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1.
Exp Eye Res ; 215: 108899, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929159

RESUMO

Sorsby Fundus Dystrophy (SFD) is a rare form of macular degeneration that is clinically similar to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and a histologic hallmark of SFD is a thick layer of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Previous studies of SFD patient-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived RPE differ as to whether these cultures recapitulate this key clinical feature by forming increased drusenoid deposits. The primary purpose of this study is to examine whether SFD patient-derived iPSC-RPE form basal deposits similar to what is found in affected family member SFD globes and to determine whether SFD iPSC RPE may be more oxidatively stressed. We performed a careful comparison of iPSC RPE from three control individuals, multiple iPSC clones from two SFD patients' iPSC RPE, and post-mortem eyes of affected SFD family members. We also examined the effect of CRISPR-Cas9 gene correction of the S204C TIMP3 mutation on RPE phenotype. Finally, targeted metabolomics with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis and stable isotope-labeled metabolite analysis were performed to determine whether SFD RPE are more oxidatively stressed. We found that SFD iPSC-RPE formed significantly more sub-RPE deposits (∼6-90 µm in height) compared to control RPE at 8 weeks. These deposits were similar in composition to the thick layer of sub-RPE deposits found in SFD family member globes by immunofluorescence staining and TEM imaging. S204C TIMP3 correction by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in SFD iPSC RPE cells resulted in significantly reduced basal laminar and sub-RPE calcium deposits. We detected a ∼18-fold increase in TIMP3 accumulation in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of SFD RPE, and targeted metabolomics showed that intracellular 4-hydroxyproline, a major breakdown product of collagen, is significantly elevated in SFD RPE, suggesting increased ECM turnover. Finally, SFD RPE cells have decreased intracellular reduced glutathione and were found to be more vulnerable to oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that elements of SFD pathology can be demonstrated in culture which may lead to insights into disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Degeneração Macular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1280-1297, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742925

RESUMO

Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were continuously collected in the Qingdao coastal region from March 2018 to October 2019. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the samples were (7.13±6.59) µg·m-3, (17.42±9.88) ng·m-3, (8.34±7.03) µg·m-3, (25.59±13.67) ng·m-3, (10.68±10.59) µg·m-3, and (76.34±51.79) ng·m-3, respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of different nitrogen and phosphorus species in aerosols varied significantly during the sampling period due to the influence of emission intensity, air mass source, and meteorological conditions. The concentrations of DIN, DTN, and TN were the highest in autumn followed by spring, winter, and summer, showing similar seasonal variations. However, TP showed the highest concentration in spring and the lowest in summer. The concentrations of DIN, DTN, and TN on haze days were 4.3, 3.8, and 4.5 times higher than on non-haze reference days, respectively, and DIP, DTP, and TP concentrations were 1.9, 1.9, and 1.2 times higher, respectively. During the heating period, the DIN/DTN ratio on haze days was (92.65±4.09)%, which was 8.87% higher than on non-haze days. During the non-heating period, the DIN/DTN ratio was (80.52±8.42)%, which was 4.83% higher than the reference days. However, the average DTN/TN ratio on haze days was significantly lower than on non-haze days; the average DTN/TN ratio on haze days was (73.41±12.18)% and (80.36±4.72)% during the heating and non-heating period, respectively, and were 13.35% and 5.92% lower, respectively, on non-haze days. The proportion of DIP to DTP on hazy days increased by only 1.47% relative to non-haze days, while the DIP/DTP ratio varied between hazy days. Due to the influence air mass sources, relative humidity, and atmospheric acidification process, the DTP/TP ratio on haze days increased by 10.58% relative to non-haze days. The concentrations of DIN, DTN, and TN in aerosols affected by dust events were 2.5, 2.6, and 2.6 times higher than on non-dust days, while DIP, DTP, and TP were 4.0, 2.8, and 7.2 times higher, respectively.

