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1.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641066

RESUMO

Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators have attracted great attention due to their ability to convert ambient mechanical energy into electrical energy for low-power wearable electronic devices. Controlling the microstructure of the flexible piezoelectric materials is a potential strategy to enhance the electrical outputs of the piezoelectric nanogenerator. Three types of flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric nanogenerator were fabricated based on well-aligned nanofibers, random oriented nanofibers and thick films. The electrical output performance of PVDF nanogenerators is systematically investigated by the influence of microstructures. The aligned nanofiber arrays exhibit highly consistent orientation, uniform diameter, and a smooth surface, which possesses the highest fraction of the polar crystalline ß phase compared with the random-oriented nanofibers and thick films. The highly aligned structure and the large fraction of the polar ß phase enhanced the output performance of the well-aligned nanofiber nanogenerator. The highest output voltage of 14 V and a short-circuit current of 1.22 µA were achieved under tapping mode of 10 N at 2.5 Hz, showing the potential application in flexible electronic devices. These new results shed some light on the design of the flexible piezoelectric polymer-based nanogenerators.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 717069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671316

RESUMO

Objectives: Nationwide studies focusing on the impact of early-onset type 2 diabetes and obesity on the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are limited in China. We aimed to investigate the association between age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and the risk of CVD, and to further examine the modifying effect of obesity on this association among Chinese adults. Methods: This study included 23,961 participants with previously diagnosed diabetes from a large nationwide population-based cohort study across mainland China. With an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, we collected detailed information on CVDs. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of CVDs associated with age at diagnosis of diabetes. Results: Compared with patients with late-onset diabetes (≥60 years), those with earlier-onset diabetes had increased risks for CVD, with adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 1.72 (1.36-2.17), 1.52 (1.31-1.75) and 1.33 (1.19-1.48) for patients diagnosed aged <40, 40-49 and 50-59 years, respectively. Each 5-year earlier age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with 14% increased risk of CVD (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.11-1.18). This association was more prominent for patients with obesity than those with normal body mass index (BMI). Significant interaction was detected between age at diagnosis and BMI categories on CVD risk (P for interaction=0.0457). Conclusion: Early-onset type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with higher risk of CVD, and this association was more prominent among patients with obesity.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 699004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497759

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), found in cigarette smoke and air pollution, is an important carcinogen. Nevertheless, early molecular events and related regulatory effects of B[a]P-mediated cell transformation and tumor initiation remain unclear. This study found that EGR1 was significantly downregulated during human bronchial epithelial cell transformation and mice lung carcinogenesis upon exposure to B[a]P and its active form BPDE, respectively. In contrast, overexpression of EGR1 inhibited the BPDE-induced cell malignant transformation. Moreover, miR-377-3p was strongly enhanced by BPDE/B[a]P exposure and crucial for the inhibition of EGR1 expression by targeting the 3'UTR of EGR1. MiR-377-3p antagomir reversed the effect of EGR1 downregulation in cell malignant transformation and tumor initiation models. Furthermore, the B[a]P-induced molecular changes were evaluated by IHC in clinical lung cancer tissues and examined with a clinic database. Mechanistically, EGR1 inhibition was also involved in the regulation of Wnt/ß-catenin transduction, promoting lung tumorigenesis following B[a]P/BPDE exposure. Taken together, the results demonstrated that bBenzo[a]pyrene exposure might induce lung tumorigenesis through miR-377-3p-mediated reduction of EGR1 expression, suggesting an important role of EGR1 in PAHs-induced lung carcinogenesis.

4.
J Oncol ; 2021: 9813773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349799

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recently, extracellular vesicles such as exosomes have attracted considerable interest both as a source for theranostic biomarkers and an essential participant in lung cancer progression. However, how specific exosomal cargos, such as noncoding RNAs, are selectively packaged into exosomes and promote lung cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we identified miR-665 as the most elevated exosomal miRNA from both non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. We further demonstrated that lncRNA SCIRT was also increased in cancer cell exosomes and may facilitate the exosomal loading of miR-665 with the help of hnRNPA1. As a consequence, exosomal miR-665 promoted lung cancer cell invasion and migration by targeting Notch downstream transcription factor HEYL. In addition, we found that miR-665 and SCIRT were significantly upregulated in tumor tissue and plasma of patients with lung cancer, and both of them showed increased expression in metastatic disease samples. Our findings suggest that the exosomal transferring of miR-665 and SCIRT is a functional and mechanism-driven pathway that contributes to cancer progression and, thus, may provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets for lung cancer.

