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1.
Heliyon ; 10(12): e32688, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975145

RESUMO

The persistence of neuronal degeneration and damage is a major obstacle in ageing medicine. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors detect environmental stressors and trigger the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can cause neuronal damage and accelerate cell death. NLR (NOD-like receptors) inflammasomes are protein complexes that contain NOD-like receptors. Studying the role of NLR inflammasomes in ageing-related neurological disorders can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of neurodegeneration. This includes investigating their activation of inflammasomes, transcription, and capacity to promote or inhibit inflammatory signaling, as well as exploring strategies to regulate NLR inflammasomes levels. This review summarizes the use of NLR inflammasomes in guiding neuronal degeneration and injury during the ageing process, covering several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, and peripheral neuropathies. To improve the quality of life and slow the progression of neurological damage, NLR-based treatment strategies, including inhibitor-related therapies and physical therapy, are presented. Additionally, important connections between age-related neurological disorders and NLR inflammasomes are highlighted to guide future research and facilitate the development of new treatment options.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976781

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are favorable hosting materials for fixing enzymes to construct enzyme@MOF composites and to expand the applications of biocatalysts. However, the rigid structure of MOFs without tunable hollow voids and a confinement effect often limits their catalytic activities. Taking advantage of the smart soft polymers to overcome the limitation, herein, a protection protocol to encapsulate the enzyme in zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was developed using a glutathione-sensitive liposome (L) as a soft template. Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were first anchored on a light- and thermoresponsive porous poly(styrene-maleic anhydride-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-spiropyran) membrane (PSMDSP) to produce PSMDSP@GOx-HRP, which could provide a confinement effect by switching the UV irradiation or varying the temperature. Afterward, embedding PSMDSP@GOx-HRP in L and encapsulating PSMDSP@GOx-HRP@L into hollow ZIF-8 (HZIF-8) to form PSMDSP@GOx-HRP@HZIF-8 composites were performed, which proceeded during the crystallization of the framework following the removal of L by adding glutathione. Impressively, the biocatalytic activity of the composites was 4.45-fold higher than that of the free enzyme under UV irradiation at 47 °C, which could benefit from the confinement effect of PSMDSP and the conformational freedom of the enzyme in HZIF-8. The proposed composites contributed to the protection of the enzyme against harsh conditions and exhibited superior stability. Furthermore, a colorimetric assay based on the composites for the detection of serum glucose was established with a linearity range of 0.05-5.0 mM, and the calculated LOD value was 0.001 mM in a cascade reaction system. This work provides a universal design idea and a versatile technique to immobilize enzymes on soft polymer membranes that can be encapsulated in porous rigid MOF-hosts. It also holds potential for the development of smart polymer@enzyme@HMOFs biocatalysts with a tunable confinement effect and high catalytic performance.

3.
Oncol Lett ; 28(2): 399, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979552

RESUMO

von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is well recognized for being dysregulated in various malignancies and has emerged as a potential biomarker for cancer detection. The present meta-analysis aimed to elucidate the association between plasma VWF and the incidence and metastasis of cancer. For this purpose, a comprehensive search was conducted across multiple databases from their inception until March 3, 2023. This culminated in the selection of 15 original studies on various types of cancer, including a collective sample of 1,403 individuals. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed as statistical parameters to determine the association between plasma VWF and the incidence and metastasis of cancer. These were estimated using a random-effects model. The pooled data revealed that the plasma VWF levels of patients with cancer were significantly elevated compared with those of healthy controls (SMD, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.59-1.36), and a significant association was observed between plasma VWF levels and cancer metastasis (SMD, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.33-1.06). The symmetry of the Begg's funnel plots indicated that no significant bias was present in the analyses of VWF in cancer and its metastasis. In summary, the results of the present meta-analysis support the hypothesis that increased plasma VWF levels may serve as a biomarker for cancer and metastatic progression.

