus and Ruminococcus in the duodenum, and Candidatus Arthromitus in the jejunum. Additionally, Acinetobacter in the duodenum and Helicobacter in the cecum were decreased after feeding Bacillus velezensis. Altogether, these findings suggested that Bacillus velezensis isolated from Tibetan yaks can improve gut microbiota of mice.

5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(9)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443437

RESUMO

Avian tibial dyschondroplasia affects fast growing broiler chickens accounting for almost 30% of leg ailments in broilers. The present project was designed to assess the efficacy of osthole against avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). Two hundred and forty chickens were equally allocated into control, TD and osthole groups (n = 80). The TD and osthole group chickens were challenged with tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram) at 50 mg/kg of feed from 4-7 days, followed by osthole administration at 20 mg/kg orally to the osthole group only from 8-18 days. Thiram feeding resulted in lameness, increased mortality, and decreased production parameters, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels, along with significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and growth plate size. Moreover, the genes and protein expressions of BMP-2 and RUNX-2 were significantly down-regulated in TD affected chickens (p < 0.05). Osthole administration showed promising results by alleviating lameness; increased ALP, SOD, T-AOC, and GSH-Px levels; and decreased the AST, ALT, and MDA levels significantly. It restored the size of the growth plate and significantly up-regulated the BMP-2 and RUNX-2 expressions (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the oxidative stress and growth plate anomalies could be assuaged using osthole.

6.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 112, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yaks living in the high-altitude hypoxic environment of Tibetan plateau (3600 m) have special gut microbes. However, it is still little research on yak probiotics until now. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the growth promoting effect, antioxidant capability, immune effect, and anti-inflammatory ability of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis isolated from Tibetan yaks in mice model. RESULTS: The results showed that the isolated strains supplementation not only improve the growth performance but also increased the length of villus in the small intestine and intestinal digestive enzyme activity. Importantly, we observed that the T-AOC, SOD, and GSH-PX levels were increased and the MDA content was reduced in probiotic-treated mice, which implied that probiotics supplementation can ameliorate the antioxidative activity of mice. The levels of AST and ALT correlated with the hepatic injury were reduced and the levels of AKP, TP, GLB, ALB, Ca, and P were markedly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mice treated with probiotics exhibited higher serum IgG, IgM and IgA, which can reflect the immune status to some extent. At the same time, the major pro-inflammatory factor TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were down-regulated and the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was up-regulated compared with the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis supplementation can increase overall growth performance and ameliorate the blood parameters related to inflammation and immunity of mice.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16210-16219, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972680

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is most the common tibiotarsal bone disease in rapidly growing birds throughout the world. There is accumulating evidence that COX-2 abnormal expression in tibia plays an important role in TD progression. So, the regulation of COX-2 is an ever more appealing target for therapeutic intervention in TD. Astragaloside IV has an indispensable role in maintaining COX-2 expression in many diseases. So, we designed this study to use Astragaloside IV (AST-IV) against TD-affected chickens. A total of 180 Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided in the control group, TD group, and Astr (AST-IV-treated chickens) group. During the experiment, mortality, feed conversion ratio, physiological changes, biochemical criterion, liver antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression of COX-2 were examined in all the chicken groups at various days. The results showed that AST-IV administration restored the growth performance and tibia lesions and decreased the mortality as compared with TD chickens. The biochemical criterion (ALP, AST, and ALT) of serum and liver antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, and T-AOC) improved after the administration of AST-IV. The COX-2 gene was upregulated significantly (P < 0.05) in TD chickens. Whereas, AST-IV treatment downregulated both gene and protein expression of COX-2 significantly (P < 0.05) in TD-affected chickens. AST-IV recovered tibial dyschondroplasia chickens by increasing the growth performance, ameliorating tibial cartilage damage, and decreasing COX-2 expression. In conclusion, AST-IV can be used to prevent thiram-induced TD in chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Osteocondrodisplasias/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Saponinas/farmacologia , Tiram/toxicidade , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/fisiopatologia
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857375

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a serious threat to the poultry industry. Proanthocyanidins (PCs) demonstrates a broad range of biological, pharmacological, therapeutic, and chemoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of PCs against AFB1-induced histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of broilers. One hundred forty-four one-day old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned into four treatment groups of six replicates (6 birds each replicate) for 28 days. Groups were fed on the following four diets; (1) Basal diet without addition of PCs or AFB1 (Control); (2) basal diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg AFB1 from contaminated corn (AFB1); (3) basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg PCs (PCs); and (4) basal diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg AFB1 + 250 mg/kg PCs (AFB1+ PCs). The present study results showed that antioxidant enzymes activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in AFB1 treated group were (p < 0.05) decreased, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly increased in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, we found that dietary PCs treatment ameliorated AFB1-induced oxidative stress in the BF through inhibiting the accumulation of MDA content and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes activities (T-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and GST). Similarly, PCs markedly enhanced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of antioxidant genes (SOD, CAT, GPx1, and GST) in comparison with AFB1 group. Moreover, histological results showed that PCs alleviated AFB1-induced apoptotic cells in the BF of broilers. In addition, both mRNA and protein expression results manifested that mitochondrial-apoptosis-associated genes (Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, and p53 and cytochrome c) showed up-regulation, while (Bcl-2) showed down-regulation in AFB1 fed group. The supplementation of PCs to AFB1 diet significantly reversed the mRNA and protein expression of these apoptosis-associated genes, as compared to the AFB1 group. Our results demonstrated that PCs ameliorated AFB1-induced oxidative stress by modulating the antioxidant defense system and apoptosis in the BF through mitochondrial pathway in broilers.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Bolsa de Fabricius/metabolismo , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Galinhas , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 168: 205-211, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388538

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is a dithiocarbamate, which is extensively used in agriculture as pesticide and fungicide for treating grains intended for seed purposes and also for storing food grains. One of the most evident and detrimental effect produced by thiram is tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in many avian species, by feeding diets containing thiram, a growth plate cartilage disease. TD is characterized by the lack of blood vessels and impaired vascular invasion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte resulting in the massive cell death. This study investigated the effects of ligustrazine on the treatment and control of thiram induced-TD. A total of 210 chicks were divided into three equal groups (n = 70): control group (received standard diet), TD group (feed on thiram containing diet from day 3-7), and ligustrazine group (feed on thiram containing diet from day 3-7 and after that ligustrazine @ 30 mg/kg from day 8 to day 18). During the experiment, the lameness, production parameters, tibia bone indicators, pathological index changes and integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) expressions were examined. The results reveal that ligustrazine plays an important role in improving angiogenesis and decreasing chondrocytes damage in TD chicks via a new molecule modulating ITGB3. So, the administration of ligustrazine can be an important way to cope with the losses and costs associated with TD in commercial poultry farming and animal welfare issue due to environmental contamination of thiram.


Assuntos
Integrina beta3/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Tiram/toxicidade , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Integrina beta3/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Osteocondrodisplasias/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tíbia/patologia
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