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1.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568547

RESUMO

Materials with flat bands are considered as ideal platforms to explore strongly correlated physics such as the fractional quantum hall effect, high-temperature superconductivity, and more. In theory, a Kagome lattice with only nearest-neighbor hopping can give rise to a flat band. However, the successful fabrication of Kagome lattices is still very limited. Here, we provide a new design principle to construct the Kagome lattice by trapping atoms into Kagome arrays of potential valleys, which can be realized on a potassium-decorated phosphorus-gold surface alloy. Theoretical calculations show that the flat band is less correlated with the neighboring trivial electronic bands, which can be further isolated and dominate around the Fermi energy with increased Kagome lattice parameters of potassium atoms. Our results provide a new strategy for constructing Kagome lattices, which serve as an ideal platform to study topological and more general flat band phenomena.

2.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483243

RESUMO

To avoid crosstalk and suppress leakage currents in resistive random access memories (RRAMs), a resistive switch and a current rectifier (diode) are usually combined in series in a one diode-one resistor (1D-1R) RRAM. However, this complicates the design of next-generation RRAM, increases the footprint of devices and increases the operating voltage as the potential drops over two consecutive junctions1. Here, we report a molecular tunnel junction based on molecules that provide an unprecedented dual functionality of diode and variable resistor, resulting in a molecular-scale 1D-1R RRAM with a current rectification ratio of 2.5 × 104 and resistive on/off ratio of 6.7 × 103, and a low drive voltage of 0.89 V. The switching relies on dimerization of redox units, resulting in hybridization of molecular orbitals accompanied by directional ion migration. This electric-field-driven molecular switch operating in the tunnelling regime enables a class of molecular devices where multiple electronic functions are preprogrammed inside a single molecular layer with a thickness of only 2 nm.

3.
Nanoscale ; 11(48): 23217-23225, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782464

RESUMO

This work reports a fundamental study on the relationship of the electronic structure, catalytic activity and surface reconstruction process of Fe doped NiS2 (FexNi1-xS2) for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). A combined photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopic study reveals that Fe doping introduces more occupied Fe 3d6 states at the top of the valence band and thereby induces a metallic phase. Meanwhile, Fe doping also significantly increases the OER activity and results in much better stability with the optimum found for Fe0.1Ni0.9S2. More importantly, we performed detailed characterization to track the evolution of the structure and composition of the catalysts after different cycles of OER testing. Our results further confirmed that the catalysts gradually transform into amorphous (oxy)hydroxides which are the actual active species for the OER. However, a fast phase transformation in NiS2 is accompanied by a decrease of OER activity, because of the formation of a thick insulating NiOOH layer limiting electron transfer. On the other hand, Fe doping retards the process of transformation, because of a shorter Fe-S bond length (2.259 Å) than Ni-S (2.400 Å), explaining the better electrochemical stability of Fe0.1Ni0.9S2. These results suggest that the formation of a thin surface layer of NiFe (oxy)hydroxide as an active OER catalyst and the remaining Fe0.1Ni0.9S2 as a conductive core for fast electron transfer is the base for the high OER activity of FexNi1-xS2. Our work provides important insight and design principle for metal chalcogenides as highly active OER catalysts.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(46): 43789-43795, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657202

RESUMO

Being a metallic transition-metal dichalcogenide, monolayer vanadium diselenide (VSe2) exhibits many novel properties, such as charge density waves and magnetism. Its interfaces with other materials can potentially be used in device applications as well as for manipulating its intrinsic properties. Here, we present a scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission spectroscopy study of the surface charge-transfer doping using efficient electron-withdrawing and electron-donating materials, that is, molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) and potassium (K), on the molecular beam epitaxy-grown monolayer VSe2 on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). We demonstrate that monolayer VSe2 is immune to MoO3- and K-doping effects. However, at the monolayer edges where the local chemical reactivity is higher because of Se deficiency, MoO3 is seen to react with VSe2 to form molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) and vanadium dioxide (VO2). Compared to the obvious charge-transfer doping effects of MoO3 and K on HOPG, the electronic structure of monolayer VSe2 is barely perturbed. This is attributed to the large density of states at the Fermi level of monolayer VSe2 carrying the metallic character. This work provides new insights into the chemical and electronic properties of monolayer VSe2, important for future VSe2-based electronic device design.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(51): 18591-18597, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608578