4.
Photoacoustics ; 38: 100618, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957484

RESUMO

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as a novel medical imaging technology, provides structural, functional, and metabolism information of biological tissue in vivo. Sparse Sampling PAT, or SS-PAT, generates images with a smaller number of detectors, yet its image reconstruction is inherently ill-posed. Model-based methods are the state-of-the-art method for SS-PAT image reconstruction, but they require design of complex handcrafted prior. Owing to their ability to derive robust prior from labeled datasets, deep-learning-based methods have achieved great success in solving inverse problems, yet their interpretability is poor. Herein, we propose a novel SS-PAT image reconstruction method based on deep algorithm unrolling (DAU), which integrates the advantages of model-based and deep-learning-based methods. We firstly provide a thorough analysis of DAU for PAT reconstruction. Then, in order to incorporate the structural prior constraint, we propose a nested DAU framework based on plug-and-play Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (PnP-ADMM) to deal with the sparse sampling problem. Experimental results on numerical simulation, in vivo animal imaging, and multispectral un-mixing demonstrate that the proposed DAU image reconstruction framework outperforms state-of-the-art model-based and deep-learning-based methods.

5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902347

RESUMO

Recently, open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) has captured considerable interest; its efficient separation capability hinges on the interactions between analytes and polymer coatings. However, in situ growth of stimuli-responsive polymers as coatings has been rarely studied and is crucial for expanding the OT-CEC technique and its application. Herein, following poly(styrene-maleicanhydride) (PSM) chemically bonded onto the inner surface of the capillary, a dual pH/temperature stimuli-responsive block copolymer, P(SMN-COOH), was prepared by in situ polymerizing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) carboxylic acid terminated [P(N-COOH)] in PSM. An OT-CEC protocol was first explored using the coated capillary for epimedins separation. As a proof of concept, the developed OT-CEC system facilitated hydrogen bonding and tuning the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions between the test analytes and the P(SMN-COOH) coating by varying buffer pH and environmental temperature. Four epimedins with similar chemical structures were baseline separated under 40 °C at pH 10.0, exhibiting dramatical improvement in separation efficiency in comparison to its performance under 25 °C at pH 4.0. In addition, the coated capillary showed good repeatability and reusability with relative standard deviations for migration time and peak area between 0.7 and 1.7% and between 2.9 and 4.6%, respectively, and no significant changes after six runs. This work introduces a paradigm for efficient OT-CEC separation of herbal medicines through adjusting the interactions between analytes and smart polymer coatings, addressing polymer coating design and OT-CEC challenges.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 14(11)2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869551

RESUMO

Magnetic separation of photocatalysts holds great promise for water treatment. A magnetic separation method has a positive effect on the recovery of catalysts after degradation. In this paper, an efficient and reusable catalytic system is developed based on coating magnetic Fe3O4 by depositing Fe2+ on the surface of ZnO. The Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposite exhibits enhanced performance for organic pollutant degradation. The Fe3O4/ZnO system demonstrates a high photocatalytic activity of 100% degradation efficiency in Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation under UV light irradiation for 50 min. The excellent photocatalytic activity is primarily due to the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs being facilitated by the strong interaction between Fe3O4 and ZnO. The induction of the magnetic Fe3O4 endows the Fe3O4/ZnO composite with superior magnetic separation capability from water. Experiments with different radical scavengers revealed that the hydroxyl radical (·OH) is the key reactive radical for the effective degradation of RhB. This work innovatively affords a common interfacial dopant deposition strategy for catalytic application in the degradation of organic dye pollutants and catalyst separation from wastewater efficiently.