3.
Exp Cell Res ; 395(1): 112169, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653410

RESUMO

It has been reported that cholesterol-lowing agents can ameliorate severity of myocarditis. However, the beneficial effect of the agents has been claimed to be independent of cholesterol reduction as there is no significant change in the plasma cholesterol level in myocarditis. In the present study, using experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) rats as an animal model, we demonstrated that EAM induced elevation of cholesterol level and impaired cholesterol efflux capacity in the cardiac tissue. Moreover, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) content was reduced and HDL function associated protein Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity was decreased. Besides, the major structural protein within HDL, Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) expression in the cardiac tissues was significantly reduced while the level of serum ApoA1 was not significantly altered. Importantly, cholesterol depleting agent methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) alleviated the development of EAM, as monitored by decreased ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells and collagen deposition, improved cardiac function, reduced expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax, Fas, FasL and caspase-3 and increased level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that reduction of cholesterol level in cardiac tissue could suppress EAM-induced cardiac apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Miocardite/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Colesterol/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Miocardite/imunologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(8): 3477-3488, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854753

RESUMO

In order to determine the concentrations and size distributions of total airborne microbes in atmospheric bioaerosols, bioaerosol samples were collected in the coastal region of Qingdao, China, from Sep. 2016 to Jul. 2017 using size-fractionated bioaerosol samplers. The concentrations of total airborne microbes were then measured using an epifluorescence microscope after staining with DAPI (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The results showed that the concentrations of total airborne microbes were in the range of 1.86×105-2.54×106 cells·m-3 in Qingdao during the sampling period, with an average of (6.84±4.83)×105 cells·m-3. The concentrations of total airborne microbes showed seasonal variation, with the highest values occurring in spring and winter, and the lowest values in summer and fall. Statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of total airborne microbes in autumn had a significant seasonal difference with spring and summer (P<0.05). The monthly averaged concentrations of total airborne microbes ranged from 2.65×105 cells·m-3 to 1.12×106 cells·m-3, with the highest values in Feb. 2017 and the lowest in Sep. 2016. Total microbe concentrations also varied greatly over a diurnal timescale in fall and winter during the period of 2015 to 2017, but this variation was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Overall, the size distribution of total airborne microbes was skewed, with the highest ratio occurring at >7.0 µm with a ratio of 20.5%-27.3%. The monthly averaged size distribution of total airborne microbes varied between months, showing two main distribution types, specifically bimodal and skewed patterns, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that the AQI and the concentrations of CO, PM2.5, and PM10 had a significant positive correlation with the concentrations of total airborne microbes (P<0.05), while air temperature, wind speed and direction, NO2, SO2, and O3 were not significantly correlated with the airborne microbe concentration during the sampling period (P>0.05). Multiple linear regression showed that 20.6% of the variation in the total microbe concentrations in bioaerosols correlated with relative humidity and PM2.5.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Microbiologia do Ar , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Estações do Ano
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17429, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757977

RESUMO

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) leads to loss of vision in patients with Sorsby Fundus Dystrophy (SFD), an inherited, macular degenerative disorder, caused by mutations in the Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) gene. SFD closely resembles age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly population of the Western hemisphere. Variants in TIMP3 gene have recently been identified in patients with AMD. A majority of patients with AMD also lose vision as a consequence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that contribute to CNV as a consequence of TIMP-3 mutations will provide insight into the pathophysiology in SFD and likely the neovascular component of the more commonly seen AMD. While the role of VEGF in CNV has been studied extensively, it is becoming increasingly clear that other factors likely play a significant role. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) regulates SFD-related CNV. In this study we demonstrate that mice expressing mutant TIMP3 (Timp3S179C/S179C) showed reduced MMP inhibitory activity with an increase in MMP2 activity and bFGF levels, as well as accentuated CNV leakage when subjected to laser injury. S179C mutant-TIMP3 in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells showed increased secretion of bFGF and conditioned medium from these cells induced increased angiogenesis in endothelial cells. These studies suggest that S179C-TIMP3 may promote angiogenesis and CNV via a FGFR-1-dependent pathway by increasing bFGF release and activity.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/genética , Neovascularização de Coroide/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/genética , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Mutação , Inibidores Teciduais de Metaloproteinases/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular , Expressão Gênica , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Camundongos
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(4): 1562-1574, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087896