RESUMO

The ability to use mechanical strain to steer chemical reactions creates completely new opportunities for solution- and solid-phase synthesis of functional molecules and materials. However, this strategy is not readily applied in the bottom-up on-surface synthesis of well-defined nanostructures. We report an internal strain-induced skeletal rearrangement of one-dimensional (1D) metal-organic chains (MOCs) via a concurrent atom shift and bond cleavage on Cu(111) at room temperature. The process involves Cu-catalyzed debromination of organic monomers to generate 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene diradicals that coordinate to Cu adatoms, forming MOCs with both homochiral and heterochiral naphthalene backbone arrangements. Bond-resolved non-contact atomic force microscopy imaging combined with density functional theory calculations showed that the relief of substrate-induced internal strain drives the skeletal rearrangement of MOCs via 1,3-H shifts and shift of Cu adatoms that enable migration of the monomer backbone toward an energetically favorable registry with the Cu(111) substrate. Our findings on this strain-induced structural rearrangement in 1D systems will enrich the toolbox for on-surface synthesis of novel functional materials and quantum nanostructures.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaaw7286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453328

RESUMO

While benefiting greatly from electronics, our society also faces a major problem of electronic waste, which has already caused environmental pollution and adverse human health effects. Therefore, recyclability becomes a must-have feature in future electronics. Here, we demonstrate an erasable and recreatable two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), which can be easily created and patterned by depositing a water-dissolvable overlayer of amorphous Sr3Al2O6 (a-SAO) on SrTiO3 (STO) at room temperature. The 2DEG can be repeatedly erased or recreated by depositing the a-SAO or dissolving in water, respectively. Photoluminescence results show that the 2DEG arises from the a-SAO-induced oxygen vacancy. Furthermore, by gradually depleting the 2DEG, a transition of nonlinear to linear Hall effect is observed, demonstrating an unexpected interfacial band structure. The convenience and repeatability in the creation of the water-dissolvable 2DEG with rich physics could potentially contribute to the exploration of next generation electronics, such as environment-friendly or water-soluble electronics.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(8): 5340-5346, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274321

RESUMO

Practical applications of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) are limited by its fast degradation under ambient conditions, for which many different mechanisms have been proposed; however, an atomic level understanding of the degradation process is still hindered by the absence of bottom-up methods for the growth of large-scale few-layer black phosphorus. Recent experimental success in the fabrication of single-layer blue phosphorus provides a model system to probe the oxidation mechanism of two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene down to single-layer thicknesses. Here, we report an atomic-scale investigation of the interaction between molecular oxygen and blue phosphorus. The atomic structure of blue phosphorus and the local binding sites of oxygen have been precisely identified using qPlus-based noncontact atomic force microscopy. A combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal a thermally reversible oxidation process of blue phosphorus in a pure oxygen atmosphere. Our study clearly demonstrates the essential role of oxygen in the initial oxidation process, and it sheds further light on the fundamental pathways of the degradation mechanism.

8.
Adv Mater ; 31(30): e1901644, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169936

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskites represent a family of the most promising materials for fascinating photovoltaic and photodetector applications due to their unique optoelectronic properties and much needed simple and low-cost fabrication process. The high atomic number (Z) of their constituents and significantly higher carrier mobility also make perovskite semiconductors suitable for the detection of ionizing radiation. By taking advantage of that, the direct detection of soft-X-ray-induced photocurrent is demonstrated in both rigid and flexible detectors based on all-inorganic halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) synthesized via a solution process. Utilizing a synchrotron soft-X-ray beamline, high sensitivities of up to 1450 µC Gyair -1 cm-2 are achieved under an X-ray dose rate of 0.0172 mGyair s-1 with only 0.1 V bias voltage, which is about 70-fold more sensitive than conventional α-Se devices. Furthermore, the perovskite film is printed homogeneously on various substrates by the inexpensive inkjet printing method to demonstrate large-scale fabrication of arrays of multichannel detectors. These results suggest that the perovskite QDs are ideal candidates for the detection of soft X-rays and for large-area flat or flexible panels with tremendous application potential in multidimensional and different architectures imaging technologies.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3342, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463823

RESUMO

We report on optimisation of the environmental stability and high temperature operation of surface transfer doping in hydrogen-terminated diamond using MoO3 and V2O5 surface acceptor layers. In-situ annealing of the hydrogenated diamond surface at 400 °C was found to be crucial to enhance long-term doping stability. High temperature sheet resistance measurements up to 300 °C were performed to examine doping thermal stability. Exposure of MoO3 and V2O5 transfer-doped hydrogen-terminated diamond samples up to a temperature of 300 °C in ambient air showed significant and irreversible loss in surface conductivity. Thermal stability was found to improve dramatically however when similar thermal treatment was performed in vacuum or in ambient air when the oxide layers were encapsulated with a protective layer of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). Inspection of the films by X-ray diffraction revealed greater crystallisation of the MoO3 layers following thermal treatment in ambient air compared to the V2O5 films which appeared to remain amorphous. These results suggest that proper encapsulation and passivation of these oxide materials as surface acceptor layers on hydrogen-terminated diamond is essential to maximise their environmental and thermal stability.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(9): 6546-6553, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197568