7.
Pain Ther ; 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Further clinical validation is required to determine whether transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) can replace opioids and be used in combination with remimazolam for sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: A total of 108 outpatients who underwent diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy were randomly divided into three groups: fentanyl plus remimazolam group (group C), TEAS plus remimazolam group (group E), and placebo-TEAS plus remimazolam group (group P). The assessments of patient satisfaction, physician satisfaction, and pain scale score during the examination constituted the primary endpoints of the study. The secondary endpoints were the time of recovery, recovery of normal behavioral function and discharge, incidence of adverse reactions, and dose of remimazolam. RESULTS: Compared with group C, group E had a greater median score for patient satisfaction at follow-up and a slightly lower median score for physician satisfaction. The pain score of group E was slightly greater than that of group C, but the difference was not significant. However, in group C, the incidence of hypoxemia, the rate of nausea and the severity of vertigo were greater, and the number of patients discharged and resuming normal behavioral function was greater than those in the other two groups. The dose of remimazolam in group C and group E was less than that in group P. CONCLUSIONS: TEAS combined with moderate sedation of remimazolam can provide an ideal sedative effect, which preferably suppresses discomfort caused by gastrointestinal endoscopy and has fewer sedation-related complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ID: NCT05485064; First registration (29/07/2022); Last registration (02/11/2022) (Clinical Trials.gov).

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 333: 118454, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852638

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Minimal persistent inflammation (MPI) is a major contributor to the recurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR). The traditional Chinese herbal medicine known as Bimin Kang Mixture (BMK) have been used in clinics for decades to treat AR, which can relieve AR symptoms, reduce inflammatory response and improve immune function. However, its mechanism in controlling MPI is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to assess the therapeutic effect of BMK on MPI, and elaborate the mechanism involved in BMK intervention in BCL11B regulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) plasticity in the treatment of MPI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of BMK (9.1 ml/kg) and Loratadine (15.15 mg/kg) on MPI was evaluated based on symptoms, pathological staining, and ELISA assays. RT-qPCR and flow cytometry were also employed to assess the expression of BCL11B, IL-12/IL-12Rß2, and IL-18/IL-18Rα signaling pathways associated with ILC2 plasticity in the airway tissues of MPI mice following BMK intervention. RESULTS: BMK restored the airway epithelial barrier, and markedly reduced inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils) infiltration (P < 0.01) and goblet cells hyperplasia (P < 0.05). BCL11B expression positively correlated with the ILC2 proportion in the lungs and nasal mucosa of AR and MPI mice (P < 0.01). BMK downregulated BCL11B expression (P < 0.05) and reduced the proportion of ILC2, ILC3 and ILC3-like ILC2 subsets (P < 0.05). Moreover, BMK promoted the conversion of ILC2 into an ILC1-like phenotype through IL-12/IL-12Rß2 and IL-18/IL-18Rα signaling pathways in MPI mice. CONCLUSION: By downregulating BCL11B expression, BMK regulates ILC2 plasticity and decreases the proportion of ILC2, ILC3, and ILC3-like ILC2 subsets, promoting the conversion of ILC2 to ILC1, thus restoring balance of ILC subsets in airway tissues and control MPI.

9.
Int J Oncol ; 65(1)2024 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847236

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH)­degrading enzymes are essential for starting the first stages of GSH degradation. These enzymes include extracellular γ­glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and intracellular GSH­specific γ­glutamylcyclotransferase 1 (ChaC1) and 2. These enzymes are essential for cellular activities, such as immune response, differentiation, proliferation, homeostasis regulation and programmed cell death. Tumor tissue frequently exhibits abnormal expression of GSH­degrading enzymes, which has a key impact on the development and spread of malignancies. The present review summarizes gene and protein structure, catalytic activity and regulation of GSH­degrading enzymes, their vital roles in tumor development (including regulation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, control of programmed cell death, promotion of inflammation and tumorigenesis and modulation of drug resistance in tumor cells) and potential role as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Neoplasias , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase , gama-Glutamiltransferase , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/metabolismo , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Animais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2363076, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847280

