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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is associated with disrupted lipid and glucose metabolism in people with HIV-infection. We aimed to identify plasma lipid species associated with risk of diabetes in the context of HIV infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We profiled 211 plasma lipid species in 491 HIV-infected and 203 HIV-uninfected participants aged 35-55 years from the Women's Interagency HIV study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine associations between baseline lipid species and incident diabetes (166 diabetes cases were identified during a median follow-up of 12.6 years). RESULTS: We identified 11 lipid species, representing independent signals for 8 lipid classes/subclasses, associated with risk of diabetes (P<0.05 after FDR correction). After adjustment for multiple covariates, cholesteryl ester (CE)(22:4), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)(18:2), phosphatidylcholine (PC)(36:4), phosphatidylcholine-plasmalogen(34:3), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)(38:2) were associated with decreased risk of diabetes (HRs=0.70 to 0.82 per SD increment), while diacylglycerol(32:0), LPC(14:0), PC(38:3), PE(36:1), and triacylglycerol(50:1) were associated with increased risk of diabetes (HRs=1.26 to 1.56 per SD increment). HIV serostatus did not modify any lipid-diabetes associations; however, most of these lipid species were positively associated with HIV and/or ART use, including 3 diabetes-decreased (CE(22:4), LPC(18:2), PE(38:2)) and all 5 diabetes-increased lipid species. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified multiple plasma lipid species associated with incident diabetes. Regardless of the directions of their associations with diabetes, most diabetes-associated lipid species were elevated in ART-treated people with HIV-infection. This suggests a complex role of lipids in the link between ART and diabetes in HIV infection.

2.
Menopause ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota respond to host physiological phenomena, yet little is known regarding shifts in the gut microbiome due to menopausal hormonal and metabolic changes in women. HIV infection impacts menopause and may also cause gut dysbiosis. We therefore sought to determine the association between menopausal status and gut microbiome composition in women with and without HIV. METHODS: Gut microbiome composition was assessed in stool from 432 women (99 premenopausal HIV+, 71 premenopausal HIV-, 182 postmenopausal HIV+, 80 postmenopausal HIV-) via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We examined cross-sectional associations of menopause with gut microbiota overall diversity and composition, and taxon and inferred metagenomic pathway abundance. Models were stratified by HIV serostatus and adjusted for age, HIV-related variables, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Menopause, ie post- versus premenopausal status, was associated with overall microbial composition only in women with HIV (permutational MANOVA of Jensen Shannon Divergence: P = 0.01). In women with HIV, menopause was associated with enrichment of gram-negative order Enterobacteriales, depletion of highly abundant taxa within Prevotella copri, and alterations in other low-abundance taxa. Additionally, menopause in women with HIV was associated with enrichment of metagenomic pathways related to Enterobacteriales, including degradation of amino acids and phenolic compounds, biosynthesis of enterobactin, and energy metabolism pathways. Menopause-related differences in some low-abundance taxa were also observed in women without HIV. CONCLUSIONS: A changing gut microbiome may be an overlooked phenomenon of reproductive aging in women with HIV. Longitudinal assessments across all reproductive stages are necessary to confirm these findings and identify health implications.