RESUMO

Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the Qingdao coastal region and over the East Sea and the Pacific Northwest from March to April in 2016, and the concentration of metal elements (Al, Na, Fe, Mg, K, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were analyzed. The characteristics and the variation in the size distribution of the metal elements in the samples during dusty weather were discussed, as well as the sources and factors that influence the metals. The results indicated that the concentration of Al, Fe, K, Na, Cu, and Pb in the aerosols in the Qingdao coastal samples increased significantly by 85%-1400%, while the concentration of Cd decreased by 8%; the concentrations of Al, Fe, K, Cu, Pb, and Cd in the samples over the ocean increased by 163%-4580%, while the concentration of Na decreased by 62% during dusty weather. In addition, the size distribution of K changed from a double-peak to a coarse peak mode; that of Pb and Cd changed from a fine peak mode to a double-peak distribution. Cu still presented a double-peak distribution in which the proportion of coarse particles increased; Al, Fe, Mg, and Na showed little variation in their size distribution with a single peak in coarse mode. The dust event had different effects on the size distributions of the metal elements in the coastal and marine aerosol samples. The size distribution of the metal elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Na, and K) in the aerosols collected at the Qingdao coastal site had one peak of 2.1-3.3 µm during dusty weather; the peak moved to 3.3-4.7 µm for marine samples. In addition, the proportion of Al, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Pb, and Cd in the coarse mode decreased by 1%-35% for dust aerosol samples collected in Qingdao coastal region, whereas the proportion of these metals in coarse mode increased by 4%-33% for samples collected over the East Sea. This difference may be related to the hygroscopic growth, transport path, and height of the dust.

7.
Water Sci Technol ; 78(3-4): 868-877, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252664

RESUMO

The shells of Chinese chestnuts (Castanea mollissima) are an agricultural residue. This work aimed to evaluate this feasibility of using steam explosion to modify this residue for Cu(II) biosorption from aqueous solutions. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The steam-explosion pretreatment increased the surface area of the chestnut shell and exposed more hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, which are binding sites for Cu(II). It changed the sorption from a spontaneous process driven by enthalpy to a nonspontaneous one driven by entropy. It increased the Cu(II) sorption capacity at higher temperatures while it decreased the capacity at lower ones. Compared with untreated chestnut shell, the steam-exploded shell is preferable for Cu(II) sorption at higher temperatures.


Assuntos
Explosões , Vapor , Adsorção , Cobre , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Termodinâmica
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(1): 38-48, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965664

RESUMO

The total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected in the Qingdao coastal region and over the Yellow and Bohai Sea from June to July in 2016. The diurnal and nightly TSP samples were also continuously collected in the Qingdao coastal region from August 6 to 15. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the TSP samples were analyzed. Results showed that the concentrations of different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in Qingdao were higher than those over the Yellow and Bohai Sea during the same sampling period. The contribution of dissolved N was similar to that of insoluble N to TN in Qingdao, with the ratio of DTN to TN of 56%. However the DTN was the dominant contributor of TN over the Yellow and Bohai Sea, accounting for 72% of TN on average. The inorganic nitrogen was the dominant species of DTN in Qingdao and over the Yellow and Bohai Sea (YBS), accounting for 67% and 75% of DTN, respectively. The contribution of dissolved P to TP was similar to that of insoluble P to TP in Qingdao and over the Yellow and Bohai Sea, and the DTP accounted for 49% and 58% of TP in Qingdao and over YBS, respectively. The ratio of IP to DTP was slightly higher than that of OP, with values of 56% and 59% in Qingdao and over the YBS, respectively. The origin of the air mass affected the concentrations and compositions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the aerosols. The concentrations of DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), TN, DIP, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in the aerosols from southern air mass were higher than those from northern and marine air masses. The concentration of DON in the diurnal aerosol samples was similar to that in the nightly samples; however, the concentrations of DIN and TN were higher in the diurnal aerosols than those in the nightly aerosols. The DTN was the dominant species of TN in the diurnal and nightly aerosol samples, accounting for 79% of TN on average. Inorganic nitrogen was the dominant species of DTN in the diurnal and nightly aerosols. The ratio of DIN to DTN decreased from 70% in diurnal samples to 61% in nightly samples. The concentrations of DIP were close to that of DOP in the diurnal and nightly aerosols; however, the concentrations of TP were higher in the diurnal aerosols than in the nightly ones. The insoluble P was the dominant form of TP in the aerosols, accounting for 83% and 62% of TP during the day and night, respectively. The contribution of DTP to TP in the nightly aerosols samples was much higher than that in the diurnal aerosols. For both day and night samples, inorganic phosphorus was the dominant species of DTP in aerosols, with a ratio of 71%-77%.

