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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the use of expanded-criteria donors (ECDs) alleviates the problem of organ shortage, it significantly increases the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF). DGF is a common complication after kidney transplantation; however, the effect of DGF on graft loss is uncertain based on the published literature. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DGF and allograft survival. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observation cohort study. A total of 284 deceased donors and 541 recipients between February 2012 and March 2017 were included. We used logistic regression analysis to verify the association between clinical parameters and DGF, and Cox proportional hazards models were applied to quantify the hazard ratios of DGF for kidney graft loss. RESULTS: Among the 284 deceased donors, 65 (22.8%) donors were ECD. Of the 541 recipients, 107 (19.8%) recipients developed DGF, and this rate was higher with ECD kidneys than with standard-criteria donor (SCD) kidneys (29.2% vs. 17.1%; P = 0.003). The 5-year graft survival rate was not significantly different between SCD kidney recipients with and without DGF (95.8% vs. 95.4%; P = 0.580). However, there was a significant difference between ECD kidney recipients with and without DGF (71.4% vs. 97.6%; P = 0.001), and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for graft loss for recipients with DGF was 1.885 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.305-7.630; P = 0.024). Results showed that induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin was protective against DGF (odds ratio = 0.359; 95% CI = 0.197-0.652; P = 0.001) with all donor kidneys and a protective factor for graft survival (HR = 0.308; 95% CI = 0.130-0.728; P = 0.007) with ECD kidneys. CONCLUSION: DGF is an independent risk factor for graft survival in recipients with ECD kidneys, but not SCD kidneys.

2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(2): 951-955, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014939

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an undifferentiated small round blue cell tumor most commonly originating in the bone of adolescents 10-20 years of age, although 30% are diagnosed in adults. The most important prognostic factor is the presence of metastatic disease. Results of the EURO-EWING 99 trial of ES patients showed that local treatment of not only the primary, but also of the sites of metastatic disease should be considered to improve event-free survival. The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been extensively reported for tumors of lung, liver, pancreas, and spine. The use of SBRT in these sites is well-accepted. Here, we report a detailed case of SBRT to multisite metastatic ES. We demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of aggressive local control with multisite SBRT for the treatment of metastatic ES.

3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 523(3): 573-579, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932036

RESUMO

The applications of dextran depend not only on the molecular weight but also on the types and number of branches. In this study, dextran generated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides (L.M.CICC-20724) was characterized by fourier-transform infrared spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our analyses showed that dextran was a polysaccharide composed of d-glucose units with predominantly α(1 â†’ 6) linkages in the main chain and few α(1 â†’ 3) linkages in the branch. Periodate oxidation, a classic chemical method, was usually combined with Smith degradation and gas chromatography to analyze glycosidic linkages in polysaccharide quantitatively. In this study, we calculated the exact straight-chain/branched-chain ratio in the dextran using periodate oxidation only. The ratios obtained by periodate oxidation only were compared to the ratios obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance. The results showed that the ratios of the two groups were nearly equal, and the average relative error between the two groups was 0.83%. This method was evaluated and found to be accurate and stable. This technique provided a convenient and straightforward chemical method for the quantitative analysis of the straight-chains and branched-chains in polysaccharides which had a similar structure. The ratios during the enzymatic synthesis process of dextran were analyzed by this method and were found to be stable with a high level of approximately 95% on average.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 523(3): 651-657, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948759

RESUMO

Non-digestible oligosaccharides have wide food industrial applications as dietary fibers and prebiotics. The aim of this study is to realize the effective biosynthesis of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) and reduce the production of by-product dextran. In the presence of acceptors improved the dextransucrase reaction shifting to oligosaccharides formation but a number of by-products dextran appeared. Maltose acceptor performed stronger inhibition behaviors in dextran synthesis than lactose and glucose acceptor due to its higher efficiencies. Acceptors had no influence on the structure of by-product dextran which mainly composed of α-(1,6)-glycosidic linkages and low α-(1,3)-glycosidic branch. In addition, the Mw and contents of IMOs and oligodextrans synthesized by dual-enzyme were hard to control. Addition of maltose acceptor in the dual-enzyme reaction, the adequate dextranase preferentially degraded dextran than the acceptor products to yield the IMOs. Results indicated that the combined use of the dual-enzyme and the maltose acceptor is a simple and effective method to promote the high-quality of functional IMOs.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 252: 112583, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978519