RESUMO

To optimize seasonal influenza control and prevention programs in regions with potentially complicated seasonal patterns. Descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze the etiology of influenza, and chi-square tests were used to compare the epidemic patterns among different influenza virus types and subtypes/lineages. From January 2010 to December 2019, a total of 63,626 ILI cases were reported in Chongqing and 14,136 (22.22%) were laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. The proportions of specimens positive for influenza A and influenza B were 13.32% (8,478/63,626) and 8.86% (5,639/63,626), respectively. The proportion of positive specimens for influenza A reached the highest in winter (23.33%), while the proportion of positive specimens for influenza B reached the highest in spring (11.88%). Children aged 5-14 years old had the highest proportion of positive specimens for influenza. The influenza virus types/subtypes positive was significantly different by seasons and age groups (P<.001), but not by gender (p = .436). The vaccine strains were matched to the circulating influenza virus strains in all other years except for 2018 (vaccine strain was B/Colorado/06/2017; circulating strain was B/Yamagata). The study showed significant variations in epidemic patterns, including seasonal epidemic period and age distributions, among different influenza types, subtypes/lineages in Chongqing. Influenza vaccines matched to the circulating influenza virus strain in nine of the ten years. To prevent and mitigate the influenza outbreaks in this area, high risk population, especially children aged 5-14 years, are encouraged to get vaccinated against influenza before the epidemic seasons.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B , Influenza Humana , Estações do Ano , Humanos , Criança , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Vírus da Influenza B/classificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Lactente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Epidemias , Recém-Nascido
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 474: 134805, 2024 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843632

RESUMO

Recognizing the extent of perchlorate pollution in the environment is critical to preventing and mitigating potential perchlorate harm to human health. The presence and distribution of perchlorate in Chinese environmental matrixes (water, atmosphere, and soil) were systematically investigated and comprehensively analyzed, and cumulative perchlorate exposure at the regional level was assessed using a combined aggregate exposure pathway method. The results showed that perchlorate is ubiquitous in the environment of China with significant regional differences. The total perchlorate exposure levels in each region of China ranked as South China > Southwest China > East China > North China > Northeast China > Northwest China. Although the average exposure dose of 0.588 (95 %CI: 0.142 -1.914) µg/kg bw/day being lower than the reference dose of 0.70 µg/kg bw/day, it was observed that the intake of perchlorate in some regions exceed this reference dose. Oral ingestion was the primary route of perchlorate exposure (89.97-96.57 % of the total intake), followed by dermal contact (3.21-9.16 %) and respiratory inhalation. Food and drinking water were the main sources of total perchlorate intake, contributing 52.54 % and 31.12 % respectively, with the latter contributing significantly more in southern China than in northern China. In addition, perchlorate exposure from dust sources was also noteworthy, as its contribution was as high as 23.18 % in some regions. These findings will improve understanding of the perchlorate risk and serve as a critical reference for policymakers in crafting improved environmental management and risk mitigation strategies in China and other nations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Percloratos , Percloratos/análise , Percloratos/toxicidade , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química
12.
J Biophotonics ; 17(7): e202400128, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863275

RESUMO

In photoacoustic tomography (PAT), acoustic inversion aims to recover the spatial distribution of light energy deposition within the imaging object from the signals captured by detectors. To achieve quantitative imaging, optical inversion is further employed to derive absorption coefficient (AC) images. However, limitations such as restricted detection angles and inherent noise lead to substantial artifacts and degradation in the quality of PAT images, consequently affecting the accuracy of optical inversion results. In this study, we propose a directional total variation constrained optical inversion model to reconstruct the AC image. By incorporating anatomy prior information into the optical inversion process, our method can effectively suppress artifacts in AC images while maintaining structural integrity. Simulation, phantom, and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that our method significantly improves the reconstructed AC image quality. Our method provides a reliable foundation for achieving high-quality quantitative PAT imaging.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagens de Fantasmas , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Tomografia , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Camundongos
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 333: 118347, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801914