9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(7): 2667-2678, 2017 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964605

RESUMO

Size-segregated atmospheric aerosol samples were collected from September 2015 to February 2016 at a coastal site in Qingdao, and the concentrations of major water-soluble inorganic ions were analyzed by ion chromatography. Characteristics and variation of size distribution of secondary inorganic components in aerosol were discussed, as well as the formation process and influencing factors of SNA(sulfate, nitrate and ammonium). The results indicated that the concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, NO2-, Cl- in the aerosols were in the range of 10.32-193.46, 4.42-74.05, 2.21-57.75, 0.05-2.22 and 1.35-17.39 µg·m-3 respectively. And the mass concentration of SNA increased with the intensity of haze pollution. The concentrations of NO3- on the slight, mild, moderate and severe haze days were 55%, 77%, 240% and 537% higher than that on non-haze days respectively, while concentrations of SO42- increased by 4.7%, 35%, 77% and 262% respectively, and concentrations of NH4+ increased by 72%, 83%, 201% and 526% respectively. The contribution of these water-soluble ions to PM2.5 showed that the proportion of sum of NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, NO2- and Cl- to PM2.5 was in range of 62.03%-80.93%. The proportion of ion to PM2.5 decreased in the order of NO3- > SO42- > NH4+ > Cl- > NO2-. With the enhancement of haze pollution, the proportion of NO3- in PM2.5 increased from 29.53% to 45.54%. The correlation analysis showed that NO3- and SO42- in the fine particle were significantly correlated with gaseous precursors NO2 and SO2, and also showed good correlations with relative humidity, visibility, wind speed and other weather conditions. These results indicated that the formation of SNA in fine particles was one of the main reasons for visibility decrease and the formation of air pollution in haze days. Meanwhile, high concentration of gaseous precursors, high relative humidity and low wind speed were the important influencing factors of haze formation. Except for slight haze days, SOR and NOR in the haze days were higher than those on the non-haze days, and increased significantly with the intensifying of haze, especially for 0.43-0.65 and 0.65-1.1 µm particle size. Conversion rates of nitrogen and sulfur in severe haze days were 1.5 times that in non-haze days, which showed nitrate and sulfate in these fine mode were mainly from gas-to-particle conversion. NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ and NO2- increased in haze significantly, which mainly existed in the fine particles. The cloud process played a more important role on haze days. While on non-haze day, cloud process and the heterogeneous reaction were both the main factors. And the highest proportion of fine mode concentration to total one was observed for NO3-(79.4%) and SO42-(74.4%) on severe haze days respectively. NO3- showed a bimodal distribution with peaks in the size-bin of 0.43~0.65 µm and 3.3-4.7 µm on non-haze, slight, mild haze days, and the fine peak moved to 0.65-1.1 µm on moderate haze days, however the bimodal distribution changed to unimodal distribution with peak at 0.65-1.1 µm on severe hazy days. SO42- showed a bimodal distribution with peaks at 0.43-0.65 µm and 2.1-3.3 µm in the non-haze weather, while the size distribution changed to unimodal distribution on hazy days. But the peak sizes were different in different intensity of haze, with peak at 0.43-0.65 µm on mild and slight haze and 0.65-1.1 µm in moderate and severe haze days. NH4+ showed a single peak distribution in the fine mode, with the peak in the particle size of 0.43-0.65 µm on slight and non-hazy days, and 0.65-1.1 µm on mild, moderate and severe hazy days. Therefore, haze has a great influence on the size distribution of SNA.

