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Front Microbiol ; 12: 737641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659168


Species of genus Shewanella are among the most frequently identified psychrotrophic bacteria. Here, we have studied the cellular properties, growth dynamics, and stress conditions of cold-active Shewanella strain #4, which was previously isolated from Baltic Sea ice. The cells are rod-shaped of ~2µm in length and 0.5µm in diameter, and they grow between 0 and 25°C, with an optimum at 15°C. The bacterium grows at a wide range of conditions, including 0.5-5.5% w/v NaCl (optimum 0.5-2% w/v NaCl), pH 5.5-10 (optimum pH 7.0), and up to 1mM hydrogen peroxide. In keeping with its adaptation to cold habitats, some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), are produced at a higher level at low temperature. The genome is 4,456kb in size and has a GC content of 41.12%. Uniquely, strain #4 possesses genes for sialic acid metabolism and utilizes N-acetyl neuraminic acid as a carbon source. Interestingly, it also encodes for cytochrome c3 genes, which are known to facilitate environmental adaptation, including elevated temperatures and exposure to UV radiation. Phylogenetic analysis based on a consensus sequence of the seven 16S rRNA genes indicated that strain #4 belongs to genus Shewanella, closely associated with Shewanella aestuarii with a ~97% similarity, but with a low DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) level of ~21%. However, average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis defines strain #4 as a separate Shewanella species (ANI score=76). Further phylogenetic analysis based on the 92 most conserved genes places Shewanella strain #4 into a distinct phylogenetic clade with other cold-active marine Shewanella species. Considering the phylogenetic, phenotypic, and molecular characterization, we conclude that Shewanella strain #4 is a novel species and name it Shewanella glacialimarina sp. nov. TZS-4T, where glacialimarina means sea ice. Consequently, S. glacialimarina TZS-4T constitutes a promising model for studying transcriptional and translational regulation of cold-active metabolism.

Front Microbiol ; 11: 1356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636826


We report here the complete genome sequence and characterization of Yersinia bacteriophage vB_YenP_ϕ80-18. ϕ80-18 was isolated in 1991 using a Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 strain 8081 as a host from a sewage sample in Turku, Finland, and based on its morphological and genomic features is classified as a podovirus. The genome is 42 kb in size and has 325 bp direct terminal repeats characteristic for podoviruses. The genome contains 57 predicted genes, all encoded in the forward strand, of which 29 showed no similarity to any known genes. Phage particle proteome analysis identified altogether 24 phage particle-associated proteins (PPAPs) including those identified as structural proteins such as major capsid, scaffolding and tail component proteins. In addition, also the DNA helicase, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, 5'-exonuclease, and the lytic glycosylase proteins were identified as PPAPs, suggesting that they might be injected together with the phage genome into the host cell to facilitate the take-over of the host metabolism. The phage-encoded RNA-polymerase and DNA-primase were not among the PPAPs. Promoter search predicted the presence of four phage and eleven host RNA polymerase -specific promoters in the genome, suggesting that early transcription of the phage is host RNA-polymerase dependent and that the phage RNA polymerase takes over later. The phage tolerates pH values between 2 and 12, and is stable at 50°C but is inactivated at 60°C. It grows slowly with a 50 min latent period and has apparently a low burst size. Electron microscopy revealed that the phage has a head diameter of about 60 nm, and a short tail of 20 nm. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis confirmed that ϕ80-18 belongs to the Autographivirinae subfamily of the Podoviridae family, that it is 93.2% identical to Yersinia phage fHe-Yen3-01. Host range analysis showed that ϕ80-18 can infect in addition to Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 strains also strains of serotypes O:4, O:4,32, O:20 and O:21, the latter ones representing similar to Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8, the American pathogenic biotype 1B strains. In conclusion, the phage ϕ80-18 is a promising candidate for the biocontrol of the American biotype 1B Y. enterocolitica.