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Shenlian formula (SL) is a Chinese medicine formula used to curb the development of atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. However, owing to the complexity of compounds and their related multiple targets in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it remains difficult and urgent to elucidate the underlying mechanisms at a holistic level. AIM: To investigate the intrinsic mechanisms by which SL suppresses AS progression and to gain new insight into its clinical use. METHODS: We proposed a network pharmacology-based workflow to evaluate the mechanism by which SL affects AS via data analysis, target prediction, PPI network construction, GO and KEGG analyses, and a "drug-core ingredient-potential target-key pathway" network. Then, non-targeted lipidomic analysis was performed to explore the differential lipid metabolites in AS rats, revealing the possible mechanism by which SL affects atherosclerotic progression. Moreover, an AS rabbit model was constructed and gavaged for SL intervention. Serum lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokine indices were tested as an indication of the mitigating effect of SL on AS. RESULTS: A total of 89 bioactive compounds and 298 targets related to SL and AS, which play essential roles in this process, were identified, and a component-target-disease network was constructed. GO and KEGG analyses revealed that SL regulated metabolic pathway, lipids and atherosclerosis, the PI3K-Akt pathway, the MAPK pathway and so on. In vivo experimental validation revealed that a total of 43 different lipid metabolites regulated by SL were identified by non-targeted lipidomics, and glycerophospholipid metabolism was found to be an important mechanism for SL to interfere with AS. SL reduced the plaque area and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-4) and blood lipids (TC, TG, LDL-C, and ApoB) in HFD-induced AS models. In addition, HDL and ApoA1 levels are increased. PLA2 and Lipin1 are highly expressed in AS model, indicating their role in destabilizing glycerophosphatidylcholine metabolism and contributing to the onset and progression of ankylosing spondylitis. Moreover, SL intervention significantly reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines; significantly down-regulated NF-kB/p65 expression, exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity. CONCLUSION: The Shenlian formula (SL) plays a pivotal role in the suppression of AS progression by targeting multiple pathways and mechanisms. This study provides novel insights into the essential genes and pathways associated with the prognosis and pathogenesis of AS.

14.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732446

RESUMO

SCARECROW-LIKE6 (SCL6) plays a role in the formation and maintenance of the meristem. In Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr., an important afforestation tree species in China, SCL6 (LaSCL6) has two alternative splicing variants-LaSCL6-var1 and LaSCL6-var2-which are regulated by microRNA171. However, their roles are still unclear. In this study, LaSCL6-var1 and LaSCL6-var2 were transformed into the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. genome, and the phenotypic characteristics of transgenic A. thaliana, including the germination percentage, root length, bolting time, flower and silique formation times, inflorescence axis length, and branch and silique numbers, were analyzed to reveal their functions. It was found that LaSCL6-var1 and LaSCL6-var2 overexpression shortened the root length by 41% and 31%, respectively, and increased the inflorescence axis length. Compared with the wild type, the bolting time in transgenic plants was delayed by approximately 2-3 days, the first flower and silique formation times were delayed by approximately 3-4 days, and the last flower and silique formation times were delayed by about 5 days. Overall, the life cycle in transgenic plants was prolonged by approximately 5 days. These results show that LaSCL6 overexpression inhibited the transitions from the vegetative meristem to inflorescence meristem and from the flower meristem to meristem arrest in A. thaliana, revealing the roles of LaSCL6-var1 and LaSCL6-var2 in the fate transition and maintenance of the meristem.

