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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 84, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two important pathogens with zoonotic potential that cause enteric infections in a wide range of hosts, including humans. Both are transmitted from animals to humans by direct contact or through contaminated equipment. Bears are frequently found in Chinese zoos as ornamental animals as well as farmed as commercial animals, and are therefore in close contact with zoo- or farm-keepers, but the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in bears is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to provide data on the occurrence and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in Asiatic black bears from Heilongjiang and Fujian, China. From May 2015 to December 2017, 218 fresh fecal specimens were collected from captive Asiatic black bears in Heilongjiang (n = 36) and Fujian (n = 182), China. Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi were examined by PCR amplification of the partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, respectively. C. andersoni-positive isolates were subtyped through PCR analysis of the four minisatellite/microsatellite (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16) loci. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi were 2.4% (4/218) and 6.4% (14/218), respectively, with 2.8% (1/36) and 22.2% (8/36) in the Heilongjiang Province, and 1.6% (3/182) and 3.3% (6/182) in the Fujian Province. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium species: C. andersoni (n = 3) and a genotype termed Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV (n = 1). All three identified C. andersoni belonged to the MLST subtype A4, A4, A4, A1. Two known E. bieneusi genotypes D (n = 4) and SC02 (n = 10) were identified, both of which belong to zoonotic Group 1. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of C. andersoni and Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV in bears. The discovery of the zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi genotype D in bears highlights its significant zoonotic potential and potential threat to human health.

2.
Food Res Int ; 130: 108885, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156346

RESUMO

Limited oxygenation and over-oxidation experiments were designed to compare the phenolic and chromatic characters of base wines Cabernet Franc (CF), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), and their counterparts that blended with modifier wines Marselan (MA) and Petit Verdot (PV). In both limited oxygenation and over-oxidation conditions, all blend wines generally contained higher C*ab, a* and Red%, and lower hab, b* and Yellow% than their base wine counterparts, because MA contributed flavonols (copigments) and anthocyanins, and PV contributed flavanols (anthocyanin derived pigments precursors). Chromatic changes that can be perceived by human eye (ΔE*ab) in CF based blend wines were more obvious than that of CS based blend wines, which indicate that base wine with lower phenolic concentrations and weak phenolic profiles (CF) might be more prone to be chromatically modified than base wine with higher phenolic concentrations and distinct phenolic profiles (CS). Chemical influences of different blending strategies on anthocyanin derivatives' formations were depending on phenolic profiles of the modifier wines and base wines, and also on the oxygen exposure. The results suggest that the chromatic improvement of base wines could be realized by blending modifier wines under different oxygen exposures.

3.
Parasite ; 27: 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129760

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a zoonotic fungal pathogen with a high degree of host diversity that can parasitize many animals, including humans. Pigs may play an important role in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi as reservoir hosts. Nevertheless, the genotypes of E. bieneusi in pigs in China remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection amongst pigs raised on farms from four cities of Hainan Province, using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the partial small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene, and to identify genotypes of E. bieneusi isolates based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Among 188 stool samples, E. bieneusi was detected in 46.8% (88/188). Eight genotypes including four known (EbpA, CS-4, MJ14, and CHG19) and four novel (HNP-I - HNP-IV) genotypes were identified. Using phylogenetic analysis, genotypes EbpA, CS4, CHG19, HNP-III, and HNP-IV were clustered into zoonotic Group 1, while the remaining three genotypes (MJ14, HNP-I, and HNP-II) clustered into Group 10. The high prevalence of zoonotic genotypes of E. bieneusi among pigs suggests that pig farming is a potential source of human infection. Additionally, this is the first identification of genotypes in Group 10 in pigs indicating unique epidemic features of E. bieneusi in pigs in Hainan Province, the southernmost part of China.