5.
Indian J Cancer ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380847

RESUMO

Background: Cervical cancer is known to be the fourth most common cancer among women globally. In various factors, genetic factors have been considered as one major risk factor for cervical cancer. The research of genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer can be greatly helpful in studying the complex mechanism. This study was conducted to identify whether polymorphic variants of p73 G4C14-A4T14 and tumor protein p53 (p53) codon 72, either independently or jointly, might be associated with the risk of cervical cancer. Methods: The genotypes of p73 G4C14-A4T14 and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms of peripheral blood DNA from 190 cervical cancer patients and 210 controls were investigated using polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively. Results: The frequency of p73 G4C14-A4T14 AT/AT (P = 0.013) or p53 codon 72 GG (P = 0.026) genotype was associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer by comparing with the p73 G4C14-A4T14 GC/GC or p53 codon 72 CC genotype, respectively. In addition, the interaction between the p73 G4C14-A4T14 and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms increased the risk of cervical cancer in a multiply manner, with the odds ratio being 3.692 (95% confidence interval =2.106-6.473) for subjects carrying both p73 G4C14-A4T14 GC/AT+AT/AT and p53 codon 72 GG genotypes. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is a statistical difference between p73 and p53 gene polymorphism and the risk of cervical cancer in Chinese women, and there is a potential gene-gene interaction in the incidence of cervical cancer.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16715, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408184

RESUMO

Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) results in injury to the epithelial cells of the human respiratory tract and has been implicated as a causative factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancers. The application of omics-scale methodologies has improved the capacity to understand cellular signaling processes underlying response to CS exposure. We report here the development of an algorithm based on quantitative assessment of transcriptomic profiles and signaling pathway perturbation analysis (SPPA) of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) exposed to the toxic components present in CS. HBEC were exposed to CS of different compositions and for different durations using an ISO3308 smoking regime and the impact of exposure was monitored in 2263 signaling pathways in the cell to generate a total effect score that reflects the quantitative degree of impact of external stimuli on the cells. These findings support the conclusion that the SPPA algorithm provides an objective, systematic, sensitive means to evaluate the biological impact of exposures to CS of different compositions making a powerful comparative tool for commercial product evaluation and potentially for other known or potentially toxic environmental smoke substances.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fumar/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos
7.
J Diabetes ; 13(12): 949-959, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational hyperglycemia increases the risk of diabetes in later life. However, the risk of future cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to gestational hyperglycemia remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gestational hyperglycemia on the subsequent risk of CVD and its modifying factors among elderly Chinese women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of elderly women from the baseline survey of Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. Women with gestational hyperglycemia (n = 82), and controls matched by age and study site (n = 410) were included. Information on CVD, including reported coronary heart disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction, was collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. RESULTS: Women with gestational hyperglycemia were more likely to develop diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-4.18) and CVD (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.05-3.74). Even without progressing to type 2 diabetes, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.18-7.00). However, subgroup analysis indicated that compared with those without gestational hyperglycemia or hypertension, women with both gestational hyperglycemia and hypertension had higher risk of CVD (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.65-9.58), whereas the risk estimate did not significantly change in women with gestational hyperglycemia alone (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 0.71-6.57). Stratified analysis indicated that among those with overweight/obesity, inactive physical activity, or unhealthy dietary habits, gestational hyperglycemia increased the risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly Chinese women, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD in later life. This association was independent of the progression to diabetes and might be modified by lifestyle factors and hypertension.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 683, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234118

RESUMO

Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a unique enzyme for the reduction of NDPs to dNDPs, the building blocks for DNA synthesis and thus essential for cell proliferation. Pan-cancer profiling studies showed that RRM2, the small subunit M2 of RR, is abnormally overexpressed in multiple types of cancers; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms in cancers are still unclear. In this study, through searching in cancer-omics databases and immunohistochemistry validation with clinical samples, we showed that the expression of MYBL2, a key oncogenic transcriptional factor, was significantly upregulated correlatively with RRM2 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Ectopic expression and knockdown experiments indicated that MYBL2 was essential for CRC cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression in an RRM2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, MYBL2 directly bound to the promoter of RRM2 gene and promoted its transcription during S-phase together with TAF15 and MuvB components. Notably, knockdown of MYBL2 sensitized CRC cells to treatment with MK-1775, a clinical trial drug for inhibition of WEE1, which is involved in a degradation pathway of RRM2. Finally, mouse xenograft experiments showed that the combined suppression of MYBL2 and WEE1 synergistically inhibited CRC growth with a low systemic toxicity in vivo. Therefore, we propose a new regulatory mechanism for RRM2 transcription for CRC proliferation, in which MYBL2 functions by constituting a dynamic S-phase transcription complex following the G1/early S-phase E2Fs complex. Doubly targeting the transcription and degradation machines of RRM2 could produce a synthetic inhibitory effect on RRM2 level with a novel potential for CRC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 1054-1064, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293605