3.
Diabet Med ; : e14522, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with increased risk of incident diabetes. But such evidence is lacking in the Hispanic/Latino population, which has high prevalence of obesity and NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6,928 adults of Hispanic/Latino background who had no diabetes, did not report excessive alcohol use, and no hepatitis B and C infection at baseline (2008-2011). We estimated risk ratios (RR) for incident diabetes, identified from visit 2 examination by glucose measurements or antidiabetic medication use, with baseline liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)). RESULTS: A total of 738 adults developed diabetes during 6 years of follow-up. After adjusting for participant characteristics at baseline, versus the lowest quartile, highest quartiles of ALT and GGT were associated with risks for incident diabetes (RR for ALT: 1.51 [95% CI 1.03-2.22], p-trend = 0.006; RR for GGT: 2.39 [1.60-3.55], p-trend = 0.001). Higher GGT levels predicted increased risk of incident diabetes even among those with ALT or AST below the median levels. The associations of ALT and GGT with incident diabetes were similar among most Hispanic background but were not seen among Dominicans (p for interaction <0.05). The association of AST with incident diabetes was found only among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers (RR = 1.50 [1.20-1.86]) but not abstainers (RR = 0.91 [0.69-1.20], p for interaction = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Higher ALT and GGT levels are associated with increased risk of developing diabetes among Latinos. Liver enzyme tests might aid in diabetes prevention by identifying high-risk individuals.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 44(3): 672-680, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of oily and nonoily fish consumption and fish oil supplements with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 392,287 middle-aged and older participants (55.0% women) in the UK Biobank who were free of diabetes, major cardiovascular disease, and cancer and had information on habitual intake of major food groups and use of fish oil supplements at baseline (2006-2010). Of these, 163,706 participated in one to five rounds of 24-h dietary recalls during 2009-2012. RESULTS: During a median 10.1 years of follow-up, 7,262 incident cases of T2D were identified. Compared with participants who reported never consumption of oily fish, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of T2D were 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.91), 0.78 (0.72-0.85), and 0.78 (0.71-0.86) for those who reported <1 serving/week, weekly, and ≥2 servings/week of oily fish consumption, respectively (P-trend < 0.001). Consumption of nonoily fish was not associated with risk of T2D (P-trend = 0.45). Participants who reported regular fish oil use at baseline had a 9% (95% CI 4-14%) lower risk of T2D compared with nonusers. Baseline regular users of fish oil who also reported fish oil use during at least one of the 24-h dietary recalls had an 18% (8-27%) lower risk of T2D compared with constant nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that consumption of oily fish but not nonoily fish was associated with a lower risk of T2D. Use of fish oil supplements, especially constant use over time, was also associated with a lower risk of T2D.