4.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 508: 110791, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173349

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are a group of important molecules mediating calcium signal transmission and have been proved to participate in osteoclastogenesis regulation. CaMKII, a subtype of CaMKs is expressed during osteoclast differentiation, but its role in osteoclastogenesis regulation remains controversial. In the present study, we identified that both mRNA and protein levels of CaMKII (δ) were upregulated in a time-dependent manner during osteoclast differentiation. CaMKII (δ) gene silencing significantly inhibited osteoclast formation, bone resorption, and expression of osteoclast-related genes, including nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and c-Src. Furthermore, CaMKII (δ) gene silencing downregulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including JNK, ERK, and p38, which were transiently activated by RANKL. Specific inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and p38 also markedly inhibited expression of osteoclast-related genes, osteoclast formation, and bone resorption like CaMKII (δ) gene silencing. Additionally, CaMKII (δ) gene silencing also suppressed RANKL-triggered CREB phosphorylation. Collectively, these data demonstrate the important role of CaMKII (δ) in osteoclastogenesis regulation through JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs and CREB pathway.

5.
Food Funct ; 11(3): 2107-2116, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163051

RESUMO

In the study, we investigated the role of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway in cordycepin's effects on human breast cancer cells, with respect to cell growth, apoptosis and metastasis. We found cordycepin to have low toxicity but significant anticancer effects. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis led to increased PUMA, CYTO-C, FAS, DR4/5, and cleaved caspase-3; and decreased BCL-2, XIAP and PDGFR-α. Cordycepin inhibited metastasis, which was associated with up-regulated E-cadherin, and down-regulated N-cadherin, SNAIL, SLUG and ZEB1. Cordycepin also inhibited expression of Hh pathway components and GLI transcriptional activity. Inversely, knockout of GLI blocked cordycepin-mediated effects on the apoptotic, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and Notch pathways, which indicates that GLI is crucial for cordycepin's effects against breast cancer. Inhibition of GLI enhanced cordycepin's effect on breast cancer cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first study of cordycepin's effect on the Hh pathway in breast cancer, and provides preliminary data for the in vivo study, and possible therapeutic use, of cordycepin.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208851

RESUMO

Goodyschle A (1), a new butenolide, was isolated from the whole grass of Goodyera schlechtendaliana, an orchidaceous edible medicinal plant. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by 1 D and 2 D NMR experiments in addition to HRESIMS analyses. Compound 1 was evaluated for its bioactivities including cytotoxic activity against human gastric cancer (SGC-7901) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines, inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and DPPH radical scavenging activity. As a result, compound 1 showed potent BChE inhibitory activity (IC50 value = 6.88 ± 1.63 µM), moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value = 16.25 ± 0.21 µM), and slight AChE inhibitory and cytotoxic activities. These findings suggest that compound 1 is worthy for further investigations in terms of its selective BChE inhibitory activity.

7.
Bioengineered ; 11(1): 449-462, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208897

RESUMO

Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) possess the capacity to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells in response to exogenous stimuli. Histone methylation is one of the most robust epigenetic marks and is essential for the regulation of multiple cellular processes. Previous studies have shown that histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMs) are crucial for the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow, adipose tissue, and tooth tissue. However, little is known about the role of histone methylation in hDPC differentiation. Here, the expression levels of HMTs and HDMs were profiled in hDPCs undergoing odontogenic induction. Among several differentially expressed enzymes, HDM KDM5A demonstrated significantly enhanced expression during cytodifferentiation. Furthermore, KDM5A expression increased during early passages and in a time-dependent manner during odontogenic induction. Using a shRNA-expressing lentivirus, KDM5A was knocked down in hDPCs. KDM5A depletion resulted in greater alkaline phosphatase activity and more mineral deposition formation. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the odontogenic markers DMP1, DSPP, OSX, and OCN were increased by KDM5A knockdown. As a histone demethylase specific for tri- and dimethylated histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3/me2), KDM5A deficiency led to a significant increment in total H3K4me3 levels, whereas no significant difference was found for H3K4 me2. H3K4me3 levels on the promoters of the odontogenic markers increased after KDM5A knockdown in hDPCs. These results demonstrated that KDM5A is present in hDPCs and inhibits the odontogenic differentiation potentiality of hDPCs by removing H3K4me3 from specific gene promoters, suggesting that KDM5A-dependent histone demethylation may play an important role in reparative dentinogenesis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117814