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mu-Xiang-You-Fang (MXYF) is a classic prescription of Hui medicine. It is composed of five herbs and has been used to treat ischemic stroke for many years. However, the potential pharmacological mechanisms of MXYF remain unclear. The present research is aimed to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of MXYF treatment in an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) model of PC12 cells was established. The effect of MXYF on the cell viability after OGD/R injury was determined using a cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay. The colorimetric method was used to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate. The calcium concentration was determined by the chemical fluorescence method, and mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using flow cytometry. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and electron microscopic analysis were then conducted to detect autophagy after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion in PC12 cells. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of proteins associated with autophagy. RESULTS: It was found that MXYF (1, 2, 4 µg/mL) could significantly increase cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and decrease the calcium concentration and LDH release rate in PC12 cells. After OGD/R injury in PC12 cells, the number of autophagosomes and autophagolysosome significantly increased. MXYF (4 µg/mL) inhibited the autophagy induced by OGD/R and inhibited the expression of LC3, beclin1, p-AMPK, and ULK1. In contrast, the expression of p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, and p62 was significantly enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that MXYF inhibits autophagy after OGD/R-induced PC12 cell injury through the AMPK-mTOR pathway. Thus, MXYF might have therapeutic potential in treating ischemic stroke.

6.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 1591019919896940, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus indicated poor clinical prognosis for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, diabetes mellitus could also impact the hemostatic system, while its influence on the histological composition of thrombus is unclear. METHODS: Consecutive patients with retrieved clots were included. Histologic staining for thrombus included hematoxylin and eosin, Martius Scarlet Blue, immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor. The differences in clot composition were compared according to diabetes mellitus history or hyperglycemia (≥7.8 mmol/L) on admission. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients were included; half of them were diagnosed as diabetes mellitus previously. Diabetic patients showed higher serum glucose on admission (8.90 vs. 7.40, p = 0.012). The baseline characteristics (expect smoking history and thrombus location), procedural, and clinical outcomes were similar between diabetic patients and nondiabetic patients. As for histologic composition, thrombus in patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus had more fibrin (44.2% vs. 28.3%, p = 0.004) and fewer red blood cells (26.0% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.013) and equivalent content of platelets (24.0% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.694) and von Willebrand factor (0.041 vs. 0.031, p = 0.234) than patients without diabetes mellitus. However, there was no statistical difference in the content of red blood cells (41.6% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.105), fibrin (37.6% vs. 34.3%, p = 0.627), platelets (21.2% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.498), and von Willebrand factor (0.038 vs. 0.034, p = 0.284) between patients with or without hyperglycemia on admission. CONCLUSION: Clots in diabetic patients had more fibrin and fewer erythrocyte components compared with patients without diabetes mellitus, while hyperglycemia on admission did not show association with clot composition. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(12): 1843-1846, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950937

RESUMO

As the most abundant protein in blood, human serum albumin (HSA) is usually regarded as an interferent in clinical molecular diagnosis. Herein, we report that HSA is an endogenous signal amplifier for the detection of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human plasma. This is the first study to utilize intrinsic biological components as the signal amplifier in blood tests.

8.
Food Chem ; 310: 125865, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757488

RESUMO

Although infant formula represents an important human milk substitute, it has been shown to contain many different lipid structures compared to human milk. In this study, the lipidome and fatty acid composition of human, bovine and caprine milk were analyzed and compared. A total of 13 lipid classes (including TG, DG, SM, PC, Cer, HexCer, Hex2Cer, PE, PG, PS, PI, PA and CL) were analyzed. Human milk was richer in TG containing LA, SM containing ULCFA and PLs containing ARA, DHA and DGLA. Moreover, there were no differential DG and SM species between human and caprine milk. A total of 215 and 147 lipids were identified as potential biomarkers that could be used to further analyze differences in the biological properties of human, bovine and caprine milk. This comprehensive analysis will hopefully help in the design of infant formula more suitable for Chinese babies.