RESUMO

The electronic structures of rubrene films deposited on CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite have been investigated using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that rubrene molecules interacted weakly with the perovskite substrate. Due to charge redistribution at their interface, a downward 'band bending'-like energy shift of ∼0.3 eV and an upward band bending of ∼0.1 eV were identified at the upper rubrene side and the CH3NH3PbI3 substrate side, respectively. After the energy level alignment was established at the rubrene/CH3NH3PbI3 interface, its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-valence band maximum (VBM) offset was found to be as low as ∼0.1 eV favoring the hole extraction with its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)-conduction band minimum (CBM) offset as large as ∼1.4 eV effectively blocking the undesired electron transfer from perovskite to rubrene. As a demonstration, simple inverted planar solar cell devices incorporating rubrene and rubrene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layers (HTLs) were fabricated in this work and yielded a champion power conversion efficiency of 8.76% and 13.52%, respectively. Thus, the present work suggests that a rubrene thin film could serve as a promising hole transport layer for efficient perovskite-based solar cells.

11.
Nanoscale ; 9(2): 666-672, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27942692

RESUMO

We report a detailed investigation of elementary catalytic decomposition of ammonia on the Pt-Ni-Pt(111) bimetallic surface using in situ near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the near ambient pressure (0.6 mbar) reaction conditions, a different dehydrogenation pathway with a reduced activation energy barrier for recombinative nitrogen desorption on the Pt-Ni-Pt(111) bimetallic surface is observed. The unique surface catalytic activity is correlated with the downward shift of the Pt 5d band states induced by the Ni subsurface atoms via charge redistribution of the topmost Pt layer. Our results provide a practical understanding of the unique chemistry of bimetallic catalysts for facile ammonia decomposition under realistic reaction conditions.

12.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(9): 094006, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26870989

RESUMO

Understanding the charge transport properties in general of different molecular components in a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is of importance for the rational design of SAM molecular structures for molecular electronics. In this study, we study an important aspect of the charge transport properties, i.e. the charge transfer (CT) dynamics between the active molecular component (in this case, the ferrocenyl moieties of a ferrocenyl-n-alkanethiol SAM) and the electrode using synchrotron-based core-hole clock (CHC) spectroscopy. The characteristic CT times are found to depend strongly on the character of the ferrocenyl-derived molecular orbitals (MOs) which mediate the CT process. Furthermore, by systemically shifting the position of the ferrocenyl moiety in the SAM, it is found that the CT characteristics of the ferrocenyl MOs display distinct dependence on its distance to the electrode. These results demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency and rate of charge transport through the molecular backbone can be modulated by resonant injection of charge carriers into specific MOs.

13.
Nano Lett ; 15(12): 8091-8, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26528623

RESUMO

The reversible selective hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of individual manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecules has been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM), synchrotron-based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements, and supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown conclusively that interfacial and intramolecular charge transfer arises during the hydrogenation process. The electronic energetics upon hydrogenation is identified, enabling a greater understanding of interfacial and intramolecular charge transportation in the field of single-molecule electronics.

14.
Nano Lett ; 15(5): 3181-8, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25906248

RESUMO

An atomic-scale understanding of gas adsorption mechanisms on metal-porphyrins or metal-phthalocyanines is essential for their practical application in biological processes, gas sensing, and catalysis. Intensive research efforts have been devoted to the study of coordinative bonding with relatively active small molecules such as CO, NO, NH3, O2, and H2. However, the binding of single nitrogen atoms has never been addressed, which is both of fundamental interest and indeed essential for revealing the elementary chemical binding mechanism in nitrogen reduction processes. Here, we present a simple model system to investigate, at the single-molecule level, the binding of activated nitrogen species on the single Mn atom contained within the manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecule supported on an inert graphite surface. Through the combination of in situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations, the active site and the binding configuration between the activated nitrogen species (neutral nitrogen atom) and the Mn center of MnPc are investigated at the atomic scale.