RESUMO

Low temperature in early spring severely endangers the growth and development of melon seedlings. Abscisic acid (ABA) and polyamines (PAs) are important signal molecules in plant response to stress. However, the issue of whether they interact to regulate melon cold tolerance remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified a total of 14 key genes related to ABA and PAs biosynthesis, including four CmNCEDs, and ten genes in PA pathway (one CmADC, one CmODC, four CmSAMDCs, two CmSPDSs, and two CmSPAMs). Two oriental melon cultivars (IVF571, cold-tolerant; IVF004, cold-sensitive) were selected to explore the difference of ABA and PAs biosynthesis under cold stress (15 °C/6 °C, day/night). Results showed that the expressions of CmNCED3, CmNCED3-2, CmADC, CmSAMDCs, CmSPDS2 and CmSPMS1 were significantly up-regulated. ABA and putrescine levels were significantly increased in IVF571 under cold stress. Inhibiting the biosynthesis of endogenous ABA with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) or Put with D-Arginine (D-Arg) dramatically decreased the levels of each other and aggravated the cold injury of melon seedlings. In addition, spraying with exogenous 75 µM ABA or 1 mM Put improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, and reduced the membrane lipid peroxidation damage of melon seedlings under cold stress. In all, the higher cold tolerance of IVF571 seedlings than that of IVF004 seedlings might be related to the increase in ABA and Put levels triggered by cold stress. ABA and Put could regulate the biosynthesis of each other and might act as signals to trigger the antioxidant system, thereby increasing melon cold tolerance.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Cucurbitaceae , Temperatura Baixa , Putrescina , Plântula
10.
J Diabetes ; 13(11): 857-867, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration were found to be associated with diabetes. However, the results are inconsistent. Also, no epidemiological studies have examined the association of these reproductive factors with diabetes in the same large population. We aim to investigate the associations between parity, pregnancy loss, breastfeeding duration, and the risk of maternal diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese females. METHODS: We included 131 174 females aged ≥40 years from the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal Study). Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the association between parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: The number of parities and breastfeeding duration were positively related to fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postload glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Compared with those with one birth, nulliparous women or women with 2 or ≥3 births had a significantly increased risk of diabetes. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.27 (1.10-1.48), 1.17 (1.12-1.22), and 1.28 (1.21-1.35), respectively. Compared with women without pregnancy loss, those who underwent 2 (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14) or ≥3 pregnancy losses (OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18) had an increased risk of diabetes. Moreover, women with a breastfeeding duration ≥0 to 6 months (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) and ≥6 to 12 months (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99) had a significantly lower risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous women or women with multiparity or more than one pregnancy loss have an increased risk of diabetes in later life, while women who breastfeed more than 0 to 12 months have a lower risk of diabetes.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 83, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is an important enzyme functions at the last step in lignin monomer synthesis pathway. Our previous work found that drought induced the expressions of CmCAD genes and promoted lignin biosynthesis in melon stems. RESULTS: Here we studied the effects of abscisic acid (ABA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and jasmonic acid (JA) to CmCADs under drought stress. Results discovered that drought-induced ABA, H2O2 and MeJA were prevented efficiently from increasing in melon stems pretreated with fluridone (Flu, ABA inhibitor), imidazole (Imi, H2O2 scavenger) and ibuprofen (Ibu, JA inhibitor). ABA and H2O2 are involved in the positive regulations to CmCAD1, 2, 3, and 5, and JA is involved in the positive regulations to CmCAD2, 3, and 5. According to the expression profiles of lignin biosynthesis genes, ABA, H2O2 and MeJA all showed positive regulations to CmPAL2-like, CmPOD1-like, CmPOD2-like and CmLAC4-like. In addition, positive regulations were also observed with ABA to CmPAL1-like, CmC4H and CmCOMT, with H2O2 to CmPAL1-like, CmC4H, CmCCR and CmLAC17-like, and with JA to CmCCR, CmCOMT, CmLAC11-like and CmLAC17-like. As expected, the signal molecules positively regulated CAD activity and lignin biosynthesis under drought stress. Promoter::GUS assays not only further confirmed the regulations of the signal molecules to CmCAD1~3, but also revealed the important role of CmCAD3 in lignin synthesis due to the strongest staining of CmCAD3 promoter::GUS. CONCLUSIONS: CmCADs but CmCAD4 are positively regulated by ABA, H2O2 and JA under drought stress and participate in lignin synthesis.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/genética , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Secas , Genes de Plantas , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
12.
J Diabetes ; 13(6): 458-468, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at menarche was reported to be associated with the risk of diabetes. However, the impact of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) on the association between age at menarche and adulthood diabetes risk was unclear. METHODS: We included 121 431 women from the nationwide, population-based cohort of the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: a Longitudinal Study). The diagnosis of diabetes was based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement. Logistic regression and multiplicative interaction analysis were conducted to investigate the potential interaction effect between age at menarche and ICVHMs on the development of diabetes. RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of diabetes across categories of age at menarche (<14, 14-17, and > 17 years) were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17, 1.28), 1.00 (reference), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.93), respectively. In subgroup analysis, significant interactions were detected between total cholesterol/blood pressure levels and age at menarche regarding the risk of diabetes (P for interaction = .0091 and .0019, respectively). The increased risk associated with age at menarche <14 years was observed in participants with three or fewer ICVHMs, but not in women with four or more ICVHMs (P for interaction = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Age at menarche was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes in adulthood in Chinese women, and it appeared to be modified by the presence of ICVHMs. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise interrelationship and the generalizability of our results.