RESUMO

Cyclosporiasis is caused by the coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis and is associated with large and complex food-borne outbreaks worldwide. Associated symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, particularly in infants, and immune dysfunction. With the globalization of human food supply, the occurrence of cyclosporiasis has been increasing in both food growing and importing countries. As well as being a burden on the health of individual humans, cyclosporiasis is a global public health concern. Currently, no vaccine is available but early detection and treatment could result in a favorable clinical outcome. Clinical diagnosis is based on cardinal clinical symptoms and conventional laboratory methods, which usually involve microscopic examination of wet smears, staining tests, fluorescence microscopy, serological testing, or DNA testing for oocysts in the stool. Detection in the vehicle of infection, which can be fresh produce, water, or soil is helpful for case-linkage and source-tracking during cyclosporiasis outbreaks. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) can evidently cure C. cayetanensis infection. However, TMP-SMX is not suitable for patients having sulfonamide intolerance. In such case ciprofloxacin, although less effective than TMP-SMX, is a good option. Another drug of choice is nitazoxanide that can be used in the cases of sulfonamide intolerance and ciprofloxacin resistance. More epidemiological research investigating cyclosporiasis in humans should be conducted worldwide, to achieve a better understanding of its characteristics in this regard. It is also necessary to establish in vitro and/or in vivo protocols for cultivating C. cayetanensis, to facilitate the development of rapid, convenient, precise, and economical detection methods for diagnosis, as well as more effective tracing methods. This review focuses on the advances in clinical features, diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention of cyclosporiasis.

9.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107850, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027893

RESUMO

Experimental rats are important animal models, and a history of pathogenic infections in these animals will directly affect the animal trial results. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a ubiquitous potential pathogen transmitted via the fecal-oral route. To determine the prevalence and genotypic distributions of E. bieneusi in experimental rats in China, 291 fresh fecal samples were collected from four medical experimental animal centers. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was screened via nested-PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Of the rats tested, 4.8% (14/291) were positive for E. bieneusi. Five E. bieneusi ITS genotypes (four known: EbpA, EbpC, CHY1, and N; one novel: SHR1) were detected among 14 sequenced samples. The dominant E. bieneusi genotype was EbpA (50.0%, 7/14). In the phylogenetic analysis, genotypes EbpA and EbpC belonged to the previously described group 1, genotypes N and SHR1 belonged to group 2, and genotype CHY1 belonged to the novel group 12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. bieneusi in experimental laboratory rats in China. Infections with this pathogen must be monitored in laboratory animals, and quality control officers in the medical experimental centers should attempt to trace the pathogen's source and stop its transmission.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075274

RESUMO

Although there are many algorithms to track people that are walking, existing methods mostly fail to cope with occluded bodies in the setting of multi-person tracking with one camera. In this paper, we propose a method to use people's shadows as a clue to track them instead of treating shadows as mere noise. We introduce a novel method to track multiple people by fusing shadow data from the RGB image with skeleton data, both of which are captured by a single RGB Depth (RGB-D) camera. Skeletal tracking provides the positions of people that can be captured directly, while their shadows are used to track them when they are no longer visible. Our experiments confirm that this method can efficiently handle full occlusions. It thus has substantial value in resolving the occlusion problem in multi-person tracking, even with other kinds of cameras.