15.
Nanoscale ; 6(19): 11246-58, 2014 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25132523

RESUMO

This study describes that the current rectification ratio, R ≡ |J|(-2.0 V)/|J|(+2.0 V) for supramolecular tunneling junctions with a top-electrode of eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) that contains a conductive thin (0.7 nm) supporting outer oxide layer (Ga2O3), increases by up to four orders of magnitude under an applied bias of >+1.0 V up to +2.5 V; these junctions did not change their electrical characteristics when biased in the voltage range of ±1.0 V. The increase in R is caused by the presence of water and ions in the supramolecular assemblies which react with the Ga2O3/EGaIn layer and increase the thickness of the Ga2O3 layer. This increase in the oxide thickness from 0.7 nm to ∼2.0 nm changed the nature of the monolayer-top-electrode contact from an ohmic to a non-ohmic contact. These results unambiguously expose the experimental conditions that allow for a safe bias window of ±1.0 V (the range of biases studies of charge transport using this technique are normally conducted) to investigate molecular effects in molecular electronic junctions with Ga2O3/EGaIn top-electrodes where electrochemical reactions are not significant. Our findings also show that the interpretation of data in studies involving applied biases of >1.0 V may be complicated by electrochemical side reactions which can be recognized by changes of the electrical characteristics as a function voltage cycling or in current retention experiments.

16.
Adv Mater ; 26(46): 7880-8, 2014 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24692009

RESUMO

Organic semiconductor materials have important applications in organic electronics and other novel hybrid devices. In these devices, the transport of charge carriers across the interfaces between organic molecules and electrodes plays an important role in determining the device performance. Charge transfer dynamics at the organic/electrode interface usually occurs at the several femtoseconds timescale, and quantitative charge transfer dynamics data can been inferred using synchrotron-based core-hole clock (CHC) spectroscopy. In this research news, we have reviewed recent progress in the applications of CHC spectroscopy on the quantitative characterization of charge transfer dynamics at organic/electrode interfaces. By examining charge transfer dynamics at different types of interface, from weakly interacting van der Waals-type interfaces to interfaces with strong covalent bonds, we discuss a few factors that have been found to affect the charge transfer dynamics. We also review the application of CHC spectroscopy to quantify through-bonds and through-space charge transport in organic molecules.

17.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 8(2): 113-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23292010

RESUMO

One of the main goals of organic and molecular electronics is to relate the performance and electronic function of devices to the chemical structure and intermolecular interactions of the organic component inside them, which can take the form of an organic thin film, a self-assembled monolayer or a single molecule. This goal is difficult to achieve because organic and molecular electronic devices are complex physical-organic systems that consist of at least two electrodes, an organic component and two (different) organic/inorganic interfaces. Singling out the contribution of each of these components remains challenging. So far, strong π-π interactions have mainly been considered for the rational design and optimization of the performances of organic electronic devices, and weaker intermolecular interactions have largely been ignored. Here, we show experimentally that subtle changes in the intermolecular van der Waals interactions in the active component of a molecular diode dramatically impact the performance of the device. In particular, we observe an odd-even effect as the number of alkyl units is varied in a ferrocene-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayer. As a result of a more favourable van der Waals interaction, junctions made from an odd number of alkyl units have a lower packing energy (by ∼0.4-0.6 kcal mol(-1)), rectify currents 10 times more efficiently, give a 10% higher yield in working devices, and can be made two to three times more reproducibly than junctions made from an even number of alkyl units.

18.
J Chem Phys ; 135(17): 174701, 2011 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22070311

RESUMO

Charge transfer dynamics across the lying-down 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) organic semiconductor molecules on Au(111) interface has been investigated using the core-hole clock implementation of resonant photoemission spectroscopy. It is found that the charge transfer time scale at the PTCDA∕Au(111) interface is much larger than the C 1s core-hole lifetime of 6 fs, indicating weak electronic coupling between PTCDA and the gold substrate due to the absence of chemical reaction and∕or bonding.

19.
ACS Nano ; 5(9): 7662-8, 2011 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21870857

RESUMO

We demonstrated a novel method to obtain charge neutral quasi-free-standing graphene on SiC (0001) from the buffer layer using fluorine from a molecular source, fluorinated fullerene (C(60)F(48)). The intercalated product is stable under ambient conditions and resistant to elevated temperatures of up to 1200 °C. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements are performed for the first time on such quasi-free-standing graphene to elucidate changes in the electronic and structural properties of both the graphene and interfacial layer. Novel structures due to a highly localized perturbation caused by the presence of adsorbed fluorine were produced in the intercalation process and investigated. Photoemission spectroscopy is used to confirm these electronic and structural changes.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(16): 167201, 2011 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21599406

RESUMO

The influence of the insertion of an ultrathin NiO layer between the MgO barrier and the ferromagnetic electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions has been investigated from measurements of the tunneling magnetoresistance and via x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The magnetoresistance shows a high asymmetry with respect to bias voltage, giving rise to a negative value of up to -16% at 2.8 K. We attribute this effect to the formation of noncollinear spin structures at the interface of the NiO layer as inferred from XMCD measurements. The magnetic moments of the interface Ni atoms tilt from their easy axis due to exchange coupling with the neighboring ferromagnetic electrode, and the tilting angle decreases with increasing NiO thickness. The experimental observations are further supported by noncollinear spin density functional calculations.

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