9.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 90-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760318

RESUMO

Presentation of viral epitopes by swine MHC I (termed leukocyte antigen class I, SLA I) to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is crucial for swine immunity. The SLA-2 structure, however, remains largely unknown. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the crystal structure of SLA-2*04:02:02 complexed with one peptide, derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), was analyzed in this study. SLA-2*04:02:02 and swine ß2-microglobulin (sß2m) were refolded in vitro in the presence of peptides. X-ray diffraction data of SLA-2*04:02:02-peptide-sß2m (referred to as p/SLA-2*04:02:02) were collected. The diffraction dataset was 2.3 Šin resolution and the space group was P3(2)21. Relevant data included a = 101.8 Å, b = 101.8 Å, c = 73.455 Å,α = 90.00°, ß = 90.00°, γ = 120.00°. The structure of p/SLA-2*04:02:02 was analyzed. The results revealed that Glu24, Met68, Gly76, and Gln173 in PBG of SLA-2*04:02:02 are different from other MHC I. Furthermore, Asn63 is different from other SLA I. Gln57, Met174 and Gln180 in PBG of SLA I are different from other species' MHC I. All of these features are different from known mammalian peptide-MHC class I complexes (referred to as p/MHC I). In addition, P4-His, P6-Val, and P8-Pro in the peptide were exposed, and these residues as epitopes can be presented by SLA-2*04:02:02. This study not only provides a structural basis for peptide presentation by SLA-2, but also screens one potential FMDV CTL epitope. The results may be of interest in future vaccine development.

10.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(1): 15-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650227

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are types of lasting environmental pollutants which are widely used in various industries. 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CBP) is a PCB which is harmful to the environment as well as humans. Two strains, CB-3 and CD-2, were isolated from the polluted soil of a chemical factory and could completely degrade 50 mg/L 4CBP within 12 h by co-culture. The consortium comprising strains CB-3 and CD-2 was effective in the degradation of 4CBP. 4CBP was degraded initially by strain CB-3 to accumulate 4-chlorobenzoate (4CBA) and further oxidised by strain CD-2. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phenotypic typing, strain CB-3 and strain CD-2 were identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Comamonas sp., respectively. The substrate spectra experiment showed that strain CB-3 could degrade PCBs with no more than three chlorine atoms. A gene cluster of biphenyl metabolism was found in the genome of strain CB-3. Besides, a dechlorination gene cluster and a gene cluster of protocatechuate (PCA) metabolic were found in the genome of strain CD-2. These gene clusters are supposed to be involved in 4CBP degradation. The ability of strains CB-3 and CD-2 to degrade 4CBP in soil was assessed by soil experiment, and 4CBP at the initial concentration of 10 mg/kg was 80.5% removed within 15 days.

11.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 28(1): 62-71, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725384

RESUMO

Mental fatigue is growingly considered to be associated with functional brain dysconnectivity. Although conventional wisdom suggests that rest break is an effective countermeasure, the underlying neural mechanisms and how they modulate fatigue-related brain dysconnectivity is largely unknown. Here, we introduce an empirical method to examine the reorganization of dynamic functional connectivity (FC) in a two-session experiment where one session including a mid-task break (Rest) compared to a successive task design in the other session (No-rest). Temporal brain networks were estimated from 20 participants and the spatiotemporal architecture was examined using our newly developed temporal efficiency analysis framework. We showed that taking a mid-task break leads to a restorative effect towards the end of experiment instead of immediate post-rest behaviour benefits. More importantly, we revealed a potential neural basis of our behaviour observation: the reduced spatiotemporal global integrity of temporal brain network in No-rest session was significantly improved with the break opportunity in the last task block of Rest session. Overall, we provided novel evidence to support beneficial effect of rest breaks in both behaviour performance and brain function. Moreover, these findings extended prior static FC studies of mental fatigue and highlight that altered dynamic FC may underlie cognitive fatigue.