10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(8): 3169-3177, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964923

RESUMO

In order to study the influence of dust events on the airborne microbes in atmospheric bioaerosols, bioaerosol samples were continuously collected from March to April 2015 during two dust events using size-fractionated bioaerosol samplers in Lanzhou and Qingdao. The concentration of airborne microbes were measured using an epifluorescence microscope after staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The results showed that the concentration of airborne microbes increased significantly during the period of dust (P<0.05). The average concentrations of airborne microbes on sunny days were 5.61×105 cells·m-3 and 2.08×105 cells·m-3 in Lanzhou and Qingdao, respectively, whereas the mean concentrations on dusty days were 14.8 times and 6.42 times those on sunny days, respectively. The concentration of airborne microbes presented a bimodal size distribution on sunny days in Lanzhou and Qingdao, with a peak at>7.0 µm and the lowest values ranging from 4.7 µm to 7.0 µm. However, the second peak appeared at 3.3-4.7 µm and 1.1-2.1 µm in Lanzhou and Qingdao, respectively. The size distribution of airborne microbes changed during the dust period. The size distribution of microbes still presented a bimodal distribution in Lanzhou; however, one peak shifted from>7.0 µm to 1.1-2.1 µm. The size distribution in Qingdao changed from a bimodal distribution to a skewed distribution with the predominant fraction in coarse mode. The background values of microbial load in PM10 before the dust were 2224 cells·µg-1 and 1550 cells·µg-1 in Lanzhou and Qingdao, respectively, and the highest value of such increased significantly to 26442 cells·µg-1 and 10250 cells·µg-1 during the dust events, respectively. This demonstrated that the high concentration of microbes in the dust events resulted not only from increased atmospheric particles but also from dust source and transportation path along with long-range transported dust particles.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano
11.
Nutrients ; 8(5)2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136583

RESUMO

Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
Molecules ; 21(4): 405, 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27043502

RESUMO

Chestnut shell pigment (CSP) is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP) by heating, and the Cu(II) adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Cyperaceae/química , Melaninas/química , Metais Pesados/química , Adsorção , Cobre/toxicidade , Cinética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água
13.
Molecules ; 21(4): 487, 2016 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110763

RESUMO

Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Fe(2+)-chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2·(-) scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melaninas/farmacologia , Quelantes/química , Corantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 37(11): 4147-4155, 2016 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964664

RESUMO

In order to study the level and size distribution of microbial activity of atmospheric bioaerosols, bioaerosol samples were collected from November 2015 to January 2016 using size-fractionated bioaerosol samplers at the coastal region of Qingdao, and the microbial activity was measured using the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method. The results showed that the level of microbial activity was in the range of 21.89-108.59 ng·m-3 sodium fluorescein during the sampling period, with an average of 59.43 ng·m-3 sodium fluorescein in Qingdao. Size distribution of microbial activity exhibited a tendency, the activity increased with increasing particle size. The microbial activity on particles with coarse size (>2.1 µm) was higher than that on fine size, with the highest average proportion of 24.06% for coarse size larger than 7.0 µm. The daily variation of microbial activity was different for different samples, which showed no significant diurnal variation in winter. The correlation analysis showed that microbial activity was significantly correlated with wind velocity(r=0.445, n=33, **P<0.01) during the sampling period. However, microbial activity showed no significant correlation with the meteorological factors, such as temperature,relative humidity and UV intensity during the sampling period. Moreover, there was no significant correlation of microbial activity with air quality factors, such as AQI, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, O3 and SO2. Source of air mass had significant impact on microbial activity. The average level of microbial activity was 100.33 ng·m-3 sodium fluorescein on sunny days, and the level decreased to 56.53 ng·m-3 sodium fluorescein on hazy days. When the haze was mixed with fog and this special circumstance lasted for several days, the microbial activity reduced to 37.7% of the level of sunny days. Therefore, consecutive hazy weather had great influence on microbial activity.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Poluentes Atmosféricos , China , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado
15.
Apoptosis ; 20(4): 523-34, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25558000