11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016827

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous toxic heavy metal in the natural environment that can cause multiple organ damage to the bodies of animals and humans. Selenium yeast (SeY) is a kind of organic selenium (Se) that has a very strong function against Cd-induced injury to tissues or organs. The aim of the current study was to investigate the roles of inflammatory factors and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in inflammatory injury triggered by Cd and to analyze the protective effects of SeY on Cd-induced damnification in the livers of chickens. Two hundred 120-day-old layers were randomly divided into four groups and raised on a conventional diet, or with Se (0.5 mg/kg SeY), Cd (150 mg/kg CdCl2), or Se + Cd (0.5 mg/kg SeY and 150 mg/kg CdCl2) in their basic diets for 120 days. Then, the liver histopathology, production of nitric oxide (NO), activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammatory factors (iNOS, NF-κB, TNF-α, and PTGE) and heat shock proteins (HSPs 27, 40, 60, 70, and 90) were examined. The results showed that exposure to Cd obviously increased Cd accumulation, NO production, iNOS activity, inflammatory factor, and HSP mRNA and protein expression levels and further caused an inflammatory response. Supplementation with SeY had an antagonistic effect on Cd-induced inflammatory injury in chicken livers. Thus, the present study suggests that SeY can be taken as a potential therapeutic for Cd-induced liver inflammatory injury in chickens.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Older antimicrobials, such as fosfomycin, are being considered as alternative agents in the treatment of drug-resistant organisms; however, there is limited data on the usefulness of fosfomycin in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fosfomycin resistance and associated mechanisms in CRKP. METHODS: 99 CRKP clinical strains were collected in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (Wenzhou, China) between January 2017 and June 2018. Fosfomycin susceptibility testing was carried out using the agar dilution method. Carbapenemases and fosfomycinases genes were detected by PCR, Analysis of themurA, glpT, uhpT, uhpA, pstI and cyaA genes was performed by PCR and sequencing four fosfomycin-resistant fosA3-negative CRKP strains. Conjugation experiments were employed to determine the mobility of fosA3 gene. RESULTS: Fosfomycin non-susceptibility was detected in 48.5% (48/99) isolates, and thefosA3 gene was detected in 44 strains of fosfomycin non-susceptible CRKP. Among the four fosfomycin-resistant fosA3-negative CRKPs, one strain possessed single nucleotide insertion and deletion mutations, 219 nucleotide substitution mutations in murA; two strains possessed deletion or mutation of large DNA fragments in glpT; one strains possessed a fragment insertion sequence in glpT. Transfection into Escherichia coli J53 via plasmid conjugation, was successful for 19 of the 44 fosA3-positive CRKPs (43.2%). CONCLUSIONS: ThefosA3 gene is the primary mechanism of fosfomycin resistance in CRKP and can be transmitted widely by plasmid in hospitals. Mutations in murA and glpT were found in fosfomycin-resistant fosA3-negative CRKP.

13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 15, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal parasites in humans and various animals worldwide. Few studies are available regarding the genetic characterization of Blastocystis infections in humans in China. METHODS: In the present study, 609 fecal samples were collected from two- to six-year-old kindergarten children in southern Xinjiang and were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The infection rate of Blastocystis was 14.3% (87/609); no significant difference was observed among counties and between sexes. Blastocystis subtypes ST1 (n = 38), ST2 (n = 8), and ST3 (n = 41) were identified by sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Genetic polymorphisms were observed at the intra-subtype level, including seven variations for ST1 (ST1A to ST1G), four for ST2 (ST2A to ST2D), and two for ST3 (ST3A and ST3B); with ST1F and ST2B being new variations. CONCLUSIONS: ST1 and ST3 are the two common Blastocystis subtypes in the study area. More extensive studies in both humans and animals in different regions are needed to better characterize the transmission of Blastocystis.

14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 483-490, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919578

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic intestinal parasite infecting humans and mammals worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of G. duodenalis in racehorses in China and genetically characterized it. In total, 621 fecal samples were collected from racehorses at 17 equestrian clubs in 15 cities in China. Forty-eight (7.7%) animals from 11 equestrian clubs were positive for G. duodenalis of assemblages A (n = 10), B (n = 36), and E (n = 2), based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of this parasite were detected among the different equestrian clubs (χ2 = 49.55, df = 16, p < 0.01), whereas no significant differences were detected according to age (χ2 = 0.64, df = 1, p > 0.05) or sex (χ2 = 1.41, df = 2, p > 0.05). The G. duodenalis-positive samples were further subtyped based on three other genes, which identified 5, 4, and 4 genotypes at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and ß-giardin (bg) loci, respectively. Subassemblage BIV was the predominant genotype. A phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of subassemblage BIV showed that the multilocus genotypes from the horses were genetically different from those of humans and nonhuman primates, indicating the evolution of host separation in G. duodenalis subassemblage BIV. Our study extends our understanding of the transmission of G. duodenalis between animals and humans.