15.
J Mater Chem B ; 12(16): 3996-4003, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563677

RESUMO

Encapsulation of enzymes within porous materials has shown great promise for protecting enzymes from denaturation, increasing their tolerance to harsh environments and promoting their industrialization. However, controlling the conformational freedom of the encapsulated enzymes to enhance their catalytic performance remains a great challenge. To address this issue, herein, following immobilization of GOx and HRP on a thermo-responsive porous poly(styrene-maleic-anhydride-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PSMN) membrane, a GOx-HRP@PSMN@HZIF-8 composite was fabricated by encapsulating GOx-HRP@PSMN in hollow ZIF-8 (HZIF-8) with liposome (L) as the sacrificial template. The improved conformational freedom for enzymes arising from the hollow cavity formed in ZIF-8 through the removal of L enhanced the mass transfer and dramatically promoted the catalytic activity of the composite. Interestingly, at high temperature, the coiled PN moiety in PSMN provided the confinement effect for GOx-HRP, which also significantly boosted the catalytic performance of the composites. Compared to the maximum catalytic reaction rates (Vmax) of GOx-HRP@PSMN@LZIF-8, the free enzyme and GOx-HRP@ZIF-8, the Vmax of the GOx-HRP@PSMN@HZIF-8 composite exhibited an impressive 17.8-fold, 10.8-fold and 6.0-fold enhancement at 37 °C, respectively. The proposed composites successfully demonstrated their potential as catalytic platforms for the colorimetric detection of glucose in a cascade reaction. This study paves a new way for overcoming the current limitations of immobilizing enzymes in porous materials and the use of smart polymers for the potential fabrication of enzyme@polymer@MOF composites with tunable conformational freedom and confinement effect.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas , Glucose Oxidase , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/química , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Porosidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Catálise , Biocatálise , Poliestirenos/química
16.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640054

RESUMO

This paper presents a novel method based on leveraging physics-informed neural networks for magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT). MREPT is a noninvasive technique that can retrieve the spatial distribution of electrical properties (EPs) of scanned tissues from measured transmit radiofrequency (RF) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. The reconstruction of EP values in MREPT is achieved by solving a partial differential equation derived from Maxwell's equations that lacks a direct solution. Most conventional MREPT methods suffer from artifacts caused by the invalidation of the assumption applied for simplification of the problem and numerical errors caused by numerical differentiation. Existing deep learning-based (DL-based) MREPT methods comprise data-driven methods that need to collect massive datasets for training or model-driven methods that are only validated in trivial cases. Hence we proposed a model-driven method that learns mapping from a measured RF, its spatial gradient and Laplacian to EPs using fully connected networks (FCNNs). The spatial gradient of EP can be computed through the automatic differentiation of FCNNs and the chain rule. FCNNs are optimized using the residual of the central physical equation of convection-reaction MREPT as the loss function (L). To alleviate the ill condition of the problem, we added multiconstraints, including the similarity constraint between permittivity and conductivity and the ℓ1 norm of spatial gradients of permittivity and conductivity, to the L. We demonstrate the proposed method with a three-dimensional realistic head model, a digital phantom simulation, and a practical phantom experiment at a 9.4T animal MRI system.

17.
Infect Med (Beijing) ; 3(1): 100096, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586545

RESUMO

Background: Mpox re-emerged worldwide with the multi-country outbreaks that occurred in May 2022, threatening the public health of human beings. Methods: This rapid systematic review summarized mpox reinfection cases documented. Electronic databases (PubMed, MedRxiv, and Social Science Research Network) were searched without time limitation, using the keywords "mpox," "monkeypox," & "reinfection," "reoccur," "reoccurrence," "episode," and "relapse". All laboratory-confirmed cases of mpox reinfection published in the literature were included in this study. Results: A total of seven publications (nine cases) from Africa, Europe, and South America were included. All mpox reinfection cases were male, with a median age of 36; 88.89% of cases had unprotected sexual behaviors with other males before each illness episode. The average onset interval between the two episodes was about 4 months. Perianal lesions and lymphadenopathy were major symptoms in both episodes, and no differences in clinical severity were reported between the two episodes. The mean duration of the two episodes was approximately 22 days and 13 days, respectively; which the mean duration of the second episode was shorter than the first infection (t = 2.17, p = 0.0487). Sexually transmitted infections were commonly concurrent among most cases, accounting for 55.6% and 77.8% in the two episodes, respectively. Full vaccination against mpox was rare among reinfection cases. Conclusion: A second infection is possible even in a short period. Reinforcing monitoring, reducing high-risk behaviors, and heightening health education regarding mpox for high-risk populations are crucial to limit mpox spread, including persons with a history of mpox infection.