5.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003451, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest vital roles of sphingolipids, especially ceramides, in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) via pathways involved in insulin resistance, ß-cell dysfunction, and inflammation, but human studies are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of circulating sphingolipids with incident T2D and to explore underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study included 826 men and 1,148 women who were aged 50-70 years, from Beijing and Shanghai, and without T2D in 2005 and who were resurveyed in 2011. Cardiometabolic traits were measured at baseline and follow-up surveys. A total of 76 sphingolipids were quantified using high-coverage targeted lipidomics. Summary data for 2-sample Mendelian randomization were obtained from genome-wide association studies of circulating sphingolipids and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 5,731). During the 6-year period, 529 participants developed T2D. Eleven novel and 3 reported sphingolipids, namely ceramides (d18:1/18:1, d18:1/20:0, d18:1/20:1, d18:1/22:1), saturated sphingomyelins (C34:0, C36:0, C38:0, C40:0), unsaturated sphingomyelins (C34:1, C36:1, C42:3), hydroxyl-sphingomyelins (C34:1, C38:3), and a hexosylceramide (d18:1/20:1), were positively associated with incident T2D (relative risks [RRs]: 1.14-1.21; all P < 0.001), after multivariate adjustment including lifestyle characteristics and BMI. Network analysis further identified 5 modules, and 2 modules containing saturated sphingomyelins showed the strongest associations with increased T2D risk (RRQ4 versus Q1 = 1.59 and 1.43; both Ptrend < 0.001). Mediation analysis suggested that the detrimental associations of 13 sphingolipids with T2D were largely mediated through ß-cell dysfunction, as indicated by HOMA-B (mediation proportion: 11.19%-42.42%; all P < 0.001). Moreover, Mendelian randomization evidenced a positive association between a genetically instrumented ceramide (d18:1/20:1) and T2D (odds ratio: 1.15 [95% CI 1.05-1.26]; P = 0.002). Main limitations in the current study included potential undiagnosed cases and lack of an independent population for replication. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that a panel of novel sphingolipids with unique structures were positively associated with incident T2D, largely mediated through ß-cell dysfunction, in Chinese individuals.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential cardiovascular impact of dietary cholesterol intake has been actively debated for decades. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate associations of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We included 96,831 US postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y without known CVD or cancer during baseline enrollment (1993-1998) of the Women's Health Initiative. Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Incident CVD [i.e., ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke] and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were ascertained and adjudicated through February 2018. RESULTS: A total of 9808 incident CVD cases and 19,508 all-cause deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 17.8 y and 18.9 y, respectively. After multivariable adjustment for traditional risk factors and key dietary nutrients including dietary saturated fat, there were modest associations of dietary cholesterol intake with incident CVD (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P-trend < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15; P-trend < 0.001). Significant positive associations were also observed between dietary cholesterol and incident IHD (P-trend = 0.007), incident ischemic stroke (P-trend = 0.002), and CVD mortality (P-trend = 0.002), whereas there was an inverse association for incident hemorrhagic stroke (P-trend = 0.037) and no association for mortality from cancer, Alzheimer disease/dementia, respiratory diseases, or other causes (P-trend > 0.05). Higher egg consumption was also associated with modestly higher risk of incident CVD (P-trend = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (P-trend < 0.001), with HRs of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.22), respectively, when comparing ≥1 egg/d with <1 egg/wk. CONCLUSIONS: Both higher dietary cholesterol intake and higher egg consumption appeared to be associated with modestly elevated risk of incident CVD and all-cause mortality in US postmenopausal women.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, but its relationship with immune dysregulation, a hallmark of HIV infection and comorbidity, is unknown. METHODS: In 241 women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were characterized by flow cytometry to identify cell subsets, comprising surface markers of activation (%CD38+HLADR+), senescence (%CD57+CD28-), exhaustion (%PD-1+), and co-stimulation (%CD57- CD28+) on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of food insecurity with immune outcomes, accounting for repeated measures at up to three study visits and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: At the baseline study visit, 71% of participants identified as non-Hispanic Black, 75% were virally suppressed, and 43% experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was associated with increased activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, increased senescence of CD8+ T-cells, and decreased co-stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells (all p<0.05), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, substance use, smoking, HIV viral load, and CD4 cell count. In stratified analyses, the association of food insecurity with CD4+ T-cell activation was more pronounced in women with uncontrolled HIV (viral load >40 copies/mL and CD4 <500 cells/mm 3), but remained statistically significant in those with controlled HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity may contribute to the persistent immune activation and senescence in women living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, independently of HIV control. Reducing food insecurity may be important for decreasing non-AIDS-related disease risk in this population.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 849-863, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031748