15.
Neurol Sci ; 41(2): 335-340, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) on blood coagulation function and cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: According to inclusion and exclusion standards, from October 2017 to June 2018, 30 consecutive patients of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neurosurgery at Xuanwu Hospital, were given remote ischemic conditioning 5 times intervention to each patient within 7 days, and blood coagulation function testing, including prothrombin activity (PTA), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer, and thromboelastogram (TEG, including R, K, Angle, MA, EPL, LY30, A, CI, G, and A30) were performed for each patient before and after the RIC intervention, as well as venous ultrasound monitoring before and after the RIC intervention for detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Transcranial Doppler evaluation (TCD), including cerebral blood flow of bilateral ACA, MCA, PCA and intracranial segments of VA, as well as BA and the ratios of MCA cerebral blood flow/terminal segment of ipsilateral ICA cerebral blood flow, was performed before and after RIC intervention; and fresh infarction was evaluated by head CT or MRI recheck after RIC intervention. Thirty cases without RIC intervention of matched age, gender, and Hunt Hess grade with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were selected to compare coagulation function and cerebral blood flow using TCD with RIC group. RESULTS: (1) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, there was no significant difference for APTT, Fib, and D-dimer (P > 0.05), while PTA decreased and PT increased slightly after intervention as well as INR (P < 0.05) but all still in normal reference values. (2) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, within TEG parameters, only the R value increased with significant difference (P < 0.05) but still in normal reference value, while K, Angle, MA, EPL, LY30, A, CI, G, and A30 had no significant difference (P > 0.05). (3) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, DVT was not detected on the pressurized limbs of patients. (4) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, the cerebral blood flow of bilateral MCA, L-ACA, L-VA, and BA increased (P < 0.05), while the elevation ranges were all in 25%, and the other parameters showed no significant difference. (5) Head CT or MRI showed no fresh cerebral infarction after the RIC intervention. (6) Compared with the group without RIC intervention, the coagulation function and the cerebral blood flow evaluated by TCD of the RIC group showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05) except APTT and D-dimer decreased after RIC but still in normal reference values. CONCLUSION: RIC showed no obvious effect on blood coagulation function and cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage both after the intervention and compared with the non-intervention group. DVT was not detected on the pressurized limbs of patients and no fresh cerebral infarction was detected. This preliminary study confirmed the safety of RIC on blood coagulation function and cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the application of RIC on patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage needs further study to confirm and validate the safety and effectiveness.

16.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125023, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606573

RESUMO

Zwitterionic pharmaceuticals and personal care products can interact with adsorbents in different ways due to their various properties. In this work, the effects of hydrophobicity and electrostatic potential were explored through the adsorption of ciprofloxacin (CPX) and tetracycline (TC) onto multifunctional resins. Nonionic surface interaction was dominant for the adsorption on high-surface-area resin GMA10. Thereinto, hydrophobic and π-π interaction dominant for hydrophobic CPX and hydrophilic TC, respectively. Electrostatic interaction played an important role for high-anion-exchange-capacity resin GMA90. Upon their adsorption onto GMA50 resin, the relatively separated positive and negative electrostatic potentials of CPX+- due to the greater distance (∼12.33 Å) between the anionic and cationic groups led to electrostatic attraction and interaction (Ea = 8.64 ±â€¯0.31 kJ/mol) and the vertical orientation of molecule on the surface. However, TC+-0 displayed nonionic surface interaction (Ea = 7.96 ±â€¯0.14 kJ/mol) due to its relatively neutral electrostatic potential arising from the adjacent functional groups. Hence, the surface of GMA50 was covered with TC+-0 molecules adsorbed parallel to the surface, thereby restricting TC+-0 adsorption. Coexisted with monovalent salts, CPX adsorption was facilitated due to the salting-out effect. By contrast, the salting-out effect for TC was extremely weak, and TC adsorption was restrained due to the competitive adsorption of salts.