18.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 286, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439030

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Ampullary adenocarcinoma (AMPAC) is a rare malignancy, treated as pancreatic or intestinal cancer based on its histologic subtype. Little is known about the genomic features of Chinese patients with AMPAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 145 Chinese AMPAC patients in our local cohort and performed a compressive somatic and germline genetic testing using a 156 gene panel. Expression of PD-L1 (clone 28 - 8) was also assessed in tumor specimens from 64 patients. RESULTS: The frequency of genetic alterations (GAs) in Chinese patients with AMPAC was found to be distinctive, with TP53, KRAS, SMAD4, APC, CTNNB1, ARID1A, and CDKN2A emerged as the most frequently mutated genes. Comparing with Western patients, significant differences were observed in the prevalence of PIK3CA and ARID2. Furthermore, the incidence of MSI-H was lower in the Chinese cohort, with only two patients identified as MSI-H. Conversely, 11 patients (8.27%) had pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline alterations, all of which were in the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. In our cohort, 34.48% (22/64) of patients exhibited positive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells, and this expression was associated with GAs in CTNNB1 and BLM. Importantly, over three-fourths of Chinese AMPAC patients in our study had at least one actionable GA, with more than one-fifth of them having actionable GAs classified as Level 3. These actionable GAs were primarily involved in the DDR and PI3K pathways. Notably, GAs in the DDR pathway were detected in both Chinese and Western patients, and regardless of their functional impact, these alterations demonstrated enhanced overall survival rates and higher tumor mutational burden (TMB) levels. CONCLUSION: These findings underscore the distinct genomic landscape of Chinese AMPAC patients and highlight the potential for targeted therapies based on the identified GAs.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco , Neoplasias Duodenais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Genômica , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , China/epidemiologia
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(1): 49-54, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511439

RESUMO

To reveal the key factors influencing vegetation productivity in sandy lands, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of vegetation productivity on regional scale, pixel scale, and plot scale of the sandy lands in northwes-tern Liaoning Province, based on soil physicochemical data, topographical data, climate data, and the intrinsic characteristics of vegetation. On the regional scale, we established a random forest model to explore the impact of topographical factors, climate factors, and vegetation characteristics on vegetation productivity. On the pixel scale, we performed a correlation analysis between vegetation cover and climate factors. On the plot scale, we combined the physicochemical properties of 234 soil samples with topographical factors and vegetation characteristics, and utilized the random forest model to calculate the importance values of each factor. The results showed that soil nutrients could explain 24.8% of the spatial variation in net primary productivity when other factors were excluded. When introducing topographical factors into the model, the model could explain 40% variation of net primary productivity. When further incorporating fractional vegetation coverage and leaf area index into the model, the model could explain 72.8% variation of net primary productivity. Our findings suggested that fractional vegetation coverage and leaf area index were the most influential factors affecting vegetation productivity in this area. Topographical factors ranked second, followed by climate factors, which had a relatively small impact.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Areia , Clima , Solo/química , China , Mudança Climática
20.
Photoacoustics ; 37: 100601, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516295

RESUMO

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a promising imaging technique that can visualize the distribution of chromophores within biological tissue. However, the accuracy of PAT imaging is compromised by light fluence (LF), which hinders the quantification of light absorbers. Currently, model-based iterative methods are used for LF correction, but they require extensive computational resources due to repeated LF estimation based on differential light transport models. To improve LF correction efficiency, we propose to use Fourier neural operator (FNO), a neural network specially designed for estimating partial differential equations, to learn the forward projection of light transport in PAT. Trained using paired finite-element-based LF simulation data, our FNO model replaces the traditional computational heavy LF estimator during iterative correction, such that the correction procedure is considerably accelerated. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves comparable LF correction quality to traditional iterative methods while reducing the correction time by over 30 times.

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