12.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(2): 300-305, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786638

RESUMO

A novel strain, HME-24T, was isolated from herbicide bensulfuron-methyl-contaminated soil in Jiangning District, Jiangsu Province, China. Strain HME-24T was a Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, and the colonies on R2A agar are yellow. The strain was non-sporulating, catalase- and oxidase-positive. Cells growth occurred at 15-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, 7.0) and with 0-1.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5% NaCl). Strain HME-24T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to Edaphocola aurantiacus H2T (99.58%), followed by Taibaiella chishuiensis AY17T (94.02%). The sole respiratory quinone was Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), the major polar lipids of strain HME-24T were two unidentified lipids, two unidentified aminolipids, an unidentified glycolipid and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content values based on total genome sequences of strain HME-24T and H2T were 43.6 mol% and 43.8 mol%, respectively. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) for draft genomes between strain HME-24T and H2T was 94.8%, and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) for draft genomes between strain HME-24T and H2T was 59.2%. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analysis, strain HME-24T represents a novel species of the genus Edaphocola, with the name Edaphocola flava sp. nov. being proposed. The type strain of Edaphocola flava is HME-24T (= KCTC 62977T = CGMCC 1.13935T).

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876024

RESUMO

AIM: There is increasing evidence that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with widespread brain dysconnectivity. Mindfulness practice, which involves focused attention to experience the present moment in a purposeful way, has been shown to confer positive psychological and functional brain changes in healthy practitioners. It is unclear whether mindfulness practice could improve functional brain connectivity in older adults with cognitive impairment. METHODS: Forty-seven participants with MCI were randomized into two groups: a mindfulness practice group and a control group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and neurocognitive tests were performed before and after the 3-month intervention. A temporal efficiency analysis approach was used to examine the spatiotemporal networks of the brain. RESULTS: Participants in the mindfulness group had significantly better temporal global efficiency than controls after 3-months of intervention. Localized changes of temporal nodal properties were present in the right cingulate gyrus, insula, and left superior temporal gyrus. Together, these results suggest greater information transmission efficiency at both the global and local spatiotemporal level. In terms of cognitive function, verbal recognition memory improved in the mindfulness group compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: Elders who practiced mindfulness had better brain network efficiency and neurocognitive function relative to controls in this study, suggesting that mindfulness may be of benefit to aging adults with early cognitive degeneration.

14.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients. SRS has the advantages of highly conformal radiation dose delivery in the upfront and retreatment settings, means for dose intensification, and administration over a limited number of sessions leading to a decreased treatment burden. In this study, the authors report the oncological and toxicity outcomes for AYA patients with metastatic sarcoma treated with spine radiosurgery and provide clinicians a guide for considerations in dose, volume, and fractionation. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved database of patients treated with SRS in the period from October 2014 through December 2018 was queried. AYA patients, defined by ages 15-29 years, who had been treated with SRS for spine metastases from Ewing sarcoma or osteosarcoma were included in this analysis. Patients with follow-ups shorter than 6 months after SRS were excluded. Local control, overall survival, and toxicity were reported. RESULTS: Seven patients with a total of 11 treated lesions were included in this study. Median patient age was 20.3 years (range 15.1-26.1 years). Three patients had Ewing sarcoma (6 lesions) and 4 patients had osteosarcoma (5 lesions). The median dose delivered was 35 Gy in 5 fractions (range 16-40 Gy, 1-5 fractions). The median follow-up was 11.1 months (range 6.8-26.0 months). Three local failures were observed within the follow-up period. No acute grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. One patient developed late grade 3 toxicity consisting of radiation enteritis. This patient had previously received radiation to an overlapping volume with conventional fractionation. SRS re-irradiation for this patient was also performed concurrently with chemotherapy administration. No late grade 4 or higher toxicities were observed. No pain flare or vertebral compression fracture was observed. Three patients died within the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: SRS for spine metastases from Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma can be considered as a treatment option in AYA patients and is associated with acceptable toxicity rates. Further studies must be conducted to determine long-term local control and toxicity for this treatment modality.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17734, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776410