13.
Phytopathology ; : PHYTO08200360R, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258411

RESUMO

Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is severely damaging to the global tomato industry. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play vital roles in plant resistance by repressing their target genes. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) method has been continuously improved and extensively applied to edit plant genomes. However, editing multiplex miRNAs by CRISPR/Cas9 in tomato has not been studied yet. We knocked out miR482b and miR482c simultaneously in tomato through the multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two transgenic plants with silenced miR482b and miR482c simultaneously and one transgenic line with silenced miR482b alone were obtained. Compared with wild-type plants, the disease symptoms of three transgenic plants upon infection were reduced, accompanied by increased expression of their common target nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat genes and decreased levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, silencing miR482b and miR482c simultaneously was more resistant than silencing miR482b alone in tomato. More importantly, we found that knocking out miR482b and miR482c can elicit expression perturbation of other miRNAs, suggesting cross-regulation between miRNAs. Our study demonstrated that editing miR482b and miR482c simultaneously with CRISPR/Cas9 is an efficient strategy for generating pathogen-resistant tomatoes, and cross-regulation between miRNAs may reveal the novel mechanism in tomato-P. infestans interactions.

14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 154(3): 436-443, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of the hourly administration of titrated oral misoprostol solution (OMS) and vaginal dinoprostone for induction of labor. METHODS: Titrated OMS was administrated hourly for induction of labor, starting with a dose of 20 µg and terminating at a dose of 50 µg. The safety and efficacy of OMS were compared with that of vaginal dinoprostone for induction of labor. RESULTS: From June 2016 to October 2019, 2280 (78.3%) and 2115 (72.9%) women who received titrated OMS and vaginal dinoprostone, respectively, had a vaginal delivery (P = 0.005). Cesarean delivery was performed in 632 (21.7%) and 783 (27.0%) women who received titrated OMS and vaginal dinoprostone, respectively (P = 0.008). Tachysystole with changes in fetal heart rate (FHR) was seen in 104 (3.6%) and 249 (8.6%) women in the OMS and dinoprostone groups, respectively (P = 0.007). The frequency of non-reassuring FHR was lower in the OMS group compared to the dinoprostone group (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The titrated OMS has an efficacy comparable to vaginal dinoprostone. Moreover, it causes a lower incidence of cesarean delivery, lower frequency of tachysystole with changes in FHR, and non-reassuring FHR.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Administração Intravaginal , Administração Oral , Dinoprostona , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
15.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2975-2987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324059