RESUMO

Variation in levels of the human metabolome reflect changes in homeostasis, providing a window into health and disease. The genetic impact on circulating metabolites in Hispanics, a population with high cardiometabolic disease burden, is largely unknown. We conducted genome-wide association analyses on 640 circulating metabolites in 3,926 Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants. The estimated heritability for 640 metabolites ranged between 0%-54% with a median at 2.5%. We discovered 46 variant-metabolite pairs (p value < 1.2 × 10-10, minor allele frequency ≥ 1%, proportion of variance explained [PEV] mean = 3.4%, PEVrange = 1%-22%) with generalized effects in two population-based studies and confirmed 301 known locus-metabolite associations. Half of the identified variants with generalized effect were located in genes, including five nonsynonymous variants. We identified co-localization with the expression quantitative trait loci at 105 discovered and 151 known loci-metabolites sets. rs5855544, upstream of SLC51A, was associated with higher levels of three steroid sulfates and co-localized with expression levels of SLC51A in several tissues. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis identified several metabolites associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes. For example, two variants located in or near CYP4F2 (rs2108622 and rs79400241, respectively), involved in vitamin E metabolism, were associated with the levels of octadecanedioate and vitamin E metabolites (gamma-CEHC and gamma-CEHC glucuronide); MR analysis showed that genetically high levels of these metabolites were associated with lower odds of CHD. Our findings document the genetic architecture of circulating metabolites in an underrepresented Hispanic/Latino community, shedding light on disease etiology.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1400, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether physical activity can reduce cardiometabolic risk particularly in understudied populations such as US Hispanics/Latinos is of public health interest. We prospectively examined the association of physical activity and cardiometabolic biomarkers in n = 8049 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based cohort study of 16,415 adults aged 18-74 yr who self-identified as Hispanic/Latino from four US urban centers. METHODS: We assessed physical activity using accelerometry in 2008-2011 at visit 1. We assessed cardiometabolic biomarkers twice: once at visit 1 and collected a second measure in 2014-2017 at visit 2. We used survey linear regression models with changes in cardiometabolic markers as the dependent variables and quartiles of sedentary behavior or whether adults met guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity as the independent variables. RESULTS: In normoglycemic adults without cardiovascular disease, but not in adults with evidence of cardiometabolic disease, those who were in the lowest quartile for sedentary behavior (< 10.08 h/day) had a significant decline in mean LDL-cholesterol of - 3.94 mg/dL (95% CI: - 6.37, - 1.52) compared to adults in the highest quartile (≥13.0 h/day) who exhibited a significant increase in LDL-cholesterol of 0.14 mg/dL (95% CI, - 2.15,2.42) over the six year period (P < 0.02 in fully adjusted models.) There was also a trend toward lower mean increase in HbA1c comparing the lowest with the highest quartile of sedentary behavior. Overall regardless of glycemic level or evidence of cardiometabolic disease, adults who met guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at visit 1, had significantly lower mean increases in level of fasting glucose compared to adults not meeting guidelines in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Hispanics/Latinos, being free of cardiometabolic disease and having low levels of sedentary behavior were associated with health benefits. Among all adults regardless of cardiometabolic disease, meeting guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with health benefits. Overall these data suggest that an active lifestyle may blunt the association of advancing age with worsening cardiometabolic risk factors.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(5): 1318-1327, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between accelerometer-assessed physical activity and risk of diabetes remains unclear, especially among US Hispanic/Latino adults who have lower levels of physical activity and a higher diabetes burden compared with other racial/ethnical populations in the country. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between accelerometer-assessed physical activity and incident diabetes in a US Hispanic/Latino population. METHODS: We included 7280 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who aged 18-74 y and free of diabetes at baseline. Data on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were collected using a 7-d accelerometer measurement. Incident diabetes was assessed after a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.8 y using standard procedures including blood tests. RRs and 95% CIs of diabetes associated with MVPA were estimated using survey Poisson regressions. The associations of MVPA with 6-y changes in adiposity measures were also examined. RESULTS: A total of 871 incident cases of diabetes were identified. MVPA was inversely and nonlinearly associated with risk of diabetes (P-nonlinearity = 0.006), with benefits accruing rapidly at the lower end of MVPA range (<30 min/d) and leveling off thereafter. The association differed by population age (P-interaction = 0.006). Higher MVPA was associated with lower risk of diabetes among individuals older than 50 y (RRQ4 versus Q1 = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.73; P-trend < 0.001) but not among younger individuals (RRQ4 versus Q1 = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.47; P-trend = 0.92). An inverse association between MVPA and 6-y gain in waist circumference was also limited to the older group (P-interaction with age < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among US Hispanic/Latino adults, baseline accelerometer-derived MVPA was inversely associated with incident diabetes only among individuals aged 50 y and older. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to clarify potential mechanisms underlying the possible age differences in the MVPA-diabetes association. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060344.