RESUMO

A new energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EDXAS) method is presented for simultaneous wide-field imaging and transmission X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to enable rapid imaging and speciation of elements. Based on spectral K-Edge Subtraction imaging (sKES), a bent Laue imaging system diffracting in the vertical plane was developed on a bend magnet beamline for selenium speciation. The high flux and small vertical focus, forming a wide horizontal line beam for projection imaging and computed tomography applications, is achieved by precise matching of lattice plane orientation and crystal surface (asymmetry angle). The condition generating a small vertical focus for imaging also provides good energy dispersion. Details for achieving sufficient energy and spatial resolution are demonstrated for both full field imaging and computed tomography in quantifying selenium chemical species. While this system has lower sensitivity as it uses transmission and may lack the flux and spatial resolution of a dedicated focused beamline system, it has significant potential in rapid screening of heterogeneous biomedical or environmental systems to correlate metal speciation with function.

16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671876

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat. Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the resistance of wheat to F. graminearum. Cell wall mannoprotein (CWM) is known to trigger defense responses in plants, but its role in the pathogenicity of F. graminearum remains unclear. Here, we characterized FgCWM1 (FG05_11315), encoding a CWM in F. graminearum. FgCWM1 was highly expressed in wheat spikes by 24 h after initial inoculation and was upregulated by SA. Disruption of FgCWM1 (ΔFgCWM1) reduced mannose and protein accumulation in the fungal cell wall, especially under SA treatment, and resulted in defective fungal cell walls, leading to increased fungal sensitivity to SA. The positive role of FgCWM1 in mannose and protein accumulation was confirmed by its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared with wild type (WT), ΔFgCWM1 exhibited reduced pathogenicity toward wheat, but it produced the same amount of deoxynivalenol both in culture and in spikes. Complementation of ΔFgCWM1 with FgCWM1 restored the WT phenotype. Localization analyses revealed that FgCWM1 was distributed on the cell wall, consistent with its structural role. Thus, FgCWM1 encodes a CWM protein that plays an important role in the cell wall integrity and pathogenicity of F. graminearum.

17.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes and their related predictors in endovascular treatment (EVT) of small (<5 mm) ruptured intracranial aneurysms (SRA). METHODS: The study retrospectively reviewed patients with SRAs who underwent EVT between September 2011 and December 2016 in two Chinese stroke centers. Medical charts and telephone call follow-up were used to identify the overall unfavorable clinical outcomes (OUCO, modified Rankin score ≤2) and any recanalization or retreatment. The independent predictors of OUCO and recanalization were studied using univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the predictors of retreatment. RESULTS: In this study 272 SRAs were included with a median follow-up period of 5.0 years (interquartile range 3.5-6.5 years) and 231 patients with over 1171 aneurysm-years were contacted. Among these, OUCO, recanalization, and retreatment occurred in 20 (7.4%), 24 (12.8%), and 11 (7.1%) patients, respectively. Aneurysms accompanied by parent vessel stenosis (AAPVS), high Hunt-Hess grade, high Fisher grade, and intraoperative thrombogenesis in the parent artery (ITPA) were the independent predictors of OUCO. A wide neck was found to be a predictor of recanalization. The 11 retreatments included 1 case of surgical clipping, 6 cases of coiling, and 4 cases of stent-assisted coiling. A wide neck and AAPVS were the related predictors. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated relatively favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes in EVT of SRAs in long-term follow-up of up to 5 years. THE AAPVS, as a morphological indicator of the parent artery for both OUCO and retreatment, needs further validation.