RESUMO

Background: Compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection (CPCGI) has been used for the treatment of certain brain disorders. Apoptosis and inflammation were reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, this study primarily investigated the effects of CPCGI on mitochondrial apoptotic signaling and PARP/NF-κB inflammatory signaling in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). Materials and Methods: CPCGI (0.6 mL/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min after the induction of CCI. Mitochondrial apoptotic signaling and PARP/NF-κB inflammatory signaling were evaluated 24 h after CCI, and apoptotic cell death, neutrophil infiltration, and astrocyte and microglial activation were determined by TUNEL and immunofluorescent staining 3 days after CCI. Results: 1) CPCGI markedly enhanced cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-xL levels, the mitochondrial Bcl-xL/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome (cyt) c levels and reduced cytosolic cyt c levels, caspase-3 activity, and nuclear AIF levels in brain tissues after traumatic injury; however, CPCGI had no significant effects on cytosolic or mitochondrial Bax levels, the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio, or mitochondrial AIF levels. Moreover, CPCGI markedly reduced the TUNEL staining score in the contusion region. 2) CPCGI markedly reduced cytosolic and nuclear PARP levels and nuclear NF-κB p65 levels in brain tissues after traumatic injury but had no significant effect on cytosolic NF-κB p65 levels. In addition, CPCGI markedly reduced caspase-1 activity and the levels of caspase-1, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in brain tissues after traumatic injury and decreased the immunoreactivities of neutrophils, GFAP and Iba-1 in the region of CCI-induced contusion. Conclusion: These data suggest that CPCGI can reduce brain injury due to trauma by suppressing both mitochondrial apoptotic signaling and PARP/NF-κB inflammatory signaling.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(24)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322190

RESUMO

In this work, anti-reflective surface with superhydrophobicity/oleophobicity and enhanced abrasion resistance was fabricated on steel alloy surface. Two different surface patterns (i.e., parallel microgrooves and spot arrays) were created by nanosecond laser ablation and chemical immersion. The surface micro/nanostructure, spectral reflectance, wettability, and abrasion resistance of all the samples were determined. The experimental results showed that the laser-chemical treated surfaces exhibited much lower spectral reflectance and significantly enhanced surface integrities compared with the untreated surface. Firstly, the contact angles of water, glycerol, and engine oil on the laser-chemical treated surfaces were increased up to 158.9°, 157.2°, and 130.0° respectively, meaning the laser-chemical treated surfaces achieved both superhydrophobicity and high oleophobicity. Secondly, the laser-chemical treated surface showed enhanced abrasion resistance. The experimental results indicated that the spectral reflectance of the laser-chemical treated surfaces remained almost unchanged, while the laser-chemical treated surface patterned with parallel microgrooves sustained superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 150.2° even after more than one hundred abrasion cycles, demonstrating the superior mechanical durability. Overall, this fabrication method has shown its effectiveness for fabrication of multifunctional metal surface integrating the surface functionalities of anti-reflectivity, superhydrophobicity/high oleophobicity, and enhanced abrasion resistance.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17452, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060707

RESUMO

Drought stress severely impairs plant growth and production. Lipoxygenase (LOX), a master regulator for lipid peroxidation, is critical for direct or indirect response to abiotic stresses. Here, we found that drought stress induced the transcription of CmLOX10 in leaves of oriental melon seedlings. Reverse genetic approaches and physiological analyses revealed that silencing CmLOX10 increased drought susceptibility and stomatal aperture in oriental melon seedlings, and that ectopic overexpression of CmLOX10 in Arabidopsis enhanced drought tolerance and decreased the stomatal aperture. Moreover, the transcription of jasmonic acid (JA)-related genes and JA accumulation were significantly induced in CmLOX10-overexpressed Arabidopsis, which were reversely suppressed in CmLOX10-silenced seedlings during the stage of drought stress. Foliar application of JA further verified that JA enhanced drought tolerance and induced stomatal closure in leaves of melon seedlings. In addition, the feedback regulation of CmLOX10 was induced by JA signaling, and the expression level of CmMYC2 was increased by JA and drought treatment. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that CmMYC2 directly bound to the promoter of CmLOX10. In summary, we identified the important roles of CmLOX10 in the regulation of drought tolerance in oriental melon seedlings through JA- mediated stomatal closure and JA signaling-mediated feedback through CmMYC2.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Cucumis melo/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
18.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 1929-1941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904488