12.
Stat Med ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949036

RESUMO

Recently developed accelerometer devices have been used in large epidemiological studies for continuous and objective monitoring of physical activities. Typically, physical movements are summarized as minutes in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activities in each wearing day. Because of preponderance of zeros, zero-inflated distributions have been used for modeling the daily moderate or higher levels of physical activity. Yet, these models do not fully account for variations in daily physical activity and cannot be extended to model weekly physical activity explicitly, while the weekly physical activity is considered as an indicator for a subject's average level of physical activity. To overcome these limitations, we propose to use a zero-inflated Poisson mixture distribution that can model daily and weekly physical activity in same family of mixture distributions. Under this method, the likelihood of an inactive day and the amount of exercise in an active day are simultaneously modeled by a joint random effects model to incorporate heterogeneity across participants. If needed, the method has the flexibility to include an additional random effect to address extra variations in daily physical activity. Maximum likelihood estimation can be obtained through Gaussian quadrature technique, which is implemented conveniently in an R package GLMMadaptive. Method performances are examined using simulation studies. The method is applied to data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos to examine the relationship between physical activity and BMI groups and within a participant the difference in physical activity between weekends and weekdays.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(16): e015451, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752978

RESUMO

Background Underuse of cardiovascular medications for secondary prevention among individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been reported. Little is known about PAD treatment status in the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States, who may have limited access to health care and who have worse clinical outcomes than non-Hispanic individuals. Methods and Results We studied the use of cardiovascular therapies in 1244 Hispanic/Latino individuals recruited from 4 sites in the United States, including 826 individuals who reported diagnosis of PAD by physician and 418 individuals with coronary artery disease alone, in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We compared the prevalence of using antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy by PAD and coronary artery disease status. Among those with PAD, we studied factors associated with taking cardiovascular medications, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, acculturation, access to health care and comorbidities, using multivariable regression models. The overall prevalence for individuals with PAD taking antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy and, among hypertensive individuals, antihypertensive therapy was 31%, 26% and 57%, respectively. Individuals of Mexican background had the lowest use for all classes of cardiovascular medications. Older age, number of doctor visits and existing hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with taking cardiovascular therapies in adjusted models. Compared with those with PAD alone, individuals with PAD and concurrent coronary artery disease were 1.52 (95% CI, 1.20-1.93) and 1.74 (1.30-2.32) times more likely to use antiplatelet agents and statins according to multivariable analysis. No significant difference of antihypertensive medication use was found among PAD patients with or without coronary artery disease. Conclusions Hispanic/Latino individuals with known PAD underuse cardiovascular medications recommended in clinical guidelines. More efforts should be directed to improve treatment in this important group.

14.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658258

RESUMO

AIMS: During virally-suppressed chronic HIV infection, persistent inflammation contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a major comorbidity in people living with HIV (LWH). Classical blood monocytes (CMs) remain activated during antiretroviral therapy and are a major source of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic factors that contribute to atherosclerotic plaque development and instability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we identify transcriptomic changes in circulating CMs in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, selected by HIV and subclinical CVD (sCVD) status. We flow-sorted CM from participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study and deep-sequenced their mRNA (n = 92). CMs of HIV+ participants showed elevated IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-12ß, overlapping with many transcripts identified in sCVD+ participants. In sCVD+ participants LWH, those reporting statin use showed reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression to a level comparable with healthy (HIV-sCVD-) participants. Statin non-users maintained an elevated inflammatory profile and increased cytokine production. CONCLUSION: Statin therapy has been associated with a lower risk of cardiac events, such as myocardial infarction in the general population, but not in those LWH. Our data suggest that women LWH may benefit from statin therapy even in the absence of overt CVD. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Monocytes from women living with HIV express many more pro-inflammatory genes than uninfected controls. An overlapping list of genes is expressed in samples from women with ultrasound evidence of carotid plaque. The inflammatory burden is enhanced in women with both HIV and carotid plaque, and this is mitigated by statin treatment, almost to the level of healthy participants. Thus, the present monocyte transcriptome data from 92 women support the idea that participants with HIV may specifically benefit from statin treatment, perhaps more so than seronegative subjects.

