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1.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424158

RESUMO

Bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) belongs to genus Mamastravirus (MAstV). It can be detected in the faeces of both diarrhoeal and healthy calves. However, its prevalence, genetic diversity, and association with cattle diarrhoea are poorly understood. In this study, faecal samples of 87 diarrhoeal and 77 asymptomatic calves from 20 farms in 12 provinces were collected, and BoAstV was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence rate of this virus in diarrhoeal and asymptomatic calves was 55.17 % (95 % CI: 44.13, 65.85 %) and 36.36 % (95 % CI: 25.70, 48.12 %), respectively, indicating a correlation between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.15, P=0.024). BoAstV existed mainly in the form of co-infection (85.53 %) with one to five of nine viruses, and there was a strong positive correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.83, P=0.004). Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed this correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.41, P=0.038). The co-infection of BoAstV and bovine rotavirus (BRV) with or without other viruses accounted for 70.77 % of all the co-infection cases. The diarrhoea risk for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and BRV was 8.14-fold higher than that for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and other viruses (OR=8.14, P=0.001). Further, the co-infection of BoAstV/BRV/bovine kobuvirus (BKoV) might increase the risk of calf diarrhoea by 14.82-fold, compared with that of BoAstV and other viruses (OR=14.82, P <0.001). Then, nearly complete genomic sequences of nine BoAstV strains were assembled by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. Sequence alignment against known astrovirus (AstV) strains at the levels of both amino acids and nucleotides showed a high genetic diversity. Four genotypes were identified, including two known genotypes MAstV-28 (n=3) and MAstV-33 (n=2) and two novel genotypes designated tentatively as MAstV-34 (n=1) and MAstV-35 (n=3). In addition, seven out of nine BoAstV strains showed possible inter-genotype recombination and cross-species recombination. Therefore, our results increase the knowledge about the prevalence and the genetic evolution of BoAstV and provide evidence for the association between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coinfecção , Diarreia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Prevalência
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373390

RESUMO

The genus Rotavirus comprises eight species, designated A to H, and two recently identified tentative species I in dogs and J in bats. Species Rotavirus A, B, C and H (RVA, RVB, RVC and RVH) have been detected in humans and animals. While human and animal RVA are well characterized and defined, complete porcine genome sequences in the GenBank are limited compared to human strains. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to sequence the 11 segments of RVA, RVC and RVH strains from piglets in the United States (US) and explore the evolutionary relations of these RV species. Metagenomics identified Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronoviridae in samples MN9.65 and OK5.68 while Picobirnaviridae and Arteriviridae were only identified in sample OK5.68. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses identified multiple genotypes with the RVA of strain MN9.65 and OK5.68, with the genome constellation of G5/G9-P[7]/P[13]-I5/I5- R1/R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1/E1-H1 and G5/G9-P[6]/P[7]-I5-R1/R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1/T7-E1/E1-H1, respectively. The RVA strains had a complex evolutionary relationship with other mammalian strains. The RVC strain OK5.68 had a genome constellation of G9-P[6]-I1-R1-C5-M6-A5-N1-T1-E1-H1, and shared an evolutionary relationship with porcine strains from the US. The RVH strains MN9.65 and OK5.68 had the genome constellation of G5-P1-I1-R1-C1-M1-A5-N1-T1-E4-H1 and G5-P1-I1-R1-C1-M1-A5-N1-T1-E1-H1, indicating multiple RVH genome constellations are circulating in the US. These findings allow us to understand the complexity of the enteric virome, develop improved screening methods for RVC and RVH strains, facilitate expanded rotavirus surveillance in pigs, and increase our understanding of the origin and evolution of rotavirus species.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/genética , Sus scrofa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Viroma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155439

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a significant global, enteric coronavirus in pigs and was first reported in Colombia in 2014. However, the epidemiology, genetic and antigenic characteristics of the virus have yet to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the dissemination of PEDV by testing 536 samples by RT-PCR over a 33-month period. The 35.8% of positive samples (n = 192) was significantly different (p < .01) between months over time, with a higher number of positives samples occurring at the beginning of the epidemic and during the second epidemic wave within the main pork producing region. The complete PEDV genomes were generated for 21 strains, which shared a high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity, except for the spike (S) gene. Recombinant regions were identified within the Colombian strains and between Colombian and Asian PEDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the 21 Colombian strains demonstrated the presence of 7 lineages that shared common ancestors with PEDV strains from the United States. Moreover, the antigenic analysis demonstrated residue differences in the neutralizing epitopes in the spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Our results illustrated the simultaneous introduction of the two PEDV genotypes (GIIa American pandemic and S-INDEL) into the Colombian swine industry during the 2014 PEDV epidemic and enhanced our understanding of the epidemiology and molecular diversity of PEDV in Colombia.

4.
Inflammation ; 40(1): 1-12, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718095

RESUMO

Indirubin plays an important role in the treatment of many chronic diseases and exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mode of action during mastitis prophylaxis remains poorly understood. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis mouse model showed that indirubin attenuated histopathological changes in the mammary gland, local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, indirubin significantly downregulated the production of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We explored the mechanism whereby indirubin exerts protective effects against LPS-induced inflammation of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs). The addition of different concentrations of indirubin before exposure of cells to LPS for 1 h significantly attenuated inflammation and reduced the concentrations of the three inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin downregulated LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, inhibited phosphorylation of the LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) P65 protein and its inhibitor IkBα of the NF-kB signaling pathway. Furthermore, indirubin suppressed phosphorylation of P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways. Thus, indirubin effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammation via TLR4 abrogation mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways and may be useful for mastitis prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Animais , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Front Vet Sci ; 4: 217, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326951

RESUMO

Fecal samples (n = 76) were collected from 38 snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (China) and examined for the presence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). The 56 samples originated from 30 free-ranging monkeys on the reserve and 20 samples from 8 captive monkeys that were previously rescued and kept at the research center. Eight diarrhea samples were collected from four of the eight captive monkeys (two samples from each monkey), and two EPEC strains (2.6%) (95% confidence interval 0.3-9.2%) were isolated from two fecal samples from two diarrheic monkeys. Both strains belonged to serotype O98 and phylogenetic group D (TspE4C2+, ChuA+). The virulence gene detection identified these strains as an atypical EPEC (aEPEC) (bfpB - , stx1 - , and stx2-) with the subtype eae+, escV+, and intiminß+. These strains were highly sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. The lethal dose 50% of the two isolates in Kunming mice was 7.40 × 108 CFU/0.2 mL and 2.40 × 108 CFU/0.2 mL, respectively, indicating low virulence. Based on the report that this serotype had been isolated from some other non-human animals and humans with diarrhea, the first identification of aEPEC O98 strains and their drug resistance profile in R. roxellana is of ecological significance for disease control in this endangered species.

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