RESUMO

Background: Compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection (CPCGI), which involves injection of a neurotrophic drug, has been widely used to treat certain brain disorders in the clinic; however, the detailed mechanism is unknown. This study investigated whether CPCGI protects the brain from trauma by stimulating antioxidative nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and suppressing calpain overactivation in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). Materials and Methods: The rat model of CCI was used. Neurological deficits, contusion, and white matter damage were evaluated 3 days after CCI. Calpain activation, Nrf2 signaling and oxidative stress were determined 24 h after CCI. Results: CPCGI dose-dependently reduced neurological deficits, attenuated axonal and myelin sheath injury, and decreased contusion volume 3 days post-CCI. Moreover, CPCGI reduced calpain activity, and enhanced the cytosolic levels of calpastatin, αII-spectrin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in traumatic tissues 24 h post-CCI. Furthermore, CPCGI reduced the levels of nuclear Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP); increased the levels of cytosolic Nrf2 and thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1) and nuclear Nrf2; increased the cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2/Keap1 and Trx 1/TXNIP ratios; enhanced the levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity, and total antioxidative capacity; and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde in TBI tissues. Conclusion: These data confirm the neuroprotective effect of CPCGI against gray and white matter damage due to CCI and suggest that activating Nrf2 signaling and alleviating oxidative stress-mediated calpain activation could be one mechanism by which CPCGI protects against brain trauma.

19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 154: 770-781, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827970

RESUMO

N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) is a cytokinin-like plant growth regulator, which application in melon fruit set often produced bitter fruit caused by cucurbitacin B (Cu B) accumulation. However, more evidence is required to uncover the role of CPPU in regulating Cu B synthesis. In this study, two oriental melon cultivars 'YMR' (easy to present bitter fruit in maturation) and 'HDB' (hardly produce bitter fruit at maturity) were used. Four concentrations of CPPU (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1) were set and hand pollination was used as control. Cu B accumulated in roots and fruit of 7 days after flower (7 DAF), which in 'YMR' was higher than those in 'HDB', and consistent with Cu B biosynthetic genes expression patterns. Furthermore, Cu B content in fruit significantly increased with CPPU concentrations and reached the highest level at 7 DAF, then decreased after 14 DAF, and which treated by 20 mg L-1 CPPU was always higher than that of controls and other low CPPU concentrations. Meanwhile, fruit bitterness evaluation suggested 20 mg L-1 CPPU increased the occurrence of bitterness during melon maturation. Transcription analysis suggested that the expression of Cu B biosynthetic genes (CmBi, Cm710, CmACT) and CmBt, the fruit-specific transcription factor, were significantly induced by 20 mg L-1 CPPU. Transient over-expression of CmBt in young fruit of 'YMR' increased Cu B biosynthetic genes (CmBi, CmACT, Cm710 and Cm890) expression and promoted Cu B accumulation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that 20 mg L-1 CPPU promotes Cu B accumulation in melon fruit by inducing CmBt and its biosynthetic genes.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/metabolismo , Poliuretanos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo
20.
Liver Int ; 40(11): 2694-2705, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life exposure to famine and adulthood obesity increased the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adulthood. However, the joint effects on adulthood NAFLD risk are not clear. AIM: This study aimed to explore the joint effects of famine exposure and adulthood obesity on NAFLD risk in later life. METHODS: We included 7632 subjects aged ≥40 years from a community-dwelling population. Participants were divided into 4 famine exposure groups according to the birth year, including nonexposed (1963-1974), fetal-exposed (1959-1962), childhood-exposed (1949-1958) and adolescent-exposed (1941-1948). General obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI: overweight ≥24.0 kg/m2 , obesity ≥28.0 kg/m2 ) and abdominal obesity assessed by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, men/women: moderate ≥0.90/0.85, high ≥0.95/0.90). RESULTS: Compared with nonexposed, fetal- and childhood-exposed participants show an increased risk of NAFLD with multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.28 (1.02-1.61) and 1.40 (1.04-1.88) respectively. After further adjusting BMI and WHR, the increased risk was observed only in childhood-exposed participants (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04-2.05). Significant interaction between famine exposure and general obesity on the risk of NAFLD was observed in women (P for interaction = .02). No significant interactions were detected between famine exposure and abdominal obesity (all P for interaction >.05). Compared with normal-BMI and -WHR participants, those with both general and abdominal obesity in adulthood had 20.74 (95% CI: 12.00-35.96), 14.45 (8.76-23.86), 23.02 (16.28-32.57) and 13.04 (8.30-20.48)-fold higher risk in nonexposed, fetal-, childhood- and adolescent-exposed groups respectively. CONCLUSION: Coexistence of early life famine exposure and adulthood obesity was associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Inanição , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Fome Epidêmica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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