15.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(8): 1090-1100, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539102

RESUMO

Importance: The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend multiple healthy eating patterns. However, few studies have examined the associations of adherence to different dietary patterns with long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To examine the associations of dietary scores for 4 healthy eating patterns with risk of incident CVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of initially healthy women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2016) and the NHS II (1991-2017) and men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) (1986-2012). The dates of analysis were July 25 to December 4, 2019. Exposures: Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (AMED), Healthful Plant-Based Diet Index (HPDI), and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiovascular disease events, including fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Results: The final study sample included 74 930 women in the NHS (mean [SD] baseline age, 50.2 [7.2] years), 90 864 women in the NHS II (mean [SD] baseline age, 36.1 [4.7] years), and 43 339 men in the HPFS (mean [SD] baseline age, 53.2 [9.6] years). During a total of 5 257 190 person-years of follow-up, 23 366 incident CVD cases were documented (18 092 CHD and 5687 stroke) (some individuals were diagnosed as having both CHD and stroke). Comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles, the pooled multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) for the HEI-2015, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) for the AMED, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.82-0.89) for the HPDI, and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75-0.82) for the AHEI (P for trend <.001 for all). In addition, a 25-percentile higher dietary score was associated with 10% to 20% lower risk of CVD (pooled HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.77-0.83] for the HEI-2015; 0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.92] for the AMED; 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.89] for the HPDI; and 0.81 [95% CI, 0.78-0.84] for the AHEI). These dietary scores were statistically significantly associated with lower risk of both CHD and stroke. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and other potential risk factors for CVD, the inverse associations between these scores and risk of CVD were consistent in most subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance: In 3 large prospective cohorts with up to 32 years of follow-up, greater adherence to various healthy eating patterns was consistently associated with lower risk of CVD. These findings support the recommendations of the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans that multiple healthy eating patterns can be adapted to individual food traditions and preferences.

16.
Liver Int ; 40(8): 1883-1894, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sedentariness and physical inactiveness are associated with deleterious health outcomes, but their associations with liver enzyme elevations remain uncertain. METHODS: In 10 385 US Hispanics/Latinos from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, we examined associations of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) measured by accelerometers with liver enzyme elevations. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were defined as the highest gender-specific deciles. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using weighted Poisson regressions. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographical/socioeconomic factors and MVPA, increasing quartiles of sedentary time were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated ALT (PRs [95% CI] = 1.0, 1.17 [0.92-1.47], 1.21 [0.96, 1.53] and 1.51 [1.13-2.02]; P-trend = .007) and elevated GGT (PRs [95% CI] = 1.0, 1.06 [0.82-1.36], 1.35 [1.06-1.73] and 1.66 [1.27-2.16]; P-trend = .0001). These associations were attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for cardiometabolic traits including body-mass index, waist-hip-ratio, lipids and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. In contrast, increasing quartiles of MVPA were associated with a lower prevalence of elevated ALT (PRs [95% CI] =1.0, 0.97 [0.77-1.23], 0.84 [0.66-1.06] and 0.72 [0.54-0.96]; P-trend = .01) after adjusting for demographical/socioeconomic factors and sedentary time, but this association became non-significant after further adjustment for cardiometabolic traits. Notably, the association of sedentary time with GGT elevation was significant both in individuals meeting the US Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (MVPA ≥150 minutes/week) and in those who did not (both P-trend ≤ .003). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that objectively measured sedentary time is independently associated with elevated ALT and GGT in US Hispanics/Latinos.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 57-65, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthases prevented diabetes in animal studies. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate prospective associations of serum sphingolipids with incident diabetes in a population-based cohort. METHODS: We included 2010 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) aged 18-74 y who were free of diabetes and other major chronic diseases at baseline (2008-2011). Metabolomic profiling of fasting serum was performed using a global, untargeted approach. A total of 43 sphingolipids were quantified and, considering subclasses and chemical structures of individual species, 6 sphingolipid scores were constructed. Diabetes status was assessed using standard procedures including blood tests. Multivariable survey Poisson regressions were applied to estimate RR and 95% CI of incident diabetes associated with individual sphingolipids or sphingolipid scores. RESULTS: There were 224 incident cases of diabetes identified during, on average, 6 y of follow-up. After adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, a ceramide score (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65; P-trend = 0.003) and a score of sphingomyelins with fully saturated sphingoid-fatty acid pairs (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.75, 5.67; P-trend <0.001) both were positively associated with risk of diabetes, whereas scores of glycosylceramides, lactosylceramides, or other unsaturated sphingomyelins (even if having an SFA base) were not associated with risk of diabetes. After additional adjustment for numerous traditional risk factors (especially triglycerides), both associations were attenuated and only the saturated-sphingomyelin score remained associated with risk of diabetes (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.59; P-trend = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a cluster of saturated sphingomyelins may be associated with elevated risk of diabetes beyond traditional risk factors, which needs to be verified in other population studies. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060344.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 50, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098632