Assuntos
Adsorção , Resinas de Troca de Ânions/química , Cosméticos/química , Tensoativos/química , Ciprofloxacino/química , Ciprofloxacino/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Sais , Eletricidade Estática , Tetraciclina/química , Tetraciclina/isolamento & purificação
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(2): 769-778, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticides are still the main method of mosquito control, but mosquito resistance presents a large obstacle. The function of mitochondrial genes in the evolution of insecticide resistance is still poorly understood. Pyrethroid is the most commonly used insecticide, and Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and Southeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial genes associated with pyrethroid resistance through their genetic and expression variation based on analyses of transcriptomes and 36 individuals with resequencing in three geographical populations in China. RESULTS: The nucleotide diversity (Pi) in 18 resistant individuals was much lower than that in 18 susceptible individuals, which suggests that some sites experienced purifying selection subject to pyrethroid stress. Ka/Ks and amino acid analyses showed that ND4 experienced positive selection and had 23 amino acid mutations due to pyrethroid stress. These mutations might change the ND4 structure and function and thus alter the efficiency of the respiratory chain. ND5 was significantly upregulated, and ATP8 was significantly downregulated in these three pyrethroid resistant populations, which suggests that these two genes function in the production and maintenance of pyrethroid resistance. There are differences in mitochondrial genes involved in pyrethroid resistance among these three populations. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to reveal the association of mitochondrial genes in the evolution of insecticide resistance through amino acid mutation and expression patterns and can help us further understand insecticide resistance mechanisms. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

18.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 870: 172817, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756334

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disorder of the urinary system in aging men. 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-[3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazinyl) propyl] acetamide (HJZ-3), which is derived from naftopidil, exhibited 97.7- and 64.6-fold greater inhibitory effects for a1D adrenoceptor than for a1B- and a1A-adrenoceptors in vitro, respectively. To investigate the therapeutic potential for treating BPH, we evaluated the pharmacological activity of HJZ-3. Specifically, we evaluated through estrogen/androgen-induced rat benign prostatic hyperplasia model in vivo. HJZ-3 effectively prevented the progression of rat prostatic hyperplasia by suppressing the increase in prostate index and reducing the quantitative analysis of the relative acinus volume, relative stroma, epithelial volume and epithelial thickness and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and α-smooth muscle actin. HJZ-3 decreased α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptor protein expressions in prostate tissue. HJZ-3 is a good alternative for α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptor blocker. It may relax smooth muscle tone and relieve symptoms of BPH.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 381: 120964, 2020 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421553

RESUMO

A series of experiments were conducted at a bench scale reactor to investigate the effects of key influencing factors on the Hg0 removal from flue gas using the prepared diperiodatoargentate (III) (DPA) as an oxidant, trace ruthenium(III) as a catalyst, respectively. The experimental results showed that the average Hg0 removal efficiency reached to 87.5% under the optimal conditions in which the DPA concentration was 1.03 mmol/L, catalyst concentration was 2.0 µmol/L, reaction temperature was 40 °C and solution pH was 8.5. Meanwhile, it was found from the experiments that the high concentrations of SO2 and NO could inhibit the Hg0 removal due to the competition between Hg0 and SO2/NO, while the lower NO concentration exhibited a slight promotion for Hg0 removal. The evolutions of DPA(III) and Ru(III) before and after the reaction were characterized by an ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), from which, the promotional mechanism of Ru(III) on Hg0 removal was analyzed. The spent solution was analyzed by a cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometer (CVAFS), which verified that Hg0 was oxidized into Hg2+ by the catalytic system of DPA(III)-Ru(III), and DPA was converted into Ag+.

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 144: 615-623, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843600

RESUMO

The structural modification of polysaccharides directly affects their physicochemical properties and applications. Dextran, a chained polysaccharide, consists of multiple d-glucose molecules with repetitive structures. In this study, the physicochemical properties of oxidized dextran (DO) at different concentrations of NaClO/NaBr and H2O2 were compared. The results showed that NaClO/NaBr oxidation is more conducive to the formation of carboxyl groups. Oxidized dextran with NaClO/NaBr (DOB) showed good iron (III) chelating ability, and the DOB­iron (III) complex (DOBIC) had an iron content of 28.31%. According to structural analysis, NaClO/NaBr (2 g/100 g of active chlorine) and H2O2 (4 g/100 g), respectively, oxidize the C1 and C2 hydroxyl groups of dextran to carboxyl groups and open the ring when DO and iron have the strongest chelation ability. The complex is indeed a chelate iron complex, and iron core is composed of iron oxyhydroxide or the ß-FeOOH mineral polymorph. These results indicate that DOBIC is expected to be a good iron supplement or food additive to strengthen iron.

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