RESUMO

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) is a tumor suppressor and a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. TIMP3 exerts its anti-angiogenic effect via a direct interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) and inhibition of proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells (ECs). TIMP3 has also been shown to induce apoptosis in some cancer cells and vascular smooth muscle cells via MMP inhibition and caspase-dependent mechanisms. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of TIMP3-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that mice developed smaller tumors with decreased vascularity when injected with breast carcinoma cells overexpressing TIMP3, than with control breast carcinoma cells. TIMP3 overexpression resulted in increased apoptosis in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB435) in vivo but not in vitro. However, TIMP3 could induce apoptosis in ECs in vitro. The apoptotic activity of TIMP3 in ECs appears to be independent of MMP inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the equivalent expression of functional TIMP3 promoted apoptosis and caspase activation in ECs expressing KDR (PAE/KDR), but not in ECs expressing PDGF beta-receptor (PAE/ß-R). Surprisingly, the apoptotic activity of TIMP3 appears to be independent of caspases. TIMP3 inhibited matrix-induced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation and association with paxillin and disrupted the incorporation of ß3 integrin, FAK and paxillin into focal adhesion contacts on the matrix, which were not affected by caspase inhibitors. Thus, TIMP3 may induce apoptosis in ECs by triggering a caspase-independent cell death pathway and targeting a FAK-dependent survival pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Caspases/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 35(3): 801-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24881364

RESUMO

Bioaerosol samples were collected in Qingdao coastal region during July 2009 - June 2010 to investigate the concentration and community diversity of microbes in bioaerosols. Microbe concentrations (bacteria and fungi) in marine and terrestrial bioaerosols were determined and diversity indices including Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson's index and Pielou index were calculated in this study. Monthly average concentrations of terrestrial bacteria, marine bacteria, terrestrial fungi and marine fungi were in the ranges of 12-436 CFU x m(-3), 25-561 CFU x m(-3), 0-817 CFU x m(-3) and 11-1346 CFU x m(-3), respectively. There were consistent seasonal variations of these four types of microbe, with higher concentrations in spring and summer and lowest during winter, especially in February. Compared to terrestrial microbes, marine microbes account for higher proportion to the total culturable microbes, with a percentage of 63%. The number of microbial species varied from 17 to 102, and was partially correlated with microbial concentrations, however, it did not show obvious seasonal variation. Based on the analysis of calculated diversity indices, we found that the community diversities of four types of microbe were much higher in January, November and May than in February. The community diversity varied with the season, space and different microbial species, and showed a different seasonal variation from the microbial concentration.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , China
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 75: 301-7, 2014 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24556145

RESUMO

Our previous study reported that a mixture of cerebrosides from traditional Chinese medicine Baifuzi could activate BKCa channel. It is curious to know the effect of each single cerebroside on the channel. Here we isolated 5 pure cerebrosides from the mixture and determined their chemical structures. The most potent one increased the single channel open probability 6 folds with EC50 value of 1.0 µM. The structure-activity relationship revealed that acyl chain length of cerebrosides has potent effect, while configuration of double bond at C8-C9 on their long chain base has weak effect on the channel activity. Thus, this research provides a guide for design and synthesis of a lead cerebroside with more potent effect on the BKCa channel.