RESUMO

Following publication of the original paper [1], an error was reported in the third paragraph in the section "Analysis of GMB composition and its correlates" (page 3 of the PDF). The first sentence of the text should refer to Table 2, but mistakenly refers to Table 1.

19.
Am Heart J ; 222: 208-219, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that sedentary time (ST) may contribute to cardiovascular disease by eliciting detrimental hemodynamic changes in the lower limbs. However, little is known about objectively measured ST and lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: We included 7,609 Hispanic/Latinos (ages 45-74) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. PAD was measured using the ankle brachial index (≤0.9). ST was measured using accelerometry. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations of quartiles of ST and PAD, and then used the same logistic models with restricted cubic splines to investigate continuous nonlinear associations of ST and PAD. Models were sequentially adjusted for traditional PAD risk factors, leg pain, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). RESULTS: Median ST was 12.2 h/d, and 5.4% of individuals had PAD. In fully adjusted restricted cubic splines models accounting for traditional PAD risk factors, leg pain, and MVPA, ST had a significant overall (P = .048) and nonlinear (P = .024) association with PAD. A threshold effect was seen such that time spent above median ST was associated with higher odds of PAD. That is, compared to median ST, 1, 2, and 3 hours above median ST were associated with a PAD odds ratio of 1.16 (95% CI = 1.02-1.31), 1.44 (1.06-1.94), and 1.80 (1.11-2.90), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among Hispanic/Latino adults, ST was associated with higher odds of PAD, independent of leg pain, MVPA, and traditional PAD risk factors. Notably, we observed a threshold effect such that these associations were only observed at the highest levels of ST.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/etnologia , Saúde Pública , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e013522, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063116

RESUMO

Background People living with HIV have an increased risk of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and heart failure. HIV-associated LVDD may reflect both cardiomyocyte and systemic metabolic derangements, but the underlying pathways remain unclear. Methods and Results To explore such pathways, we conducted a pilot study in the Bronx and Brooklyn sites of the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study) who participated in concurrent, but separate, metabolomics and echocardiographic ancillary studies. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma samples from 125 HIV-infected (43 with LVDD) and 35 HIV-uninfected women (9 with LVDD). Partial least squares discriminant analysis identified polar metabolites and lipids in the glycerophospholipid-metabolism and fatty-acid-oxidation pathways associated with LVDD. After multivariable adjustment, LVDD was significantly associated with higher concentrations of diacylglycerol 30:0 (odds ratio [OR], 1.60, 95% CI [1.01-2.55]); triacylglycerols 46:0 (OR 1.60 [1.04-2.48]), 48:0 (OR 1.63 [1.04-2.54]), 48:1 (OR 1.62 [1.01-2.60]), and 50:0 (OR 1.61 [1.02-2.53]); acylcarnitine C7 (OR 1.88 [1.21-2.92]), C9 (OR 1.99 [1.27-3.13]), and C16 (OR 1.80 [1.13-2.87]); as well as lower concentrations of phosphocholine (OR 0.59 [0.38-0.91]). There was no evidence of effect modification of these relationships by HIV status. Conclusions In this pilot study, women with or at risk of HIV with LVDD showed alterations in plasma metabolites in the glycerophospholipid-metabolism and fatty-acid-oxidation pathways. Although these findings require replication, they suggest that improved understanding of metabolic perturbations and their potential modification could offer new approaches to prevent cardiac dysfunction in this high-risk group.

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