18.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 186: 105543, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular atherosclerotic stenosis (CAS) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) have a common underlying arterial pathology and common risk factors, but the clinical significance of CAS in IA rupture (IAR) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CAS on the risk of IAR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 336 patients with 507 sacular IAs admitted at our center were included. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between IAR and the angiographic variables for CAS. We also explored the differences in CAS in patients aged <65 and ≥65 years. RESULTS: In all the patient groups, moderate (50%-70%) cerebrovascular stenosis was significantly associated with IAR (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-6.5). Single cerebral artery stenosis was also significantly associated with IAR (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9), and intracranial stenosis may be a risk factor for IAR (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.2). In addition, IAs with lobulation may be at a higher risk for rupture than IAs with regular shape (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-5.8; P = 0.026), although the same was not true of aneurysms with a daughter sac (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-3.7; P = 0.098). Bifurcation location (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.8; P < 0.001) was significantly associated with aneurysmal rupture. For the patient subgroup aged <65 years, rupture risk was higher for aneurysms with moderate stenosis (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.5). For patients aged ≥65 years, single-artery stenosis (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0) was statistically associated with IAR. CONCLUSIONS: We observed substantial differences in the severity of atherosclerotic stenosis, parent-artery stenosis, number of stenotic arteries, and intracranial/extracranial stenosis as indicators between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. CAS is significantly associated with the risk of intracranial aneurysm rupture, whether in patients aged ≥65 years or <65 years. These findings indicate the clinical significance of CAS in IAR.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14041, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575904

RESUMO

Quantitatively assessing the impacts of drought on grassland has significant implications to understand the degradation mechanism and prevention degraded grassland. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between grassland drought and grassland Net Primary Productivity (NPP) based on the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) from 1982 to 2008. The results showed that the global grassland scPDSI value had a slightly increasing trend with the rate of 0.0119 per year (R2 = 0.195), indicating that the global grassland drought lighter to some extent during study period. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between annual grassland NPP and scPDSI was from -0.83 to 0.92. The grassland NPP decreased under mild drought from 1992 to 1996. Additionally, the correlation coefficient between scPDSI and NPP for each grassland type was: Closed Shrublands > Non-woody grassland > Savannas > Open Shrublands > Woody Savannas, indicating that drought had difference influences on the different grassland types. Our results might provide the underlying insights needed to be guide for the effects of extreme weather events on grassland NPP.

20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(24)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604764

RESUMO

Transcriptional regulation of cellulolytic and xylolytic genes in ascomycete fungi is controlled by specific carbon sources in different external environments. Here, comparative transcriptomic analyses of Penicillium oxalicum grown on wheat bran (WB), WB plus rice straw (WR), or WB plus Avicel (WA) as the sole carbon source under solid-state fermentation (SSF) revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in metabolism, specifically, carbohydrate metabolism. Of the DEGs, the basic core carbohydrate-active enzyme-encoding genes which responded to the plant biomass resources were identified in P. oxalicum, and their transcriptional levels changed to various extents depending on the different carbon sources. Moreover, this study found that three deletion mutants of genes encoding putative transcription factors showed significant alterations in filter paper cellulase production compared with that of a parental P. oxalicum strain with a deletion of Ku70 (ΔPoxKu70 strain) when grown on WR under SSF. Importantly, the ΔPoxAtf1 mutant (with a deletion of P. oxalicum Atf1, also called POX03016) displayed 46.1 to 183.2% more cellulase and xylanase production than a ΔPoxKu70 mutant after 2 days of growth on WR. RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that PoxAtf1 dynamically regulated the expression of major cellulase and xylanase genes under SSF. PoxAtf1 bound to the promoter regions of the key cellulase and xylanase genes in vitro This study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of fungal cellulase and xylanase gene expression under SSF.IMPORTANCE The transition to a more environmentally friendly economy encourages studies involving the high-value-added utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Solid-state fermentation (SSF), that simulates the natural habitat of soil microorganisms, is used for a variety of applications such as biomass biorefinery. Prior to the current study, our understanding of genome-wide gene expression and of the regulation of gene expression of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in ascomycete fungi during SSF was limited. Here, we employed RNA sequencing and genetic analyses to investigate transcriptomes of Penicillium oxalicum strain EU2101 cultured on medium containing different carbon sources and to identify and characterize transcription factors for regulating the expression of cellulase and xylanase genes during SSF. The results generated will provide novel insights into genetic engineering of filamentous fungi to further increase enzyme production.

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