Assuntos
Cerebrosídeos/química , Cerebrosídeos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/agonistas , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Cerebrosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cricetulus , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/química , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 35(10): 3651-62, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25693366

RESUMO

To know the influence of different weather conditions on the concentration of metal elements in aerosols in the coastal region, total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected from April to May 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013 in the Qingdao coastal region, and common trace metals were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K and Mg were the dominant metal elements in TSP, and the sum of the six elements accounted for 94.2% of the sum of all metals. TSP and metal elements had significant monthly variations, Fe, Al, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ba, Mn, Ti, Sr and Li had the highest concentration in November and January, while Be, Sc, Co, Ni and Cr showed the highest value in January. Na had the highest concentration in August, November and February, and the lowest in December. Pb had the highest concentration in January and February, and the lowest in August and December. Enrichment factors indicated that Be, Co, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sr and Ti were mainly affected by natural sources; Li, Cr, Ni, Zn, Ba and Na were affected by natural sources and part of anthropogenic sources; Pb was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Different weather conditions had great impact on TSP and metal elements concentrations, all the measured metals had the highest concentrations in smog except Ti. Compared with the sunny day, the concentration of atmospheric particulate Ti decreased, while the other elements increased by 1 to 4 times in smog. Li, Be, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn had little variation in concentration in foggy day, and the concentration of Pb and Na increased considerably. The concentration of Co, Ca and Ti reduced obviously in fog. Except for Cr, Co and Ti, the other elements increased by 1 to 3 times in haze. Most of the elements had the minimal enrichment factors in sunny day, while the other had the maximal enrichment factor in foggy day. Enrichment factors of Ni, Zn, Ba, K, Na, Pb and Sr varied in the order of sunny day < haze day < smog day

Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Atmosfera/análise , Metais/análise , Smog/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Íons , Análise Espectral
19.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e55667, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23469166

RESUMO

Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) while originally characterized as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have recently been shown to have a wide range of functions that are independent of their MMP inhibitory properties. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) is a potent inhibitor of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and neovascularization through its ability to block the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR-2. To identify and characterize the anti-angiogenic domain of TIMP-3, structure function analyses and synthetic peptide studies were performed using VEGF-mediated receptor binding, signaling, migration and proliferation. In addition, the ability of TIMP-3 peptides to inhibit CNV in a mouse model was evaluated. We demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic property resides in the COOH-terminal domain of TIMP-3 protein which can block the binding of VEGF specifically to its receptor VEGFR-2, but not to VEGFR-1 similar to the full-length wild-type protein. Synthetic peptides corresponding to putative loop 6 and tail region of TIMP-3 have anti-angiogenic properties as determined by inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGFR-2, VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and downstream signaling pathways as well as endothelial cell proliferation and migration in response to VEGF. In addition, we show that intravitreal administration of TIMP-3 peptide could inhibit the size of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization lesions in mice. Thus, we have identified TIMP-3 peptides to be efficient inhibitors of angiogenesis and have a potential to be used therapeutically in diseases with increased neovascularization.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização de Coroide/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Animais , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide/lesões , Células Cultivadas , Neovascularização de Coroide/etiologia , Neovascularização de Coroide/genética , Neovascularização de Coroide/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fotocoagulação a Laser/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeos/síntese química , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 33(7): 2180-90, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23002589

RESUMO

To collect comprehensive information on the characteristics and sources of water-soluble ions in the atmospheric aerosol in Qingdao, samples of total suspended particles (TSP) were collected from January to December 2008, and the concentrations of the major water-soluble inorganic ions were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed that SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+ and Cl- were the dominant water-soluble ions in TSP, the sum of the four accounting for 86.9% of water-soluble ions in mass concentration. TSP and water-soluble inorganic ions showed obvious seasonal variations and there were a variety of sources. The mass concentrations of Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, F- and Mg2+ were highest in winter and lowest in summer. The concentrations of K+ and PO4(3-) were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. NO3-, Cl- and SO4(2-) concentrations had the highest values in spring, winter, and spring, respectively. Different weather conditions had great influence on the concentrations of TSP and water-soluble ions. The mass concentrations of TSP were highest in dust weather followed by haze, smog, fog and sunny days. The average mass concentrations of Na+ , Mg2+, Ca2+, F- , Cl- and PO4(3-) were highest in smog days while the other ions in haze days.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Íons/análise , Atmosfera/análise , China , Nitratos/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Sulfatos/análise
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